OBJECTIVE: To assess the socio-economic determinants of TB in HIV-infected patients in Asia.
DESIGN: This was a matched case-control study. HIV-positive, TB-positive cases were matched to HIV-positive, TB-negative controls according to age, sex and CD4 cell count. A socio-economic questionnaire comprising 23 questions, including education level, employment, housing and substance use, was distributed. Socio-economic risk factors for TB were analysed using conditional logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 340 patients (170 matched pairs) were recruited, with 262 (77.1%) matched for all three criteria. Pulmonary TB was the predominant type (n = 115, 67.6%). The main risk factor for TB was not having a university level education (OR 4.45, 95%CI 1.50-13.17, P = 0.007). Burning wood or coal regularly inside the house and living in the same place of origin were weakly associated with TB diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that lower socio-economic status is associated with an increased risk of TB in Asia. Integrating clinical and socio-economic factors into HIV treatment may help in the prevention of opportunistic infections and disease progression.
METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted where 443 caregivers, of 508 children with active TB receiving treatment, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the risk factors for TB.
RESULTS: A total of 2397 family members at the median of 5 persons were recorded. Of these, 223 (9.3%) were screened on symptoms basis and 35 (15.7%) of these contacts were diagnosed with TB. Multivariate analysis revealed HHC with TB (OR = 15.288, 95% CI: 5.378-43.457), HHC with smoking (OR = 7.094, 95% CI: 2.128-23.648), and contact of > 18 h with TB individual (OR = 4.681, 95% CI: 1.198-18.294) as statistically significant risk factors of TB among the HHC.
CONCLUSION: With the current system of contact screening for TB, only 9.3% of all HHC were screened. The low rates of contacts screened are possibly a repercussion of the passive nature of the program, which mainly depend on distinctive clinical symptoms being experienced by the contacts. Strategies are required to certify adherence with contact screening among children with active TB and to critically consider the factors responsible for TB transmission.