Spontaneous rupture of uterine fibroid is rarely encountered. We present a case of a 31-year-old who presented with acute abdominal pain at 9 weeks postpartum. On examination, the abdomen had diffuse tenderness, with rebound tenderness in the suprapubic area and in both iliac fossae. On ultrasonography, a 12.7 × 8.6 × 8.9-cm sized hyperechoic mass was visible on the posterior wall of the uterus. A large amount of fluid was visible in the paracolic gutters and the Pouch of Douglas (POD). The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A ruptured, cystic degenerated uterine fibroid with active bleeding was found, as well as approximately half a liter of free, bloodstained peritoneal fluid and pus. Myomectomy was performed, followed by evacuation of the fluid and clots. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. In conclusion, preoperative diagnosis of a perforated, uterine fibroid with spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage is difficult; exploratory laparotomy is both diagnostic and therapeutic in this rare, life-threatening condition.
Uterine leiomyoma is found in approximately 2% of pregnant women. One in ten women will have complications related to myoma in pregnancy. Myomectomy during pregnancy especially at Caesarean section is much discouraged in the literature. We present here 2 cases of large uterine myoma, situated in the anterior aspect of the lower segment, complicating pregnancy at term. Myomectomy in both instances allowed delivery of the fetus through the lower segment, making vaginal delivery in subsequent pregnancies possible.
A 30-year-old, nulliparous woman presented with a history of subfertility. On examination she was found to have uterine fibroid of 28 weeks size of gravid uterus and subsequently laporatomy myomectomy was performed. Multilobulated masses, with diameters ranging from 22 mm to 160 mm were found. Cut sections of the lobulated masses showed whitish whorled cut surface. One of the multilobulated masses had a cystic cavity, measuring 60x50x35 mm(3). Light microscopic findings of the mass with the cystic cavity showed a well-circumscribed cellular tumour composed of cells exhibiting moderate nuclear atypia which were enlarged, nuclei with prominent chromatin clumping and were distributed in areas. Some tumour cells showed large nuclear pseudoinclusions, multinucleated or multilobated tumour giant cells, smudging and few enlarged nucleoli. Mitotic activity was 4 MFs per 10 HPFs. Occasional cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions resembling rhabdoid - like features were seen. There were no atypical mitoses or tumour necroses were noted. Diagnosis of atypical leiomyoma or symplastic leiomyoma was made. Atypical or symplastic leiomyomas are rare in the region of Malaysia and the present case discusses its incidence in younger age, its morphological features along with diagnosis and clinical outcome.
Sixty cases with uterine leiomyomata in pregnancy are presented. The incidence was 1 in 1033 deliveries. The median age of the patients was 33.4 years. The majority were primigravidae (60%). A significant number of patients gave a history of infertility (43%) and spontaneous abortions (25%). The commonest antenatal complication was malpresentation and in all these patients the myomata were larger than 6 cm. Typical features of red degeneration occurred in 10% of cases. The cesarean section rate was 73%, the commonest indication being obstructed labor. Severe hemorrhage was encountered at cesarean section in 10 patients, 3 of whom needed hysterectomy. There were no perinatal deaths.
In Malaysia, the incidence of molar pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is 2.8 and 1.59 per 1000 deliveries, respectively; the disease is more common among the Chinese compared to the Malays and Indians. While uterine suction is the preferred method of uterine evacuation of hydatidiform mole, complete evacuation was not achieved at the first attempt in 25% of cases. Partial moles comprise 30% of all moles; these need follow up similar to that for complete moles as they are potentially malignant. In the management of invasive moles, chemotherapy should not be withheld in the presence of metastases or failure of regression of hCG. Placental site tumours are rare. Prophylactic hysterectomy and prophylactic chemotherapy are not recommended. However, in those patients with unsatisfactory hCG regression curves indicating 'at risk' in developing gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), 'selective preventive chemotherapy' appears appropriate. Chemotherapy remains the main modality of treatment for GTN. As tumour bulk and location of disease are important determinants in outcome, we categorized our patients into low, medium- and high-risk groups with survivals of 100, 98 and 61.7% respectively. Surgery and radiotherapy have a limited role.