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  1. Mohamad Ali MS, Mohd Fuzi SF, Ganasen M, Abdul Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:925373.
    PMID: 23738333 DOI: 10.1155/2013/925373
    The psychrophilic enzyme is an interesting subject to study due to its special ability to adapt to extreme temperatures, unlike typical enzymes. Utilizing computer-aided software, the predicted structure and function of the enzyme lipase AMS8 (LipAMS8) (isolated from the psychrophilic Pseudomonas sp., obtained from the Antarctic soil) are studied. The enzyme shows significant sequence similarities with lipases from Pseudomonas sp. MIS38 and Serratia marcescens. These similarities aid in the prediction of the 3D molecular structure of the enzyme. In this study, 12 ns MD simulation is performed at different temperatures for structural flexibility and stability analysis. The results show that the enzyme is most stable at 0°C and 5°C. In terms of stability and flexibility, the catalytic domain (N-terminus) maintained its stability more than the noncatalytic domain (C-terminus), but the non-catalytic domain showed higher flexibility than the catalytic domain. The analysis of the structure and function of LipAMS8 provides new insights into the structural adaptation of this protein at low temperatures. The information obtained could be a useful tool for low temperature industrial applications and molecular engineering purposes, in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein*
  2. Sudi IY, Wong EL, Joyce-Tan KH, Shamsir MS, Jamaluddin H, Huyop F
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(12):15724-54.
    PMID: 23443090 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131215724
    Currently, there is no three-dimensional structure of D-specific dehalogenase (DehD) in the protein database. We modeled DehD using ab initio technique, performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and docking of D-2-chloropropionate (D-2CP), D-2-bromopropionate (D-2BP), monochloroacetate (MCA), monobromoacetate (MBA), 2,2-dichloropropionate (2,2-DCP), d,l-2,3-dichloropropionate (d,l-2,3-DCP), and 3-chloropropionate (3-CP) into the DehD active site. The sequences of DehD and D-2-haloacid dehalogenase (HadD) from Pseudomonas putida AJ1 have 15% sequence similarity. The model had 80% of the amino acid residues in the most favored region when compared to the crystal structure of DehI from Pseudomonas putida PP3. Docking analysis revealed that Arg107, Arg134 and Tyr135 interacted with D-2CP, and Glu20 activated the water molecule for hydrolytic dehalogenation. Single residue substitutions at 25-30 °C showed that polar residues of DehD were stable when substituted with nonpolar residues and showed a decrease in activity within the same temperature range. The molecular dynamics simulation of DehD and its variants showed that in R134A variant, Arg107 interacted with D-2CP, while in Y135A, Gln221 and Arg231 interacted with D-2CP. It is our emphatic belief that the new model will be useful for the rational design of DehDs with enhanced potentials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  3. Teh AH, Saito JA, Baharuddin A, Tuckerman JR, Newhouse JS, Kanbe M, et al.
    FEBS Lett., 2011 Oct 20;585(20):3250-8.
    PMID: 21925500 DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2011.09.002
    Hell's Gate globin I (HGbI), a heme-containing protein structurally homologous to mammalian neuroglobins, has been identified from an acidophilic and thermophilic obligate methanotroph, Methylacidiphilum infernorum. HGbI has very high affinity for O(2) and shows barely detectable autoxidation in the pH range of 5.2-8.6 and temperature range of 25-50°C. Examination of the heme pocket by X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics showed that conformational movements of Tyr29(B10) and Gln50(E7), as well as structural flexibility of the GH loop and H-helix, may play a role in modulating its ligand binding behavior. Bacterial HGbI's unique resistance to the sort of extreme acidity that would extract heme from any other hemoglobin makes it an ideal candidate for comparative structure-function studies of the expanding globin superfamily.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  4. Wahab HA, Ahmad Khairudin NB, Samian MR, Najimudin N
    BMC Struct. Biol., 2006;6:23.
    PMID: 17076907
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), are biodegradable polyesters derived from many microorganisms such as the pseudomonads. These polyesters are in great demand especially in the packaging industries, the medical line as well as the paint industries. The enzyme responsible in catalyzing the formation of PHA is PHA synthase. Due to the limited structural information, its functional properties including catalysis are lacking. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the structural properties as well as its catalytic mechanism by predicting the three-dimensional (3D) model of the Type II Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55 PHA synthase 1 (PhaC1P.sp USM 4-55).
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  5. Adamu A, Shamsir MS, Wahab RA, Parvizpour S, Huyop F
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2017 Nov;35(15):3285-3296.
    PMID: 27800712 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2016.1254115
    Dehalogenases are of high interest due to their potential applications in bioremediation and in synthesis of various industrial products. DehL is an L-2-haloacid dehalogenase (EC 3.8.1.2) that catalyses the cleavage of halide ion from L-2-halocarboxylic acid to produce D-2-hydroxycarboxylic acid. Although DehL utilises the same substrates as the other L-2-haloacid dehalogenases, its deduced amino acid sequence is substantially different (<25%) from those of the rest L-2-haloacid dehalogenases. To date, the 3D structure of DehL is not available. This limits the detailed understanding of the enzyme's reaction mechanism. The present work predicted the first homology-based model of DehL and defined its active site. The monomeric unit of the DehL constitutes α/β structure that is organised into two distinct structural domains: main and subdomains. Despite the sequence disparity between the DehL and other L-2-haloacid dehalogenases, its structural model share similar fold as the experimentally solved L-DEX and DehlB structures. The findings of the present work will play a crucial role in elucidating the molecular details of the DehL functional mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  6. Hong W, Li J, Laughton CA, Yap LF, Paterson IC, Wang H
    J Mol Graph Model, 2014 Jun;51:193-202.
    PMID: 24937176 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2014.05.010
    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyse the methylation of arginine residues of target proteins. PRMTs utilise S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as the methyl group donor, leading to S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and monomethylarginine (mMA). A combination of homology modelling, molecular docking, Active Site Pressurisation, molecular dynamic simulations and MM-PBSA free energy calculations is used to investigate the binding poses of three PRMT1 inhibitors (ligands 1-3), which target both SAM and substrate arginine binding sites by containing a guanidine group joined by short linkers with the SAM derivative. It was assumed initially that the adenine moieties of the inhibitors would bind in sub-site 1 (PHE44, GLU137, VAL136 and GLU108), the guanidine side chain would occupy sub-site 2 (GLU 161, TYR160, TYR156 and TRP302), with the amino acid side chain occupying sub-site 3 (GLU152, ARG62, GLY86 and ASP84; pose 1). However, the SAH homocysteine moiety does not fully occupy sub-site 3, suggesting another binding pose may exist (pose 2), whereby the adenine moiety binds in sub-site 1, the guanidine side chain occupies sub-site 3, and the amino acid side chain occupies sub-site 2. Our results indicate that ligand 1 (pose 1 or 2), ligand 2 (pose 2) and ligand 3 (pose 1) are the predominant binding poses and we demonstrate for the first time that sub-site 3 contains a large space that could be exploited in the future to develop novel inhibitors with higher binding affinities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  7. Manas NH, Bakar FD, Illias RM
    J Mol Graph Model, 2016 06;67:1-13.
    PMID: 27155296 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2016.04.004
    Maltogenic amylase (MAG1) from Bacillus lehensis G1 displayed the highest hydrolysis activity on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to produce maltose as a main product and exhibited high transglycosylation activity on malto-oligosaccharides with polymerization degree of three and above. These substrate and product specificities of MAG1 were elucidated from structural point of view in this study. A three-dimensional structure of MAG1 was constructed using homology modeling. Docking of β-CD and malto-oligosaccharides was then performed in the MAG1 active site. An aromatic platform in the active site was identified which is responsible in substrate recognition especially in determining the enzyme's preference toward β-CD. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation showed MAG1 structure is most stable when docked with β-CD and least stable when docked with maltose. The docking analysis and MD simulation showed that the main subsites for substrate stabilization in the active site are -2, -1, +1 and +2. A bulky residue, Trp359 at the +2 subsite was identified to cause steric interference to the bound linear malto-oligosaccharides thus prevented it to occupy subsite +3, which can only be reached by a highly bent glucose molecule such as β-CD. The resulted modes of binding from docking simulation show a good correlation with the experimentally determined hydrolysis pattern. The subsite structure generated from this study led to a possible mode of action that revealed how maltose was mainly produced during hydrolysis. Furthermore, maltose only occupies subsite +1 and +2, therefore could not be hydrolyzed or transglycosylated by the enzyme. This important knowledge has paved the way for a novel structure-based molecular design for modulation of its catalytic activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  8. Mukhametov A, Newhouse EI, Aziz NA, Saito JA, Alam M
    J Mol Graph Model, 2014 Jul;52:103-13.
    PMID: 25023665 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2014.06.008
    The allosteric pocket of the Dengue virus (DENV2) NS2B/NS3 protease, which is proximal to its catalytic triad, represents a promising drug target (Othman et al., 2008). We have explored this binding site through large-scale virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations followed by calculations of binding free energy. We propose two mechanisms for enzyme inhibition. A ligand may either destabilize electronic density or create steric effects relating to the catalytic triad residues NS3-HIS51, NS3-ASP75, and NS3-SER135. A ligand may also disrupt movement of the C-terminal of NS2B required for inter-conversion between the "open" and "closed" conformations. We found that chalcone and adenosine derivatives had the top potential for drug discovery hits, acting through both inhibitory mechanisms. Studying the molecular mechanisms of these compounds might be helpful in further investigations of the allosteric pocket and its potential for drug discovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  9. Mohd-Padil H, Mohd-Adnan A, Gabaldón T
    Mol Biol Evol, 2013 Apr;30(4):894-905.
    PMID: 23258311 DOI: 10.1093/molbev/mss325
    Transferrin is a protein super-family involved in iron transport, a central process in cellular homeostasis. Throughout the evolution of vertebrates, transferrin members have diversified into distinct subfamilies including serotransferrin, ovotransferrin, lactoferrin, melanotransferrin, the inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, pacifastin, and the major yolk protein in sea urchin. Previous phylogenetic analyses have established the branching order of the diverse transferrin subfamilies but were mostly focused on the transferrin repertoire present in mammals. Here, we conduct a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of transferrin protein sequences in sequenced vertebrates, placing a special focus on the less-studied nonmammalian vertebrates. Our analyses uncover a novel transferrin clade present across fish, sauropsid, and amphibian genomes but strikingly absent from mammals. Our reconstructed scenario implies that this novel class emerged through a duplication event at the vertebrate ancestor, and that it was subsequently lost in the lineage leading to mammals. We detect footprints of accelerated evolution following the duplication event, which suggest positive selection and early functional divergence of this novel clade. Interestingly, the loss of this novel class of transferrin in mammals coincided with the divergence by duplication of lactoferrin and serotransferrin in this lineage. Altogether, our results provide novel insights on the evolution of iron-binding proteins in the various vertebrate groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  10. Wongrattanakamon P, Lee VS, Nimmanpipug P, Sirithunyalug B, Chansakaow S, Jiranusornkul S
    Toxicol. Mech. Methods, 2017 May;27(4):253-271.
    PMID: 27996361 DOI: 10.1080/15376516.2016.1273428
    In this work, molecular docking, pharmacophore modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were rendered for the mouse P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (code: 4Q9H) and bioflavonoids; amorphigenin, chrysin, epigallocatechin, formononetin and rotenone including a positive control; verapamil to identify protein-ligand interaction features including binding affinities, interaction characteristics, hot-spot amino acid residues and complex stabilities. These flavonoids occupied the same binding site with high binding affinities and shared the same key residues for their binding interactions and the binding region of the flavonoids was revealed that overlapped the ATP binding region with hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions suggesting a competitive inhibition mechanism of the compounds. Root mean square deviations (RMSDs) analysis of MD trajectories of the protein-ligand complexes and NBD2 residues, and ligands pointed out these residues were stable throughout the duration of MD simulations. Thus, the applied preliminary structure-based molecular modeling approach of interactions between NBD2 and flavonoids may be gainful to realize the intimate inhibition mechanism of P-gp at NBD2 level and on the basis of the obtained data, it can be concluded that these bioflavonoids have the potential to cause herb-drug interactions or be used as lead molecules for the inhibition of P-gp (as anti-multidrug resistance agents) via the NBD2 blocking mechanism in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  11. Kumar S
    BMC Res Notes, 2015;8:9.
    PMID: 25595103 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-015-0976-4
    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are important heme-containing proteins, well known for their monooxygenase reaction. The human cytochrome P450 4X1 (CYP4X1) is categorized as "orphan" CYP because of its unknown function. In recent studies it is found that this enzyme is expressed in neurovascular functions of the brain. Also, various studies have found the expression and activity of orphan human cytochrome P450 4X1 in cancer. It is found to be a potential drug target for cancer therapy. However, three-dimensional structure, the active site topology and substrate specificity of CYP4X1 remain unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  12. Tan BH, Chor Leow T, Foo HL, Abdul Rahim R
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:469298.
    PMID: 24592392 DOI: 10.1155/2014/469298
    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of Lactococcus lactis M4 was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 621 bp which codes for 206 amino acid residues. Expression of sodA under T7 promoter exhibited a specific activity of 4967 U/mg when induced with 1 mM of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The recombinant SOD was purified to homogeneity by immobilised metal affinity chromatography and Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses of the recombinant SOD detected a molecular mass of approximately 27 kDa. However, the SOD was in dimer form as revealed by gel filtration chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme had a pI of 4.5 and exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 7.2. It was stable up to 45°C. The insensitivity of this lactococcal SOD to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide established that it was a MnSOD. Although it has 98% homology to SOD of L. lactis IL1403, this is the first elucidated structure of lactococcal SOD revealing active sites containing the catalytic manganese coordinated by four ligands (H-27, H-82, D-168, and H-172).
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  13. Yap BK, Buckle MJ, Doughty SW
    J Mol Model, 2012 Aug;18(8):3639-55.
    PMID: 22354276 DOI: 10.1007/s00894-012-1368-5
    5-HT(1A) serotonin and D1 dopamine receptor agonists have been postulated to be able to improve negative and cognitive impairment symptoms of schizophrenia, while partial agonists and antagonists of the D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptors have been reported to be effective in reducing positive symptoms. There is therefore a need for well-defined homology models for the design of more selective antipsychotic agents, since no three-dimensional (3D) crystal structures of these receptors are currently available. In this study, homology models were built based on the high-resolution crystal structure of the β(2)-adrenergic receptor (2RH1) and further refined via molecular dynamics simulations in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid bilayer system with the GROMOS96 53A6 united atom force field. Docking evaluations with representative agonists and antagonists using AutoDock 4.2 revealed binding modes in agreement with experimentally determined site-directed mutagenesis data and significant correlations between the computed and experimental pK (i) values. The models are also able to distinguish between antipsychotic agents with different selectivities and binding affinities for the four receptors, as well as to differentiate active compounds from decoys. Hence, these human 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), D1 and D2 receptor homology models are capable of predicting the activities of novel ligands, and can be used as 3D templates for antipsychotic drug design and discovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  14. Agarwal T, Annamalai N, Khursheed A, Maiti TK, Arsad HB, Siddiqui MH
    J Mol Graph Model, 2015 Sep;61:141-9.
    PMID: 26245696 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2015.07.003
    Recent developments in the target based cancer therapies have identified HSF1 as a novel non oncogenic drug target. The present study delineates the design and molecular docking evaluation of Rohinitib (RHT) - Cantharidin (CLA) based novel HSF1 inhibitors for target-based cancer therapy. Here, we exploited the pharmacophoric features of both the parent ligands for the design of novel hybrid HSF1 inhibitors. The RHT-CLA ligands were designed and characterized for ADME/Tox features, interaction with HSF1 DNA binding domain and their pharmacophoric features essential for interaction. From the results, amino acid residues Ala17, Phe61, His63, Asn65, Ser68, Arg71 and Gln72 were found crucial for HSF1 interaction with the Heat shock elements (HSE). The hybrid ligands had better affinity towards the HSF1 DNA binding domain, in comparison to RHT or CLA and interacted with most of the active site residues. Additionally, the HSF1-ligand complex had a reduced affinity towards HSE in comparison to native HSF1. Based on the results, ligand RC15 and RC17 were non carcinogenic, non mutagenic, completely biodegradable under aerobic conditions, had better affinity for HSF1 (1.132 and 1.129 folds increase respectively) and diminished the interaction of HSF1 with HSE (1.203 and 1.239 folds decrease respectively). The simulation analysis also suggested that the ligands formed a stable complex with HSF1, restraining the movement of active site residues. In conclusion, RHT-CLA hybrid ligands can be used as a potential inhibitor of HSF1 for non-oncogene target based cancer therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  15. Ramli AN, Azhar MA, Shamsir MS, Rabu A, Murad AM, Mahadi NM, et al.
    J Mol Model, 2013 Aug;19(8):3369-83.
    PMID: 23686283 DOI: 10.1007/s00894-013-1861-5
    A novel α-amylase was isolated successfully from Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 using DNA walking and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The structure of this psychrophilic α-amylase (AmyPI12) from G. antarctica PI12 has yet to be studied in detail. A 3D model of AmyPI12 was built using a homology modelling approach to search for a suitable template and to generate an optimum target-template alignment, followed by model building using MODELLER9.9. Analysis of the AmyPI12 model revealed the presence of binding sites for a conserved calcium ion (CaI), non-conserved calcium ions (CaII and CaIII) and a sodium ion (Na). Compared with its template-the thermostable α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (BSTA)-the binding of CaII, CaIII and Na ions in AmyPI12 was observed to be looser, which suggests that the low stability of AmyPI12 allows the protein to work at different temperature scales. The AmyPI12 amino acid sequence and model were compared with thermophilic α-amylases from Bacillus species that provided the highest structural similarities with AmyPI12. These comparative studies will enable identification of possible determinants of cold adaptation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  16. Khoruddin NA, Noorizhab MN, Teh LK, Mohd Yusof FZ, Salleh MZ
    Sci Rep, 2021 Aug 09;11(1):16158.
    PMID: 34373545 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-95618-y
    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common genetic variations for various complex human diseases, including cancers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous SNPs that increase cancer risks, such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and leukemia. These SNPs were cataloged for scientific use. However, GWAS are often conducted on certain populations in which the Orang Asli and Malays were not included. Therefore, we have developed a bioinformatic pipeline to mine the whole-genome sequence databases of the Orang Asli and Malays to determine the presence of pathogenic SNPs that might increase the risks of cancers among them. Five different in silico tools, SIFT, PROVEAN, Poly-Phen-2, Condel, and PANTHER, were used to predict and assess the functional impacts of the SNPs. Out of the 80 cancer-related nsSNPs from the GWAS dataset, 52 nsSNPs were found among the Orang Asli and Malays. They were further analyzed using the bioinformatic pipeline to identify the pathogenic variants. Three nsSNPs; rs1126809 (TYR), rs10936600 (LRRC34), and rs757978 (FARP2), were found as the most damaging cancer pathogenic variants. These mutations alter the protein interface and change the allosteric sites of the respective proteins. As TYR, LRRC34, and FARP2 genes play important roles in numerous cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, and cell survival; therefore, any impairment on the protein function could be involved in the development of cancer. rs1126809, rs10936600, and rs757978 are the important pathogenic variants that increase the risks of cancers among the Orang Asli and Malays. The roles and impacts of these variants in cancers will require further investigations using in vitro cancer models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
  17. Mohamad Rosdi MN, Mohd Arif S, Abu Bakar MH, Razali SA, Mohamed Zulkifli R, Ya'akob H
    Apoptosis, 2018 01;23(1):27-40.
    PMID: 29204721 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1434-7
    Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant's bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Structural Homology, Protein
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