Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 76 in total

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  1. Sararaks S, Azman AB, Low LL, Rugayah B, Aziah AM, Hooi LN, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jun;60(2):163-79.
    PMID: 16114157
    Results of construct validity and reliability of the SF-36 are described, based on data from a multi-centre study on asthmatics and a population based survey. Questionnaire refinement was carried out between the two studies. Quality of data was good, with all items having less than 0.5% missing values. Floor and/or ceiling effects were observed for REE, REP, PF and SF. For scaling assumptions, correlations between each items and its hypothesized scale were all above 0.50, except for one item in PF. and for both items in SF. Item discriminant validity was an issue for items in VT, SF and MH scales. Cronbach's as for all scales exceeded the recommended 0.70 level, except for SF. Only one latent dimension was identified in principal component analysis, and only 52-53% of variance accounted for. As expected, PF shows high correlations with the physical component while MH was highly correlated with the mental component. Contrasting findings in the loadings of other scales were observed in the asthma data. Age, disease severity and presence of self-reported handicap/disability significantly affect PF, while MH demonstrates no obvious pattern with declining age. In essence, the Malay version of SF-36 could be used in Malaysia, with its generally acceptable internal consistency and validity. The caveat is in the call for additional domains of importance to Malaysians that is not covered by the instrument, and in the caution to be employed when using and construing the instrument.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  2. Chu AH, Moy FM
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP2381-9.
    PMID: 22593217 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512444120
    The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed to assess the physical activity patterns in populations. The authors aim to examine the reliability and validity of the Malay version of IPAQ (IPAQ-M). The IPAQ-M was self-administered twice at a 1-week interval to assess its test-retest reliability. Criterion validity was assessed between the IPAQ-M and a 7-day physical activity log (PA-Log). A total of 81 Malay adults participated in the study. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), kappa (κ), correlation coefficients (ρ), and Bland-Altman plot were used for data analyses. The ICC scores revealed moderate to good correlations (ICC = 0.54-0.92; P < .001) on items categorized by intensities and domains and a κ of 0.73 for total activity. Validity results from the PA-Log were statistically significant (P < .001) across intensities and domains (ρ = 0.67-0.98). The IPAQ-M demonstrated good reliability and validity for the evaluation of physical activity among this Malay population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  3. Mat Daud N, Abu Kassim NL
    J Appl Meas, 2011;12(2):135-43.
    PMID: 22089510
    Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analyzed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University Malaysia were involved in the study. The analysis shows that the student rating questionnaire used was valid and reliable, and it allows identification of staff for the institution's prestigious teaching excellence awards, and those needing in-service training. It was found that there was no significant difference in terms of rank, age and gender of the staff. The study also shows that the majority of staff have problems keeping the class interested and getting students to participate in class activities. Faculty also hardly discussed common errors in assignments and tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  4. Soo KL, Wan Abdul Manan WM, Wan Suriati WN
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP184-93.
    PMID: 22234832 DOI: 10.1177/1010539511433462
    This study aimed to assess the reliability and concurrent validity of the Bahasa Melayu version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ-M) by comparing it with the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-S) and objectively measuring physical activity using a Yamax DigiWalker (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan) pedometer. A total of 100 adults aged between 20 and 58 years from Kelantan in Malaysia voluntarily participated in this study. The Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed no significant differences in 2-week test-retest scores for total metabolic equivalent∙minutes∙per week and 4 domains of the GPAQ-M. There was a low but significant relationship between time spent on total physical activity measured by the GPAQ-M and average steps per day recorded using the pedometer (r s = .265, P = .013). Significant correlations were also found between GPAQ-M and the IPAQ-S for varying levels of intensity during physical activities (r s = .309-.466, P < .01).
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  5. Yeap JS, Yeap JK, Ruslan NG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Dec;54(4):539.
    PMID: 11072481
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  6. Shafie AA, Hassali MA, Liau SY
    Qual Life Res, 2011 May;20(4):593-600.
    PMID: 21046257 DOI: 10.1007/s11136-010-9774-6
    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity of the EQ-5D instrument among the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among Malaysian adults in three northern states of Malaysia. A pre-developed questionnaire consisting of both the EQ-5D and SF-12 items was used for data collection. Concurrent, convergent, and known group validity of EQ-5D were assessed against SF-12 and several known relationships with participants' demographic and illness characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 596 Malaysians participated in the study. The mean EQ-5D score was 0.93 (SD = 0.13), while the mean physical component score (PCS-12) and mental component score (MCS-12) scores were 48.9 (SD = 7.4) and 49.1 (SD = 8.0), respectively. Participants with a current medical problem had lower PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores and reported more problems with all of the EQ-5D dimensions; they also had lower EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores (P < 0.05). Convergent validity was supported by a moderately positive correlation between EQ-5D and EQ-VAS with MCS-12 and PCS-12 scores; moreover, the stronger effect sizes between PCS-12 and the physical dimensions of EQ-5D as well as between MCS-12 with anxiety/depression scores further supported the convergent validity of EQ-5D. Responses to the EQ-5D dimensions only supported two of the four known group validity hypotheses of higher quality of life among individuals who are better educated and no medical problem. No association was found between income and gender with EQ-5D score.

    CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated acceptable construct validity of the EQ-5D among the Malaysian population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  7. Seghatoleslam T, Habil H, Hatim A, Ardakani A, Ishak K, Rashid R
    J Relig Health, 2018 Oct;57(5):1829-1841.
    PMID: 28188463 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-017-0362-8
    The aim of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Bahasa Melayu version of the Taqwa (piety) questionnaire, used for the measurement of behaviour of Drug Dependency Syndrome (DDS), in Malay patients. A sample of 98 males with a psychiatric diagnosis (DSM-IV-R) as the DDS was randomly selected from Kajang Khafidz Polyclinic Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. After receiving their agreement to attend the study, they completed the Taqwa (piety) questionnaire. The reliability was assessed by determining the Cronbach's [Formula: see text] to measure the consistency of related questions for all four dimensions (subscales), including individual, social, cognitional, and emotional Taqwa behaviour. In the next step to evaluate the composite reliability, convergent, and discrimination validity, a measurement model was determined via Conformity Factor Analysis (CFA) based on Partial List Square method (Smart- PLS Ver: 2M3). The reliability of four dimensions of the questionnaire was acceptable ([Formula: see text] correlated to each other. However, according to the CFA method, the items with low loading factor (<0.5) were excluded from each dimension. Item 24 and 35 that were related to individual Taqwa, and item 35 that belonged to emotional Taqwa were excluded from the analysis. The composite reliability and convergent, and discrimination validity were satisfied in all conformity factor loading that exceeded 0/05. The psychometric properties of the Taqwa questionnaire are acceptable, and the scale is a good instrument for assessing the Islamic attitude, beliefs, and behaviour of the Bahasa Melayu DDS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  8. Lim R, Liong ML, Khan NA, Yuen KH
    J Sex Marital Ther, 2017 Feb 17;43(2):142-146.
    PMID: 26836418 DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2016.1141817
    There is currently no published information on the validity and reliability of the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction in the Asian population, specifically in patients with stress urinary incontinence, which limits its use in this region. Our study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire in the Malaysian population. Ten couples were recruited for the pilot testing. The agreement between the English and Chinese or Malay versions were tested using the intraclass correlation coefficients, with results of more than 0.80 for all subscales and overall scores indicating good agreement. Sixty-six couples were included in the subsequent phase. The following data are presented in the order of English, Chinese, and Malay. Cronbach's alphas for the male total score were 0.82, 0.88, and 0.95. For the female total score, Cronbach's alphas were 0.76, 0.78, and 0.88. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the male total score were 0.93, 0.94, and 0.99, while intraclass correlation coefficients for the female total score were 0.89, 0.86, and 0.88. In conclusion, the English, Chinese, and Malay versions each proved to be valid and reliable in our Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  9. Sellappans R, Ng CJ, Lai PS
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2015 Dec;37(6):1242-9.
    PMID: 26408408 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-015-0200-6
    BACKGROUND: Establishing a collaborative working relationship between doctors and pharmacists is essential for the effective provision of pharmaceutical care. The Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Index (PPCI) was developed to assess the professional exchanges between doctors and pharmacists. Two versions of the PPCI was developed: one for physicians and one for pharmacists. However, these instruments have not been validated in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity and reliability of the PPCI for physicians in Malaysia.

    SETTING: An urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from June to August 2014. Doctors were grouped as either a "collaborator" or a "non-collaborator". Collaborators were doctors who regularly worked with one particular clinical pharmacist in their ward, while non-collaborators were doctors who interacted with any random pharmacist who answered the general pharmacy telephone line whenever they required assistance on medication-related enquiries, as they did not have a clinical pharmacist in their ward. Collaborators were firstly identified by the clinical pharmacist he/she worked with, then invited to participate in this study through email, as it was difficult to locate and approach them personally. Non-collaborators were sampled conveniently by approaching them in person as these doctors could be easily sampled from any wards without a clinical pharmacist. The PPCI for physicians was administered at baseline and 2 weeks later.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Validity (face validity, factor analysis and discriminative validity) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the PPCI for physicians.

    RESULTS: A total of 116 doctors (18 collaborators and 98 non-collaborators) were recruited. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that the PPCI for physicians was a 3-factor model. The correlation of the mean domain scores ranged from 0.711 to 0.787. "Collaborators" had significantly higher scores compared to "non-collaborators" (81.4 ± 10.1 vs. 69.3 ± 12.1, p < 0.001). The Cronbach alpha for the overall PPCI for physicians was 0.949, while the Cronbach alpha values for the individual domains ranged from 0.877 to 0.926. Kappa values at test-retest ranged from 0.553 to 0.752.

    CONCLUSION: The PPCI for physicians was a valid and reliable measure in determining doctors' views about collaborative working relationship with pharmacists, in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  10. Thong KS, Chee KY, Ng CG, Walterfang M, Velakoulis D
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2016 Sep;8(3):238-40.
    PMID: 26615809 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12227
    This study aims to establish psychometric properties of the Malay Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (Malay NuCOG) in Alzheimer's disease. NuCOG was translated to Malay language and compared with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool on 80 individuals. The Malay NuCOG showed good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.895). It demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity at the cutoff score of 78.50/100. The Malay NuCOG is a valid and reliable cognitive instrument that is sensitive and specific for the detection of dementia and has clinical advantages in its ability to examine individual cognitive domains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  11. Sim JH, Tong WT, Hong WH, Vadivelu J, Hassan H
    Med Educ Online, 2015;20:28612.
    PMID: 26511792 DOI: 10.3402/meo.v20.28612
    INTRODUCTION: Assessment environment, synonymous with climate or atmosphere, is multifaceted. Although there are valid and reliable instruments for measuring the educational environment, there is no validated instrument for measuring the assessment environment in medical programs. This study aimed to develop an instrument for measuring students' perceptions of the assessment environment in an undergraduate medical program and to examine the psychometric properties of the new instrument.
    METHOD: The Assessment Environment Questionnaire (AEQ), a 40-item, four-point (1=Strongly Disagree to 4=Strongly Agree) Likert scale instrument designed by the authors, was administered to medical undergraduates from the authors' institution. The response rate was 626/794 (78.84%). To establish construct validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component analysis and varimax rotation was conducted. To examine the internal consistency reliability of the instrument, Cronbach's α was computed. Mean scores for the entire AEQ and for each factor/subscale were calculated. Mean AEQ scores of students from different academic years and sex were examined.
    RESULTS: Six hundred and eleven completed questionnaires were analysed. EFA extracted four factors: feedback mechanism (seven items), learning and performance (five items), information on assessment (five items), and assessment system/procedure (three items), which together explained 56.72% of the variance. Based on the four extracted factors/subscales, the AEQ was reduced to 20 items. Cronbach's α for the 20-item AEQ was 0.89, whereas Cronbach's α for the four factors/subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.87. Mean score for the AEQ was 2.68/4.00. The factor/subscale of 'feedback mechanism' recorded the lowest mean (2.39/4.00), whereas the factor/subscale of 'assessment system/procedure' scored the highest mean (2.92/4.00). Significant differences were found among the AEQ scores of students from different academic years.
    CONCLUSIONS: The AEQ is a valid and reliable instrument. Initial validation supports its use to measure students' perceptions of the assessment environment in an undergraduate medical program.
    KEYWORDS: assessment environment; development; instrument; psychometric properties; validation
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  12. Shaik MM, Hassan NB, Tan HL, Bhaskar S, Gan SH
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:435856.
    PMID: 25121099 DOI: 10.1155/2014/435856
    BACKGROUND: The study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version (MIDAS-M) of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire.
    METHODS: Patients having migraine for more than six months attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, were recruited. Standard forward and back translation procedures were used to translate and adapt the MIDAS questionnaire to produce the Bahasa Melayu version. The translated Malay version was tested for face and content validity. Validity and reliability testing were further conducted with 100 migraine patients (1st administration) followed by a retesting session 21 days later (2nd administration).
    RESULTS: A total of 100 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were recruited. The majority of the patients were single (66%) and students (46%). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.84 (1st administration) and 0.80 (2nd administration). The test-retest reliability for the total MIDAS score was 0.73, indicating that the MIDAS-M questionnaire is stable; for the five disability questions, the test-retest values ranged from 0.77 to 0.87.
    CONCLUSION: The MIDAS-M questionnaire is comparable with the original English version in terms of validity and reliability and may be used for the assessment of migraine in clinical settings.
    Study site: Neurology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  13. Ng SK, Barron D, Swami V
    Body Image, 2015 Mar;13:1-8.
    PMID: 25523745 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.10.009
    Previous research has suggested that the factor structure of Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), a widely-used measure of positive body image, may not be cross-culturally equivalent. Here, we used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the conceptual equivalence of a Chinese (Cantonese) translation of the BAS among women (n=1319) and men (n=1084) in Hong Kong. Results showed that neither the one-dimensional nor proposed two-dimensional factor structures had adequate fit. Instead, a modified two-dimensional structure, which retained 9 of the 13 BAS items in two factors, had the best fit. However, only one of these factors, reflective of General Body Appreciation, had adequate internal consistency. This factor also had good patterns of construct validity, as indicated through significant correlations with participant body mass index, self-esteem, and (among women) actual-ideal weight discrepancy. The present results suggest that there may be cultural differences in the concept and experience of body appreciation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  14. Nehzat F, Huda BZ, Tajuddin SH
    PMID: 24968690
    Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) has been proven a reliable and valid instrument to assess job stress in many countries and among various occupations. In Malaysia, both English and Malay versions of the JCQ have been administered to automotive workers, schoolteachers, and office workers. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the instrument with research laboratory staff in a university. A cross sectional study was conducted among 258 research laboratory staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Malaysian laboratory staff who have worked for at least one year were randomly selected from nine faculties and institutes in the university that have research laboratory. A self-administered English and Malay version of Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was used. Three major scales of JCQ: decision latitude, psychological job demands, and social support were assessed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of two scales were acceptable, decision latitude and psychological job demands (0.70 and 0.72, respectively), while Cronbach's alpha coefficient for social support (0.86) was good. Exploratory factor analysis showed five factors that correspond closely to the theoretical construct of the questionnaire. The results of this research suggest that the JCQ is reliable and valid for examining psychosocial work situations and job strain among research laboratory staff. Further studies should be done for confirmative results, and further evaluation is needed on the decision authority subscale for this occupation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  15. Aishvarya S, Maniam T, Karuthan C, Sidi H, Nik Jaafar NR, Oei TP
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S101-6.
    PMID: 23602389 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.03.010
    The present study evaluated the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of clinical outpatients in Malaysia. The SWLS is a measure designed to assess subjective life satisfaction. Four hundred eighty-three participants (283 with psychiatric illnesses and 200 with other medical illnesses) completed the SWLS and other self-report instruments. Results of the EFA and CFA supported the fit for the one-factor model as the best-fitting model. The internal consistency of the SWLS (α=0.86) was found to be high. Correlational analyses showed that SWLS had adequate concurrent validity. Scores on SWLS, which differentiated psychiatric patients and medical patients, supported criterion validity. The logistic regression analyses showed good discriminative validity of SWLS. The SWLS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the satisfaction with life among psychiatry and clinical outpatients in Malaysia.
    Study site: medical and psychiatric clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  16. Guan NC, Seng LH, Hway Ann AY, Hui KO
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):225-31.
    PMID: 23449622 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513477684
    This study was aimed at validating the simplified Chinese version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Support (MSPSS-SCV) among a group of medical and dental students in University Malaya. Two hundred and two students who took part in this study were given the MSPSS-SCV, the Medical Outcome Study social support survey, the Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Malay version of the General Health Questionnaire, and the English version of the MSPSS. After 1 week, these students were again required to complete the MSPSS-SCV but with the item sequences shuffled. This scale displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .924), high test-retest reliability (.71), parallel form reliability (.92; Spearman's ρ, P < .01), and validity. In conclusion, the MSPSS-SCV demonstrated sound psychometric properties in measuring social support among a group of medical and dental students. It could therefore be used as a simple screening tool among young educated Malaysian adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  17. Fernandez AR, Omar SZ, Husain R
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2013 Nov;64(7):794-800.
    PMID: 23701012 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2013.798269
    To develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate the genistein intake in a Malaysian population of pregnant women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  18. Turton BJ, Thomson WM, Foster Page LA, Saub RB, Razak IA
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP2339-49.
    PMID: 24097924 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513497786
    This study aimed to determine the impact of dental caries in terms of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) for Cambodian children. The Child Perceptions Questionnaires (CPQ) were cross-culturally adapted and validated for the Cambodian population using a sample of 430 Cambodian children. The participants had a high caries burden, with a mean number of decayed-missing-and-filled deciduous tooth surfaces (dmfs) of 8.8 (SD = 11.1) and a mean DMFS of 3.7 (SD = 5.5) for the permanent dentition. Two in 5 children had at least one pulpally involved tooth. There was a significant difference in mean CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14 scores by caries experience and by global item response for the respective age-groups, with those in the more severe caries categories scoring higher. Similar gradients were apparent with the CPQ11-14 in the 8- to 10-year age-group. The differences in OHRQoL scores by caries experience demonstrate the construct validity of the CPQ11-14 for the 8- to 14-year age-group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  19. Zalma AR, Safiah MY, Ajau D, Khairil Anuar MI
    Health Promot Int, 2015 Sep;30(3):523-30.
    PMID: 24150531 DOI: 10.1093/heapro/dat072
    Interventions to counter the influence of television food advertising amongst children are important. Thus, reliable and valid instrument to assess its effect is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of such a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered twice on 32 primary schoolchildren aged 10-11 years in Selangor, Malaysia. The interval between the first and second administration was 2 weeks. Test-retest method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. Intra-rater reliability was determined by kappa coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. The test-retest correlation showed moderate-to-high reliability for all scores (r = 0.40*, p = 0.02 to r = 0.95**, p = 0.00), with one exception, consumption of fast foods (r = 0.24, p = 0.20). Kappa coefficient showed acceptable-to-strong intra-rater reliability (K = 0.40-0.92), except for two items under knowledge on television food advertising (K = 0.26 and K = 0.21) and one item under preference for healthier foods (K = 0.33). Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated acceptable internal consistency for all scores (0.45-0.60). After deleting two items under Consumption of Commonly Advertised Food, the items showed moderate-to-high loading (0.52, 0.84, 0.42 and 0.42) with the Scree plot showing that there was only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.60, showing that the sample was adequate for factor analysis. The questionnaire on television food advertising is reliable and valid to assess the effect of media literacy education on television food advertising on schoolchildren.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
  20. Saba J, Audureau E, Bizé M, Koloshuk B, Ladner J
    Popul Health Manag, 2013 Apr;16(2):82-9.
    PMID: 23276290 DOI: 10.1089/pop.2012.0049
    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires/standards*
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