Transdermal preparations for testosterone are becoming popular because of their unique advantages such as avoidance of first-pass effect, convenience, improved bioavailability, and reduction of systemic side effects. A novel testosterone transdermal delivery system (TDDS) was developed using a palm oil base called HAMIN™ (a commercial product) and tested using in vitro and in vivo skin permeability test methods.
To assess the prevalence of skin test sensitivity among asthmatic patients in Malaysia, skin prick tests for allergy in 134 adult asthmatic patients and 120 control subjects were done. 90% of asthmatic patients had positive skin test to at least one allergens as compared to 78% of the controls. House dust mite was the most frequent allergen to which the subjects had positive reactions. Sixty-four percent of the asthmatic patients had associated rhinitis. There was no significant difference in the skin test sensitivity between asthmatic patients with associated rhinitis and those without.
This study shows that out of 774 patients tested, the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) provoked the maximum response (51.81%) the house dust was second (42.81%), and shrimp was third (23.92%). The moderate allergenic extracts were cat fur (12.79%), dog fur (10.72%), cockroach (8.47%) egg white (7.56%) and orris powder (6.30%). Among the low allergenic extracts were Aspergillus fumigatus (5.38%), Staphyloccus aureaus (3.53%) and chicken feathers (3.18%). The authors are of the opinion that the skin sensitivity test is an important diagnostic tool in allergic rhinitis and since this is a preliminary study any short listing of allergens to be used is not recommended yet. Skin sensitivity tests is a useful tool for differentiating allergic rhinitis from vasomotor rhinitis. Estimation of allergen specific IgE concentration in the serum will not offer any major advantages over the intradermal skin test in determining the clinical significance of house dust mite allergy. 21 The development of local materials for skin testing may enhance the usefulness of these investigations.
The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is challenging since it depends largely on symptoms which are often heterogeneous and overlapping. This is particularly so in Asia with many different cultures and languages. Symptom-based diagnosis of FD based on Rome III criteria has not been fully validated and it may not be suitable in some Asian populations. Clinicians often assume that investigations in FD are not rewarding and physiological tests are often not available unless in the research setting. Investigation of alarm features and role of Helicobacter pylori in FD remain controversial but experts agreed that both should be tested. Physiological tests including gastric accommodation and chemical hypersensitivity tests are underutilized in Asia and available studies were few. While experts do not recommend routine clinical use of gastric accommodation tests but they agree that these tests can be advocated if clinically indicated. Empiric therapeutic trial is not currently a diagnostic option. The pathogenesis of FD is still poorly understood and there is a substantial placebo response. As a conclusion, a diagnosis of FD is challenging especially so in the context of Asia and despite the limitations of available physiological tests experts agreed that these tests can be advocated if and when clinically indicated.
Making a diagnosis of perioperative anaphylaxis and identifying culprit drugs are diagnostic challenges. The aim of this study is to describe the perioperative presentation of anaphylaxis and results of patients who underwent allergy evaluation. This is a retrospective review of perioperative anaphylaxis of severity Grade 2 and above based on the Australian and New Zealand Anaesthetic Allergy Group criteria from 2015 to 2019 in a tertiary paediatric hospital. Data collected were demographics, clinical features, investigations and management. Of the 35,361 cases of paediatric anaesthesia, there were 15 cases of perioperative anaphylaxis, giving an incidence of four in 10,000. The median age was seven years (interquartile range four-15 years) with a male predominance of 86.7% (13/15). The severity of anaphylaxis was Grade 2 in 33.3% (5/15) and Grade 3 in 66.7% (10/15). The commonest presenting feature was hypotension (13/15, 86.7%) while the earliest symptom was respiratory change (9/15, 60.0%). Dynamic tryptase was raised in 75% (6/8) of the patients with adequate tryptase samples. Eight patients (53.3%) completed allergy testing, of whom five patients (62.5%) had IgE-mediated anaphylaxis with skin test positive to cefazolin (n = 3), atracurium (n = 1) and rocuronium (n = 1). Three patients (25.0%) had non-IgE-mediated reactions with negative skin tests. Although only half the patients completed allergy evaluation, a culprit drug could be identified in 62.5%, with antibiotics being the commonest. This emphasises the need for appropriate evaluation in cases of suspected perioperative anaphylaxis.
The usefulness of the direct immunofluorescent antibody technique--lupus band test--for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been well established. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of the LBT at various sites of the skin in a cross section of patients with SLE and its correlation with disease activity. The LBT was demonstrated in 64% of skin lesions, 63% in non-lesional sun-exposed (NLSE) skin and 25% in non-lesional sun-protected (NLSP) skin. The prevalence of the LBT in lesional and NLSE groups was significantly different from the NLSP group (p = 0.03 and 0.005 respectively). There was a significant correlation between the presence of a positive LBT in NLSE skin with the presence of the LE cell phenomenon (p = 0.04) and anti - ds DNA antibody (0.02). In addition, there was a significant correlation between IgG LBT in the NLSE skin with serum hypocomplementaemia (p = 0.03) and anti - ds DNA antibody (p = 0.04). Other than these, no significant correlation was detected between the LBT from the 3 sites with overall clinical activity, renal disease, active skin lesions, or other laboratory indices of activity. These findings suggest that the LBT is mainly indicated as a diagnostic tool and has little role in assessing disease activity.
Study site: Wards and clinics of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Allergy to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was determined in 61 rhinitis patients using prick test (PT), enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 43 patients tested positive with PT. Forty six patients were positive when tested with EIA and ELISA. With PT as standard test, EIA was found to have 83.7% sensitivity and 44.4% specificity; ELISA had 81.4% sensitivity and 38.9% specificity. There was a linear relationship between absorbance values obtained by EIA and ELISA. The performance time was 8 hours, 24 hours and 30 minutes for ELISA, EIA and PT respectively. The cost per test for ELISA, EIA and PT was US$ 0.20, US$ 5.20 and US$ 0.14 respectively. It was concluded that ELISA was more cost-effective than EIA should be used to supplement PT for a more complete diagnosis of allergy.
The response to lepromin and Kveim antigens was compared and studied in 15 leprosy patients who were tuberculin negative. Of the 11 lepromin positive tuberculoid patients, 4 were Kveim positive, 1 was equivocal, and the rest were negative. Of the four lepromin negative lepromatous patients, one gave a positive Kveim test while the other three were negative. It has been shown that false-positive Kveim reactions are found in a higher percentage of South Indian leprosy patients than in those of other backgrounds, such as Japanese and Malaysian Chinese patients. It is also suggested that no definite relationship exists between the reaction of leprosy patients to lepromin and Kveim antigens. We further suggest that the anergy exhibited by lepromatous patients to the antigen of M. leprae is specific, as evidenced by the positive Kveim response in one lepromatous patient.
Kveim tests using a validated material have been undertaken in Malaysia on 39 patients (32 Chinese; 4 Malay and 3 Aboriginal) with lepromatous or tuberculoid leprosy. All the patients had been treated for leprosy, most for two or more years. The tests were read microscopically. Of the 21 lepromatous patients one gave a weak positive and two an equivocal Kveim test whereas four of the nine tuberculoid patients gave equivocal or weak Kveim positivity. Only the tuberculoid form elicits a higher proportion of granulomas than might be expected in a comparable normal population. Of nine patients (8 lepromatous; 1 tuberculoid ) who failed to sensitize well to tuberculin
following two BCG vaccinations, two gave equivocal Kveim tests similar in appearance to those in the other groups.
A survey of 227 patients from 5-60 years of age revealed the presence of positive histoplasmin skin tests in 10.5 per cent. and positive complement-fixation tests in 19-8 per cent. Sputum from 13 of the 37 patients who had a positive complement-fixation test were cultured for H. capsulatum but with negative results. Exposure to infection by the fungus is equally distributed among the different race and age groups. A careful and constant watch should be kept for histoplasmosis in all chest hospitals as a certain number of cases may be present. It tends to elude diagnosis unless specially sought as it resembles the clinical picture of tuberculosis or other granulomatous disease. It presents a field for further investigation and research in Malaya.
Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy.
Atopy is defined as the genetic propensity to develop immunoglobulin E antibodies in response to exposure to allergens and assessed by skin prick test (SPT) responses to common allergens, which may contribute to the development of the clinical disorders (phenotype). Although it is generally agreed that atopy is an important risk factor for allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, the extent to which atopy accounts for these diseases is controversial. One hundred forty one children (up to 12 years) were skin prick tested to evaluate 16 foods common to the Malaysian diet and 4 common aeroallergens. Eighty-five percent of patients had positive SPT reactivity. The most commonly implicated aeroallergen and food allergen was house dust mite (HDM) and Prawn. Seventy percent had positive SPT reactivity results to HDM and 24.8% to prawns. Fifty five percent were positive to more than one allergen and 17.7% positive to single aeroallergen. The prevalence of atopy in children with history of eczema was 90%. The incidence of HDM and food allergy especially crabs and prawns, is significantly greater in Malaysian Children with rhinitis symptoms.
An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the diagnosis of allergy to a house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae. The efficacy of the ELISA was then evaluated against a prick test using a commercial allergen. Eighty five suspected allergic rhinitis patients from the Otorhinolaryngology Department, Kuala Lumpur General Hospital, were tested with the ELISA and prick test. Prick test and ELISA results were positive in 84.7% and 80.0% of the patients respectively. The ELISA was found to have 87.5% sensitivity, 61.5% specificity, 92.6% positive predictive value, 47.1% negative predictive value, 7.4% false positive and 52.9% false negative. There was total agreement between the prick test and ELISA for prick test grades of 3+ and 4+. It is concluded that the ELISA is a useful assay for detection of individuals who are highly sensitive to D. farinae.
The possible depression of cell-mediated immunity by long-term Brugia malayi infection in jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) was investigated. Different groups of infected jirds were sensitized with dinitrofluorobenzene, sheep red blood cells, Dirofilaria immitis adult antigens and B. malayi adult antigens. The 24-hour delayed type hypersensitivity skin response to testing with antigen was measured as an in vivo correlate of cell-mediated immunity. The delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to dinitrofluorobenzene, sheep red blood cells and D. immitis antigens were normal but the response to B. malayi antigens was significantly depressed, confirming that long-term B. malayi infection depresses cell-mediated immunity and that this depression is specific to B. malayi antigens.
Three groups of people with different clinical histories and manifestations to house dust were skin tested with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extracts. The results showed close correlation between positive skin tests and clinical sensitivity to dust. The correlation was not, however, perfect and, although D. pteronyssinus is a major factor in house dust allergy, it does not appear to be the sole antigen involved.