Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Thong MK, Ngim CF
    N Engl J Med, 2021 Jun 03;384(22):2165.
    PMID: 34077655 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2105064
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia*
  2. Wee YC, Tan KL, Chua KH, George E, Tan JA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2009 Jul;16(3):21-8.
    PMID: 22589661 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The interaction of the non-deletional α(+)-thalassaemia mutations Haemoglobin Constant Spring and Haemoglobin Quong Sze with the Southeast Asian double α-globin gene deletion results in non-deletional Haemoglobin H disease. Accurate detection of non-deletional Haemoglobin H disease, which is associated with severe phenotypes, is necessary as these mutations have been confirmed in the Malaysian population.
    METHODS: DNA from two families with Haemoglobin H disease was extracted from EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood and subjected to molecular analysis for α-thalassaemia. A duplex polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the Southeast Asian α-globin gene deletion. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was then carried out to determine the presence of Haemoglobin Constant Spring and Haemoglobin Quong Sze. A combine-amplification refractory mutation system protocol was optimised and implemented for the rapid and specific molecular characterisation of Haemoglobin Constant Spring and Haemoglobin Quong Sze in a single polymerase chain reaction.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The combine-amplification refractory mutation system for Haemoglobin Constant Spring and Haemoglobin Quong Sze, together with the duplex polymerase chain reaction, provides accurate pre- and postnatal diagnosis of non-deletional Haemoglobin H disease and allows detailed genotype analyses using minimal quantities of DNA.
    KEYWORDS: Combine-ARMS; Hb Constant Spring; Hb Quong Sze; medical sciences
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia*
  3. Lee TY, Lai MI, Ismail P, Ramachandran V, Tan JA, Teh LK, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2016 Apr 07;15(2).
    PMID: 27173219 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027400
    Hemoglobin (Hb) Adana [HBA2: c179G>A (or HBA1); p.Gly60Asp] is a non-deletional α-thalassemia variant found in Malaysia. An improvement in the molecular techniques in recent years has made identification of Hb Adana much easier. For this study, a total of 26 Hb Adana α-thalassemia intermedia and 10 Hb Adana trait blood samples were collected from patients. Common deletional and non-deletional α-thalassemia genotypes were determined using multiplex gap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex ARMS PCR techniques. Identification of the Hb Adana location on the α-globin gene was carried out using genomic sequencing and the location of the mutation was confirmed via restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR. Among the 36 samples, 24 (66.7%) had the -α(3.7)/α(Cd59)α mutation, while the -α(3.7)/α(Cd59)α mutation accounted for 2 samples (5.6%) and the remaining 10 (27.8%) samples were α/α(Cd59)α. All 36 samples were found to have the Hb Adana mutation on the α2-globin gene. The position of the α-globin gene mutation found in our cases was similar to that reported in Indonesia (16%) but not to that in Turkey (0.6%). Our results showed that the Hb Adana mutation was preferentially present in the α2-globin genes in Malays compared to the other ethnicities in Malaysia. Thus, the Malays might have similar ancestry based on the similarities in the Hb Adana position.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/ethnology; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  4. Alauddin H, Jaapar NA, Azma RZ, Ithnin A, Razak NF, Loh CK, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 2014;38(4):277-81.
    PMID: 24829075 DOI: 10.3109/03630269.2014.916720
    Hb Adana [HBA2: c179G>A (or HBA1); p.Gly60Asp] is a rare hemoglobin (Hb) variant due to a mutation at codon 59 of the α2- or α1-globin gene resulting in a glycine to aspartic acid substitution. Two siblings with a unique coinheritance of Hb Adana and Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA; HBA2: c.427 T>C) (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α), were compared phenotypically with another two siblings carrying the Hb Adana mutation and a 3.7 kb deletion (α(codon 59)α/-α(3.7)). Although they all had α-thalassemia intermedia (α-TI), the former were clinically more severe than the latter. The first pair of siblings presented at a much younger age than the second pair and showed lower Hb levels and significant extramedullay hemopoiesis. Another case of a hydropic fetus as a result of Hb H/Hb Adana is also described. Their clinical phenotypes and hematological parameters are all presented for comparison.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/blood; alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  5. George-Kodiseri E, Wong HB
    Family Physician, 1990;2:43-46.
    Clinically, Hb H disease presents as alpha thalassaemia intermedia. The majority have a clinical course of well compensated chronic haemolytic anaemia with exacerbations caused by oxidant haemopoietic stress. Haematological and DNA studies have identified the common molecular defects associated with Hb H disease in West Malaysia. Patients were shown to have α0 - thalassaemia of the South-East Asian type (--/SEA) in association with α+ thalassaemia or with Hb Constant Spring. In a study of 32 patients with Hb H disease, 50% were shown to have α+ thalassaemia (-α 3.7, 87.5%; -α 4.2, 12.5%). Growth and development were normal in all patients, and cholelithiasis was seen in 50% of the patients with the non-deletional type of Hb H disease. Comparisons of the clinical parameters (the necessity of blood transfusion, thalassaemia facies), haemoglobin and bilirubin levels show that the non-deletional type of Hb H disease in West Malaysia is associated with a more severe clinical state than the deletional type.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia
  6. Ahmad R, Saleem M, Aloysious NS, Yelumalai P, Mohamed N, Hassan S
    Int J Mol Sci, 2013;14(9):18599-614.
    PMID: 24025420 DOI: 10.3390/ijms140918599
    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for α thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with α thalassaemia. Of the 13 α thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, --(SEA), --(THAI), --(FIL); two single-gene deletions, α-³·⁷ and -α⁴·²; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of α-³·⁷ deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the --SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the α-³·⁷ deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 α thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous α⁺ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous α⁰ thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of α thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical α thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  7. Rahimah AN, Nisha S, Safiah B, Roshida H, Punithawathy Y, Nurul H, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):565-70.
    PMID: 23770946 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVES: Alpha thalassaemia is wide spread in Malaysia and is a public health problem. This study aimed to describe the carrier frequencies of α‒thalassaemia and its distribution among major ethnic groups in three states of Malaysia.

    METHODS: Educational forums were organised and study was explained to students from three schools. Students were invited to take part in the screening with parent consent. A total of 8420 adolescent students aged 16 years volunteered to participate in the study. Peripheral blood samples were analysed for complete blood counts, haemoglobin quantification and typing, and serum ferritin levels. Genomic DNA was used for screening alpha thalassaemia alleles by PCR based molecular methods.

    RESULTS: We identified seven α‒globin gene defects in 341 (4.08%) students: amongst them α(+)‒ and α(0)‒thalassaemias were detected in 232 (2.77%) and 107 (1.28%) students respectively. Genotype ‒α(3.7)/αα was the most prevalent among sub-populations of Malay, indigenous communities of Sahab and Indian, while ‒‒(SEA)/αα deletion is more prevalent in Malaysian Chinese. It is estimated that 63 pregnancies annually are at risk of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis.

    CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the prevalence and mutation patterns of α‒thalassaemia in the 16 year olds in three states of Malaysia. High α(0)‒thalassaemia deletions amongst the study subjects place these carriers at an increased risk of conceiving fetuses with HbH disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis should they choose another heterozygous partner. It is therefore highly recommended to institute community screening programmes and provide prospective carriers with genetic counselling to help them make informed choices.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia*
  8. George E, Jama T, Azian AS, Rahimah A, Zubaidah Z
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Dec;64(4):321-2.
    PMID: 20954559
    A rare case of thalassaemia-intermedia involving a non-deletion alpha thalassemia point mutation in the alpha1-globin gene CD59 (GGC --> GAC) and a deletion alpha+ (-alpha(3.7)) thalassaemia in which use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) C-gram Hb subtype profile and DNA molecular analysis helped establish the diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  9. Ong HC, White JC, Sinnathuray TA
    Acta Haematol., 1977;58(4):229-33.
    PMID: 410224 DOI: 10.1159/000207832
    A case of haemoglobin H (HbH) disease associated with pregnancy is presented and discussed in the light of reports in the literature. The variable symptomatology is commented upon, although mild to moderate chronic haemolytic anaemia seems to be a constant feature. The roles of folic acid supplements and of splenectomy; the avoidance of oxidant drugs, and the mode of inheritance in HbH disease are briefly commented upon. Available reports indicate that HbH disease probably has no adverse effect on pregnancy. However, the association of the two conditions is uncommon, and reports are too few, therefore, to allow definite conclusions on the outcome in all instances.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia*
  10. Azma RZ, Ainoon O, Hafiza A, Azlin I, Noor Farisah AR, Nor Hidayati S, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Apr;36(1):27-32.
    PMID: 24763232 MyJurnal
    Alpha (Α) thalassaemia is the most common inherited disorder in Malaysia. The clinical severity is dependant on the number of Α genes involved. Full blood count (FBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) analysis using either gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) are unable to detect definitively alpha thalassaemia carriers. Definitive diagnosis of Α-thalassaemias requires molecular analysis and methods of detecting both common deletional and non-deletional molecular abnormailities are easily performed in any laboratory involved in molecular diagnostics. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 1623 cases referred to our laboratory in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) for the diagnosis of Α-thalassaemia during the period October 2001 to December 2012. We examined the frequency of different types of alpha gene abnormalities and their haematologic features. Molecular diagnosis was made using a combination of multiplex polymerase reaction (PCR) and real time PCR to detect deletional and non-deletional alpha genes relevant to southeast Asian population. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of Α-thalassaemias in 736 cases. Majority of the cases were Chinese (53.1%) followed by Malays (44.2%), and Indians (2.7%). The most common gene abnormality was ΑΑ/--(SEA) (64.0%) followed by ΑΑ/-Α(3.7) (19.8%), -Α(3.7) /--(SEA) (6.9%), ΑΑ/ΑΑCS (3.0%), --(SEA)/--(SEA) (1.2%), -Α(3.7)/-Α(3.7) (1.1%), ΑΑ/-Α(4.2) (0.7%), -Α(4.2)/--(SEA (0.7%), -Α(3.7)/-Α(4.2) (0.5%), ΑΑ(CS)/-- SEA) (0.4%), ΑΑ(CS)/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.4%), ΑΑ(CS)/ΑΑ(CS) (0.4%), -Α(3.7)/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.3%), ΑΑ/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.1%), ΑΑ(Cd59)/ ΑΑ(IVS I-1) (0.1%), -Α(3.7)/ΑΑ(CS) (0.1%) and --(SEA) /ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.1%). This data indicates that the molecular abnormalities of Α-thalassaemia in the Malaysian population is heterogenous. Although Α-gene deletion is the most common cause, non-deletional Α-gene abnormalities are not uncommon and at least 3 different mutations exist. Establishment of rapid and easy molecular techniques is important for definitive diagnosis of alpha thalassaemia, an important prerequisite for genetic counselling to prevent its deleterious complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis; alpha-Thalassemia/ethnology*; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  11. Wee YC, Tan KL, Kuldip K, Tai KS, George E, Tan PC, et al.
    Community Genet, 2008;11(3):129-34.
    PMID: 18376108 DOI: 10.1159/000113874
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Individuals with double heterozygosity for alpha- and beta-thalassaemia and heterozygous beta-thalassaemia show a similar haematological picture. Co-inheritance of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia in both partners may result in pregnancies with either Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis or beta-thalassaemia major, or pregnancies with both disorders.
    METHODS: The co-inheritance of alpha-thalassaemia in 322 beta-thalassaemia carriers in Malaysia was studied.
    RESULTS: The frequency of alpha-thalassaemia in the beta-thalassaemia carriers was 12.7% (41/322), with a carrier frequency of 7.8% for the SEA deletion, 3.7% for the -alpha(3.7) deletion, 0.9% for Hb Constant Spring and 0.3% for the -alpha(4.2) deletion.
    CONCLUSION: Double heterozygosity for alpha- and beta-thalassaemia was confirmed in 5 out of the 41 couples and the risk of the fatal condition Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis was confirmed in two of these couples. Detection of the Southeast Asian (SEA) deletion in the Malaysian Malays in this study confirms that Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis can occur in this ethnic group. Results of this study have provided new information on the frequency and different types of alpha-thalassaemia (--(SEA), -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) deletions, Hb Constant Spring) in Malaysian beta-thalassaemia carriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis; alpha-Thalassemia/ethnology; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  12. Chong YM, Tan JA, Zubaidah Z, Rahimah A, Kuldip K, George E
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):217-20.
    PMID: 16898315
    Thalassaemia is an inherited blood disorder and is a significant public health problem in Malaysia, with many not knowing they carry the gene for thalassaemia. The two major forms are alpha and beta thalassaemia. An individual can co-inherit both the alpha and beta thalassaemia genes. This study determined the frequency of concurrent carriers of alpha thalassaemia in 231 beta thalassaemia carriers. Gap-PCR was done on extracted DNA of the beta thalassaemia samples to check for alpha thalassaemia 1 molecular defect. Eight (3.5%) samples were found to have concurrently inherited the alpha thalassaemia 1 (- -SEA) deletion. The significant carrier rate for alpha thalassaemia 1 indicates the need for the implementation of DNA analysis to complement thalassaemia screening in high risk populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/complications; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics; alpha-Thalassemia/epidemiology*
  13. Kham SK, Yin SK, Quah TC, Loong AM, Tan PL, Fraser A, et al.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2004 Dec;26(12):817-9.
    PMID: 15591902
    DNA technology provides a new avenue to perform neonatal screening tests for single-gene diseases in populations of high frequency. Thalassemia is one of the high-frequency single-gene disorders affecting Singapore and many countries in the malaria belt. The authors explored the feasibility of using PCR-based diagnostic screening on 1,116 unselected sequential cord blood samples for neonatal screening. The cord blood samples were screened for the most common reported alpha- and beta-thalassemia mutations in each ethnic group (Chinese, Malays, and Indians) in a multiracial population. The carrier frequency for alpha-thalassemia mutations was about 6.4% in the Chinese (alpha deletions = 3.9%, alpha deletions = 2.5%), 4.8% in Malays, and 5.2% in Indians. Only alpha deletions were observed in the Chinese. The carrier frequency for beta-thalassemia mutations was 2.7% in the Chinese, 6.3% in Malays, and 0.7% in Indians. Extrapolating to the population distribution of Singapore, the authors found a higher overall expected carrier frequency for alpha- and beta-thalassemia mutations of 9% compared with a previous population study of 6% by phenotype. The highly accurate results make this molecular epidemiologic screening an ideal method to screen for and prevent severe thalassemia in high-risk populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/ethnology; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*; alpha-Thalassemia/epidemiology*
  14. Osman HA, Hamid MMA, Ahmad RB, Saleem M, Abdallah SA
    BMC Res Notes, 2020 Feb 10;13(1):65.
    PMID: 32041645 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-020-4933-5
    OBJECTIVE: Alpha-thalassemia is a genetic disorder characterized by deletions of one or more α globin genes that result in deficient of α globin chains reducing haemoglobin concentration. The study aimed to screen 97 patients with microcytosis and hypochromasia for the 3.7 and 4.2 alpha thalassemia deletion mutations.

    RESULTS: Out of 97 patients screened, only 7 were carriers for the 3.7 deletion and all patients were negative for the 4.2 deletion. The 3.7 deletion was found in Foor, Hawsa and Rezagat Sudanese tribes. In the carriers of the 3.7 deletion, Red Blood Cells and Haematocrit were significantly increased. The Red Blood Cells were 7.23 ± 0.78 × 1012/L in adult males and 7.21 ± 0.67 × 1012/L in adult females while in children were 5.07 ± 0.87 × 1012/L. The mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin were significantly decreased, but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration slightly decreased. Haemoglobin levels didn't revealed statistically significant decrease in adult males (11.7 ± 0.57 g/dL) and adult females (11.25 ± 0.64 g/dL), while in children were (11.6 ± 2.95 g/dL). Haemoglobin electrophoresis revealed two patients of the 3.7 and 4.2 negative were carriers for β-thalassemia. The study concluded that α3.7 deletion has frequency of 0.07 in Sudanese with hypochromasia and microcytosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis*; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*; alpha-Thalassemia/epidemiology
  15. Tan JA, Kok JL, Tan KL, Wee YC, George E
    Genes Genet Syst, 2009 Feb;84(1):67-71.
    PMID: 19420802
    Co-inheritance of alpha-thalassemia with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for beta-thalassemia may ameliorate beta-thalassemia major. A wide range of clinical phenotypes is produced depending on the number of alpha-thalassemia alleles (-alpha/alphaalpha --/alphaalpha, --/-alpha). The co-inheritance of beta-thalassemia with alpha-thalassemia with a single gene deletion (-alpha/alphaalpha) is usually associated with thalassemia major. In contrast, the co-inheritance of beta-thalassemia with two alpha-genes deleted in cis or trans (--/alphaalpha or -alpha/-alpha) generally produces beta-thalassemia intermedia. In Southeast Asia, the most common defect responsible for alpha-thalassemia is the Southeast Asian (SEA) deletion of 20.5 kilobases. The presence of the SEA deletion with Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) produces HbH-CS disease. Co-inheritance of HbH-CS with compound heterozygosity for beta-thalassemia is very rare. This study presents a Malay patient with HbH-CS disorder and beta degrees/beta+-thalassemia. The SEA deletion was confirmed in the patient using a duplex-PCR. A Combine-Amplification Refractory Mutation System (C-ARMS) technique to simultaneously detect HbCS and Hb Quong Sze confirmed HbCS in the patient. Compound heterozygosity for CD41/42 and Poly A was confirmed using the ARMS. This is a unique case as the SEA alpha-gene deletion in cis (--SEA/alphaalpha) is generally not present in the Malays, who more commonly possess the two alpha-gene deletion in trans (-alpha/-alpha). In addition, the beta-globin gene mutation at CD41/42 is a common mutation in the Chinese and not in the Malays. The presence of both the SEA deletion and CD41/42 in the mother of the patient suggests the possible introduction of these two defects into the family by marriage with a Chinese.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/complications; alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis*; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  16. Alauddin H, Mohamad Nasir S, Ahadon M, Raja Sabudin RZ, Ithnin A, Hussin NH, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2015 Dec;37(3):287-92.
    PMID: 26712677
    Haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore is a variant Hb consisting of two α-globin and two δβ-globin chains. In a heterozygote, it is associated with clinical findings of thalassaemia minor, but interactions with other haemoglobinopathies can lead to various clinical phenotypes and pose diagnostic challenges. We reported a pair of siblings from a Malay family, who presented with pallor and hepatosplenomegaly at the ages of 21 months and 14 months old. The red cell indices and peripheral blood smears of both patients showed features of thalassaemia intermedia. Other laboratory investigations of the patients showed conflicting results. However, laboratory investigation results of the parents had led to a presumptive diagnosis of compound heterozygote Hb Lepore/β-thalassaemia and co-inheritance α+-thalassaemia (-α3.7). Hb Lepore has rarely been detected in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Malaysia. These two cases highlight the importance of family studies for accurate diagnosis, hence appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/blood; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  17. Zainal NZ, Alauddin H, Ahmad S, Hussin NH
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Dec;36(3):207-11.
    PMID: 25500521
    Thalassaemia carriers are common in the Asian region including Malaysia. Asymptomatic patients can be undiagnosed until they present for their antenatal visits. Devastating obstetric outcome may further complicate the pregnancy if both parents are thalassaemia carriers leading to hydrophic fetus due to haemoglobin Bart's disease. However in certain cases where unexplained hydrops fetalis occur in parents with heterozygous thalassaemia carrier,mutated α genes should be suspected. We report a twenty-nine year old woman in her third pregnancy with two previous pregnancies complicated by early neonatal death at 21 and 28 weeks of gestation due to hydrops fetalis. DNA analysis revealed the patient to have heterozygous (--SEA) α-gene deletion, while her husband has a compound heterozygosity for α(3.7) deletion and codon 59 (GGC → GAC) mutation of the α-gene. This mutation, also known as hemoglobin Adana, can explain hydrops fetalis resulting from two alpha gene deletions from the patient (mother) and a single alpha gene deletion with mutation from the father. The third pregnancy resulted in a grossly normal baby boy with 3 α-gene deletions (HbH disease). We postulate that, in view of heterogenisity of the α-thalassaemia in this patient with severely unstable haemoglobin Adana chains from her husband, there will be a 25% possibility of fetal hydrops in every pregnancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*
  18. Yatim NF, Rahim MA, Menon K, Al-Hassan FM, Ahmad R, Manocha AB, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(5):8835-45.
    PMID: 24857915 DOI: 10.3390/ijms15058835
    Both α- and β-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the α- and β-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 α-thalassaemia determinants and 20 β-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four α-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. --SEA deletion and αCSα accounted for more than 70% of the α-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 β-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different β-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which βE accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (α- and β-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are --SEA deletion and βE mutation, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/genetics*; alpha-Thalassemia/pathology
  19. Tan JA, Kho SL, Ngim CF, Chua KH, Goh AS, Yeoh SL, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 06 08;6:26994.
    PMID: 27271331 DOI: 10.1038/srep26994
    Haemoglobin (Hb) Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) interacts with deletional and nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations to produce HbH disorders with varying clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe anaemia with significant hepatosplenomegaly. Hb Adana carriers are generally asymptomatic and haemoglobin subtyping is unable to detect this highly unstable α-haemoglobin variant. This study identified 13 patients with compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana with either the 3.7 kb gene deletion (-α(3.7)), Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) or Hb Paksé (HBA2:429A>T). Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System was used for the detection of five deletional and six nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations. Duplex-PCR was used to confirm Hb Paksé and HbCS. Results showed 84.6% of the Hb Adana patients were Malays. Using DNA studies, compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α) was confirmed in 11 patients. A novel point in this investigation was that DNA studies confirmed Hb Paksé for the first time in a Malaysian patient (α(codon 59)α/α(Paksé)α) after nine years of being misdiagnosis with Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α). Thus, the reliance on haematology studies and Hb subtyping to detect Hb variants is inadequate in countries where thalassaemia is prevalent and caused by a wide spectrum of mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis*; alpha-Thalassemia/genetics
  20. Wee SY, Muhamed Said SS, Raja Sabudin RZA, Alauddin H, Ithnin A
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Aug;42(2):195-201.
    PMID: 32860371
    INTRODUCTION: Differentiating between thalassaemia and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in hypochromic anaemia is a challenge to pathologists as it influences the choice of subsequent specialized confirmatory tests. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the performance of microcytic to hypochromic ratio (MicroR/ Hypo-He, M/H ratio) as a discriminant index in hypochromic anaemia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on 318 subjects with hypochromic anaemia, which comprised 162 IDA and 156 thalassaemia trait subjects with α-thalassemia, β-thalassemia and HbE trait. Optimal cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity of M/H ratio for thalassaemia trait discrimination was determined using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis.

    RESULTS: Subjects with thalassaemia trait showed higher MicroR compared to IDA ( p< 0.001) while subjects with IDA demonstrated higher Hypo-He than thalassaemia trait (p < 0.001). M/H ratio was significantly higher in thalassaemia trait compared to IDA, with medians of 3.77 (interquartile range: 2.57 - 6.52) and 1.73 (interquartile range: 1.27 - 2.38), respectively (p < 0.001). M/H ratio ≥ 2.25 was the optimal cut-off value for discriminating thalassaemia trait from IDA in hypochromic anaemia, with the area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.83, sensitivity of 80.8% and specificity of 71.6%.

    CONCLUSIONS: M/H ratio is a useful discriminant index to distinguish thalassaemia trait from IDA in hypochromic anaemia prior to diagnostic analysis for thalassaemia confirmation. High M/H ratio is suggestive of thalassaemia trait than of IDA. However, more studies are required to establish the role of M/H ratio as a screening tool for thalassaemia discrimination in hypochromic anaemia.

    Matched MeSH terms: alpha-Thalassemia/diagnosis; alpha-Thalassemia/pathology
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