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  1. Mohd Nor NH, Aziz Z
    J Dermatolog Treat, 2013 Oct;24(5):377-86.
    PMID: 22658322 DOI: 10.3109/09546634.2012.699179
    OBJECTIVE: Comparative trials of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) have yielded contradictory results on its effectiveness for acne vulgaris. The aim of the study was to synthesise the evidence for the effectiveness of BPO-containing topical products for facial acne vulgaris.
    DESIGN: Systematic review.
    METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and other relevant databases were searched without publication date or language restriction.
    RESULTS: We identified 22 trials involving 2212 participants; 12 trials compared BPO as single agent while the other 10 trials compared BPO in combination products. All trials reported lesion count as the outcome measure but only five trials provided numerical data. However, pooling of data from these trials was inappropriate due to variations between trials in terms of acne severity, comparator used and trial duration. Overall the study quality was fair but most studies had some bias particularly in method of random generation and allocation concealment. Although the results provide some evidence that BPO reduces acne-lesion count, the available evidence is not robust enough for firm conclusions.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is no high quality evidence that topical BPO improves facial acne vulgaris, and further research is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzoyl Peroxide/administration & dosage*
  2. Ling WY, Loo CH, Nurul Shafaril Niza MA, Tan JL, Norazlima MA, Tan WC
    Med J Malaysia, 2023 May;78(3):263-269.
    PMID: 37271834
    INTRODUCTION: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common inflammatory skin disease affecting adolescents and young adults. It affects one's self-esteem and social relationship. In addition, poor adherence to treatment can cause poor treatment response and disease recurrence. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of medical education and counselling on treatment adherence and disease severity.

    METHODS: This is a non-randomised interventional study with age- and treatment- matched control conducted in a tertiary dermatology clinic from July 2021 to June 2022. Patients in the intervention group received a 10 min video presentation on acne, followed by treatment counselling. The adherence rate was determined objectively (pill counting and tube weighing) and subjectively (ECOB questionnaire). The disease severity was assessed using the Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale (CASS) and Global Acne Grading System (GAGS).

    RESULTS: A total of 100 patients completed the 12-week study. With intervention, patients have better adherence to topical medication (5% benzoyl peroxide gel: 71% vs 57.9%, p= 0.031; 0.05% tretinoin cream: 58.7% vs 45.4%, p= 0.044) at week 12. However, the intervention program did not improve adherence to oral medication. Overall, with intervention, a significantly higher percentage of improvement in disease severity was noted (47.3% vs. 39.1%, p=0.044). Nonadherence to treatment was attributed mostly to forgetfulness in 54% of the patients, followed by a busy lifestyle (41%) and little knowledge of acne (26%).

    CONCLUSION: Patients have significantly better adherence to topical medication with education and counselling. Better adherence to treatment leads to more remarkable disease improvement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Benzoyl Peroxide/therapeutic use
  3. Yusof NA, Zakaria ND, Maamor NA, Abdullah AH, Haron MJ
    Int J Mol Sci, 2013;14(2):3993-4004.
    PMID: 23429189 DOI: 10.3390/ijms14023993
    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared by bulk polymerization in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide, as the template, functional monomer, cross-linker, and initiator, respectively. The MIP membrane was prepared by hybridization of MIP particles with cellulose acetate (CA) and polystyrene (PS) after being ground and sieved. The prepared MIP membrane was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The parameters studied for the removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol included the effect of pH, sorption kinetics, and the selectivity of the MIP membrane. Maximum sorption of 2,4-nitrophenol by the fabricated CA membrane with MIP (CA-MIP) and the PS membrane with MIP (PS-MIP) was observed at pH 7.0 and pH 5.0, respectively. The sorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by CA-MIP and PS-MIP followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. For a selectivity study, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, and phenol were selected as potential interferences. The sorption capability of CA-MIP and PS-MIP towards 2,4-dinitrophenol was observed to be higher than that of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, or phenol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzoyl Peroxide
  4. Rehman K, Tan CM, Zulfakar MH
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2014 Mar;64(3):159-65.
    PMID: 24026957 DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1355351
    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05, ANOVA) and it was concluded that the beeswax-fish oil combination in oleogel can prove to be beneficial in terms of permeation across the skin and stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzoyl Peroxide/administration & dosage; Benzoyl Peroxide/pharmacology*
  5. Siyamak S, Ibrahim NA, Abdolmohammadi S, Yunus WM, Rahman MZ
    Molecules, 2012 Feb 16;17(2):1969-91.
    PMID: 22343368 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17021969
    In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) PBAT (Ecoflex™), as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites' performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH) as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt %) and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt %) of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt %) succinic anhydride (SAH) and 1 (wt %) dicumyl peroxide (DCP) improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites' spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzoyl Peroxide/chemistry
  6. Robinson S, Kwan Z, Tang MM
    Dermatol Ther, 2019 07;32(4):e12953.
    PMID: 31044492 DOI: 10.1111/dth.12953
    Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and essential amino acids activate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the main nutrient-sensitive kinase. Metformin, through inhibition of mTORC1 may improve acne. A 12-week, randomized, open-labeled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of metformin as an adjunct for moderate to severe facial acne. In total, 84 patients received either oral tetracycline 250 mg bd and topical benzoyl peroxide 2.5% with or without metformin 850 mg daily. Evaluations constituted lesion counts, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI), metabolic parameters and treatment success rate (Investigators Global Assessment score of 0 or 1 or improvement of two grades). Treatment success rates were higher in the metformin group (66.7% vs. 43.2%; p = .04). The mean percentage reduction from baseline in total lesion counts at Week 12 was greater in the metformin group (71.4% vs. 65.3%; p = .278). The CADI scores showed a greater mean reduction in the metformin group (4.82 vs. 4.22; p = .451). Metformin was equally efficacious in improving acne in lean and overweight subjects. Gastrointestinal symptoms were noted in 31.7% of subjects on metformin. This study presents favorable data for metformin as an adjunct for acne treatment. Further randomized placebo-controlled studies are required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzoyl Peroxide/administration & dosage
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