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  1. Azrina MZ, Yap CK, Rahim Ismail A, Ismail A, Tan SG
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2006 Jul;64(3):337-47.
    PMID: 15964072
    A study of the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River (Peninsular Malaysia) was conducted. Four pristine stations from the upstream and 4 stations at the downstream receiving anthropogenic impacts were selected along the river. For 4 consecutive months (March-June 1999), based on the Malaysian DOE (Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2000, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Malaysia. Maskha Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur, 86pp; Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2001, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment Malaysia) water quality index classes, the upstream stations recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher Biological Monitoring Working Party scores and better water quality indices than those of the downstream. The total number of macrobenthic taxa and their overall richness indices and diversity indices were significantly (P<0.05) higher at the upstream stations (54 taxa) than at the downstream stations (5 taxa). The upstream of the Langat River was dominated by Ephemeroptera and chironomid dipterans while other orders found in small quantities included Trichoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Odonata, Ephemeraptera, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda. On the other hand, the downstream of the river was mainly inhabited by the resistant Oligochaeta worms Limnodrilus spp. and Branchiodrilus sp. and Hirudinea in small numbers. The relationships between the physicochemical and the macrobenthic data were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. These statistical analyses showed that the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by the total suspended solids and the conductivity of the river water. This study also highlighted the impacts of anthropogenic land-based activities such as urban runoff on the distribution and species diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates in the downstream of the Langat River. The data obtained in this study supported the use of the bioindicator concept for Malaysian rivers. Some sensitive (Trichopteran caddisflies and Ephemeraptera) and resistant species (Oligochaeta such as Limnodrilus spp.) are identified as potential bioindicators of clean and polluted river ecosystems, respectively, for Malaysian rivers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects*
  2. Sekarajasekaran IA
    PMID: 538513
    Development of a human community are not without changes in its environment. Such changes result in either beneficial or adverse effects on human health. In Malaysia, in the wake of the New Economic Policy aimed at the redressing of the poor population and income distribution, development of the nation has brought about various changes in the environment. Some of these changes have elevated basic public health problems, while others, particularly new agricultural practices and industrialisation programmes with urbanisation trends, have brought a new set of problems due to water pollution and sanitation. Various measures are being taken to protect and to improve the environment so that progress can be realised with minimum adverse effects. This also calls for assistance from international sources, in terms of expertise, training and funds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects
  3. Auta HS, Emenike CU, Fauziah SH
    Environ Int, 2017 May;102:165-176.
    PMID: 28284818 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.02.013
    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics. Microplastic particles have been found distributed in large numbers in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, India, South Africa, North America, and in Europe. This review describes the sources and global distribution of microplastics in the environment, the fate and impact on marine biota, especially the food chain. Furthermore, the control measures discussed are those mapped out by both national and international environmental organizations for combating the impact from microplastics. Identifying the main sources of microplastic pollution in the environment and creating awareness through education at the public, private, and government sectors will go a long way in reducing the entry of microplastics into the environment. Also, knowing the associated behavioral mechanisms will enable better understanding of the impacts for the marine environment. However, a more promising and environmentally safe approach could be provided by exploiting the potentials of microorganisms, especially those of marine origin that can degrade microplastics.

    CAPSULE: The concentration, distribution sources and fate of microplastics in the global marine environment were discussed, so also was the impact of microplastics on a wide range of marine biota.

    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects
  4. Nhu TT, Schaubroeck T, Henriksson PJG, Bosma R, Sorgeloos P, Dewulf J
    Environ Pollut, 2016 Dec;219:156-165.
    PMID: 27814531 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.10.006
    Pangasius production in Vietnam is widely known as a success story in aquaculture, the fastest growing global food system because of its tremendous expansion by volume, value and the number of international markets to which Pangasius has been exported in recent years. While certification schemes are becoming significant features of international fish trade and marketing, an increasing number of Pangasius producers have followed at least one of the certification schemes recognised by international markets to incorporate environmental and social sustainability practices in aquaculture, typically the Pangasius Aquaculture Dialogue (PAD) scheme certified by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC). An assessment of the environmental benefit of applying certification schemes on Pangasius production, however, is still needed. This article compared the environmental impact of ASC-certified versus non-ASC certified intensive Pangasius aquaculture, using a statistically supported LCA. We focused on both resource-related (water, land and total resources) and emissions-related (global warming, acidification, freshwater and marine eutrophication) categories. The ASC certification scheme was shown to be a good approach for determining adequate environmental sustainability, especially concerning emissions-related categories, in Pangasius production. However, the non-ASC certified farms, due to the large spread, the impact (e.g., water resources and freshwater eutrophication) was possibly lower for a certain farm. However, this result was not generally prominent. Further improvements in intensive Pangasius production to inspire certification schemes are proposed, e.g., making the implementation of certification schemes more affordable, well-oriented and facilitated; reducing consumed feed amounts and of the incorporated share in fishmeal, especially domestic fishmeal, etc. However, their implementation should be vetted with key stakeholders to assess their feasibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects
  5. Mahat NA, Muktar NK, Ismail R, Abdul Razak FI, Abdul Wahab R, Abdul Keyon AS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Oct;25(30):30224-30235.
    PMID: 30155632 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3033-8
    Contamination of toxic metals in P. viridis mussels has been prevalently reported; hence, health risk assessment for consuming this aquaculture product as well as the surrounding surface seawater at its harvesting sites appears relevant. Since Kampung Pasir Puteh, Pasir Gudang is the major harvesting site in Malaysia, and because the last heavy metal assessment was done in 2009, its current status remains unclear. Herein, flame atomic absorption spectrometry and flow injection mercury/hydride system were used to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and total Hg in P. viridis mussels and surface seawater (January-March 2015), respectively. Significantly higher concentrations of these metals were found in P. viridis mussels (p Water Quality Criteria and Standards. Significant (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects
  6. Karami A, Keiter S, Hollert H, Courtenay SC
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Mar;20(3):1586-95.
    PMID: 22752811 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-1027-5
    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A "data trimming" approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects*
  7. Sakai N, Dayana E, Abu Bakar A, Yoneda M, Nik Sulaiman NM, Ali Mohd M
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Oct;188(10):592.
    PMID: 27679511
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites. Therefore, the PCB load was estimated to be negligible during the sampling period because PCBs have an extremely long half-life. The PCBs, particularly higher chlorinated biphenyls, could be thoroughly dechlorinated to mono-CBs to tri-CBs by microbial decomposition in sediment or could still be accumulated in the sediment. The lower chlorinated biphenyls, however, could be resuspended or desorbed from the sediment because they have faster desorption rates and higher solubility, compared to the higher chlorinated biphenyls. The health risk for the Malaysia population by PCB intake that was estimated from the local fish consumption (7.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and tap water consumption (1.5 × 10(-3)-3.1 × 10(-3) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) based on the detected PCB levels in the surface water was considered to be minimal. The hazard quotient based on the tolerable daily intake (20 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) was estimated at 0.36.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects
  8. Abushaala NM, Elfituri AM, Zulkifli SZ
    Open Vet J, 2021 02 08;11(1):112-120.
    PMID: 33898292 DOI: 10.4314/ovj.v11i1.17
    Background: Several types of research have been recently carried out on the biological effects of TBTs, including investigations of genitals in invertebrates in response to exposure to TBTs in marine water.

    Aim: The objective of this research was to investigate the acute effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) on gonads in the adult stage of Artemia salina by use normal histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) (Caspase 3 and HSP70) to see specific apoptosis markers.

    Methods: After exposure of A. salina to different concentrations of TBTCl (25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 ng.l-1), 50 adult A. salina (25 male and 25 female) were selected randomly from each concentration to histologically study the gonads. The gonad tissue was sectioned (5 μm) and some slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and others were stained with IHC avidin-biotin complex, and were examined under a light microscope.

    Results: The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in histological lesions between different concentrations of TBTCl. The histological lesions in the testis and ovary section were undifferentiated cells, degenerating yolk globules, and follicle cells enveloping the oocyte which was then compared with control tissue, and these effects were found to be increased in females more than in males with the highest concentration of TBTCl. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that positive immunostaining was observed in the testis and ovary as brownish deposits to Caspase 3 and HSP70 antibody after exposure to TBTCl, while the testis and ovary section in control tissue had no immunoreactivity to Caspase 3 and HSP70 antibody; these effects were profoundly increased with the highest concentration of TBTCl in females more than in males. Finally, the histological lesions and IHC (Caspase 3 and HSP70) revealed that the apoptosis and immune system stress of A. salina gonad tissue damage in females were more sensitive to TBTCl toxicity as compared to white males.

    Conclusion: In general, the present study aimed to observe the effects TBTCl on A. salina gonads by using histological sections and IHC (Caspase 3 and HSP70), which were evaluated for the first time and have been proven to possess an important function in apoptosis marker and immune system stress in Artemia. Finally, the specific mechanisms through which TBTCl affects A. salina Caspase 3 and HSP70 expression need further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects*
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