Foodborne diseases are mainly caused by bacterial contamination which can lead to severe diarrhea. This study aimed to detect the presence of Shiga toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157, Escherichia coli non-O157 and virulence gene in raw vegetables. The samples were purchased from wet market and hypermarket in Selangor. The detections were carried out by using the combination methods of Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPNPCR). A total of 37(18.5%) samples were found to be contaminated by STEC. Out of these 37 isolates, four (10.8%) of the isolates were E. coli O157 while 33(89.2%) were E. coli nonO157. However, there was no E. coli O157:H7 detected in all the samples. The occurrence of Shiga toxin-Producing E. coli in edible raw vegetables samples suggests the importance of this pathogen in vegetables. Therefore, more studies are required to remove this pathogen from vegetables.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) especially serotype O157:H7 is one of the important food-borne pathogens because it is able to produce crucial toxins Shiga. However, the outbreak of this organism in Thailand has not been reported. Antibody to O157 antigen was detected in some Thai populations and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli were detected in low numbers of clinical specimens. Interestingly, some E. coli that showed positive to O157 fimbriae probe and lack of virulence gene were isolated from certain patients and one isolate of E. coli O157:H7 which possessed stx1, stx2v was detected in a normal child. In addition, the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 strains were monitored by the samples from cattle and retail beef in Thailand although their inability to produce toxins or produce in a low concentration was demonstrated. This review discusses the incidences of E. coli O157 in clinical and environmental samples of Thailand including the transmission possibility of this bacterium across the Thai border through food trade.
Ludwigia octovalvis is an aquatic plant widely distributed throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is commonly consumed as a health drink and traditionally used for treating various ailments such as dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, nephritisn and headache. No information is available on its in vivo antibacterial activity against an important foodborne pathogen, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen causing diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. STEC is an implicated in the vast majority of outbreaks, widely via consumption of STEC contaminated beef, as important vehicle of transmission of this organism to human. The E. coli O157:H7 serotype is traditionally identified by serological identification of the somatic antigen (O157) and structural flagella (H7). In this study, the bacteria were identified as STEC serotype O157:H7 with three primer pairs that amplified fragments of secD, rfbE and fliC genes in PCR assays. These primer pairs specifically amplified different sizes of target genes: a 244bp region of the E. coli diagnostic marker gene (secD); a 317bp region of the O157 lipopolysacharide (LPS) gene (rfbE); and a 381bp region of the H7 flagellin gene (fliC). The singleplex, duplex and triplex PCR assay developed in this study have a sensitivity limit at 2.8 x 103, 2.8 x 105 and 2.8 x 107 CFU/ml of E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Sensitivity to detect trace amount of E. coli O157:H7 DNA was reduced as the number of primer used was increased for competing to the same DNA template.
This study aimed at determining the presence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from imported frozen beef meats. Seventy-four (74) frozen imported beef meat samples from two countries, India (42 samples) and Australia (32 samples), were collected and tested for E. coli. These samples were purchased from the frozen meat sections of five different supermarkets in different locations in Selangor, Malaysia, from April 2012 to October 2014. A total of 222 E. coli strains were isolated from the meat samples; 126 strains were isolated from country A (India), and 96 E. coli strains were from country of origin B (Australia), respectively. A total of 70 E. coli strains were identified and characterized. All E. coli strains were isolated into Fluorocult medium and identified using API 20E kit. All selected E. coli strains were characterized for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). All biochemically identified E. coli in this study were further subjected to molecular detection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and characterization using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Of the 70 E. coli strains, 11 strains were positive for both Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) and 11 (11/70) strains were positive for stx1 gene, while 25 (25/70) strains were positive for stx2 gene. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene of all the E. coli isolates in this study was successfully sequenced and analyzed, and based on sequence data obtained, a phylogenetic tree of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using Clustal W programme in MEGA 6.06 software. Phylogenetic tree showed that the E. coli isolates in our study cluster with the strain of E. coli isolated in other countries, which further confirm that the isolates of E. coli in this study are similar to those obtained in other studies. As a result, all the strains obtained in this study proved to be a strain of pathogenic E. coli, which may cause a serious outbreak of food-borne disease. The isolation of pathogenic E. coli strains from the imported meat samples calls for prudent management of imported meats by the relevant authorities.