Displaying all 14 publications

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  1. Tan CY, Ramesh S, Aw KL, Yeo WH, Hamdi M, Sopyan I
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:87-8.
    PMID: 19024997
    The sintering behaviour of synthesized HA powder that was calcined at various temperatures ranging from 700 degrees C to 1000 degrees C was investigated in terms of phase stability, bulk density, Young's modulus and Vickers hardness. The calcination treatment resulted in higher crystallinity of the starting HA powder. Decomposition of HA phase to form secondary phases was not observed in all the calcined powders. The results also indicated that powder calcination (up to 900 degrees C) prior to sintering has negligible effect on the sinterability of the HA compacts. However, powder calcined at 1000 degrees C was found to be detrimental to the properties of sintered hydroxyapatite bioceramics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis
  2. Natasha AN, Sopyan I, Mel M, Ramesh S
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:85-6.
    PMID: 19024996
    The effect of Manganese (Mn) addition on the Vickers hardness and relative density of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) dense bodies were studied. The starting Mn doped HA powders was synthesized via sol-gel method with Mn concentration varies from 2 mol% up to 15 mol% Mn. The Mn doped HA disc samples were prepared by uniaxial pressing at 200MPa and subsequently sintered at 1300 degrees C. Characterization was carried out where appropriate to determine the phases present, bulk density, Vickers hardness of the various content of Mn doped HA dense bodies. The addition of Mn was observed to influence the color appearance of the powders and dense bodies as well. Higher Mn concentration resulted in dark grey powders. It was also found that the hardness and relative density of the material increased as the Mn content increased and influenced by the crystallinity of the prepared Mn doped HA powders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis
  3. Tan SA, Ahmad Fauzi MN, Luay BH, Radzali O
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:162-3.
    PMID: 15468868
    In this work, nanometer HA crystals have been synthesized via wet chemical precipitation and characterized. This research studies how key synthesis parameters affect the size and phase purity of the produced HA. Characterization work was carried out using X-ray powder diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy for phase identification and particle sizing, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
  4. Idris B, Rusnah M, Reusmaazran YM, Rohaida CH
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:67-8.
    PMID: 15468822
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
  5. Azran YM, Idris B, Rusnah M, Rohaida CH
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:79-80.
    PMID: 15468828
    The paper presents the effect of sintering temperature on the physical properties of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp In this study, the HAp was prepared using polymeric sponge techniques with different binder concentrations. The sintering process was carried out in air for temperature ranging from 1200 degrees C to 1600 degrees C. Different physical properties namely density and porosity were observed at different sintering temperatures. The HAp prepared with higher PVP binder showed a slightly decreased in apparent density with increasing sintering temperature, while those HAp prepared with lower PVP showed a slightly increase in apparent density with increasing sintering temperature. The total porosity was found to be approximately constant in the whole sintering temperature range. However, closed porosity decreases with increasing sintering temperature for HAp prepared by lower binder concentration. On the other hand, the HAp prepared by higher binder concentrations showed increasing closed porosity with increasing sintering temperature. Other features such as the influence of sintering temperatures on grain and strut would also be presented in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis
  6. Hee SL, Nik Intan NI, Fazan F
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:77-8.
    PMID: 15468827
    There is a great demand of Hydroxyapatite (HA) material in Orthopaedics and Dental applications due to its similarity to human bone. However, the lack of availability and due to high import cost of this material in Malaysia, research in producing synthetic HA locally is therefore timely. The use of local resources as the raw materials for the production of HA is also desirable in reducing the overall cost of HA. In this study, two HA materials were synthesised from different starting precursors, i.e. commercial pure Ca(OH)2 (HAS) and Ca(OH)2 directly from a local natural limestone deposit (HAL). Whereas a commercially available HA "Captal 60" (HAC) was used as reference. The synthesised powders obtained were fired at 1000 degrees C and at 1250 degrees C. Characterisation evaluations on bulk properties were carried out using XRD, SEM-EDX, ICP and FTIR. The results indicate that both HAS and HAL are comparable to HAC even at 1000 degrees C. Thus, the local natural limestone can be used to form HA. However, the overall appearance of these materials are quite different (HAC - blue, HAS - greenish and HAL - light green). The reasons for this and the subsequent mechanical and bioactive effects of these materials are currently being investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
  7. Fazan F, Shahida KB
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:69-70.
    PMID: 15468823
    The paper presents a method of producing synthetic Hydroxyapatite (HA) Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and other apatites for biological use by solid-state reaction. The solid-state reaction involves mix-grinding dry powders of beta-tricalcium phosphate powder (TCP) and either calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or combination thereof, from pure commercial chemicals or derived from natural limestone or from seashells, of total calcium/phosphorus molar ratio between 1.5 to 2.0, to particle size of less than 10 microns, and firing the resultant powder to temperature between 600 degrees C - 1250 degrees C in atmosphere or in controlled atmospheric condition. The resultant apatites formed were characterised using XRD, SEM-EDX and FTIR. The presented reaction process was found to be much simpler compared to conventional methods of producing synthetic apatites since it involves only dry mix-grinding of the reactants before firing at high temperatures based on the required levels of purity. It can also produce synthetic apatites with good reproducibility in a shorter time. Thus the presented method has a great industrial value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
  8. Rusnah M, Andanastuti M, Idris B
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:83-4.
    PMID: 15468830
    The paper discusses the influence of sintering temperature on the microstructure and strength of hydroxyapatite ceramics prepared using the extrusion process. The average pore diameters observed were in the range of approximately 150mm to 300mm whereas the compaction strength was found to be around 120-160 MPa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis
  9. Doreya MI, Mona EW, Afaf ES, Hanan HB
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:21-2.
    PMID: 15468799
    The standard bioglass composition GS45 as well as with excess silica GS50 or with the addition of 5% titanium oxide GS45+Ti5, were prepared by the polymeric route. The different glass components were added to the formed polymer. Firing at 700 degrees C gave an amorphous product with microporous texture that readily crystallizes out at 900 degrees C. The prepared materials were highly porous with two modes of pore system micro-pores and macro-pores with a size ranging between 100 microm to 0.006 microm and a porosity reaching 73%. The measured bulk density was between 0.36 to 1.1g/cm3. The fired material preserved the former structure of the polymer precursor. Biocompatibility was verified in vitro and vivo. IR of the specimens previously immersed in SBF revealed the formation of apatite like layer. While the histology sections of implants in rate femurs showed new bone tissue or bone trabeculae after 21 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
  10. Nordin JA, Prajitno DH, Saidin S, Nur H, Hermawan H
    PMID: 25842138 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.03.019
    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an attractive bioceramics due to its similar composition to bone mineral and its ability to promote bone-implant interaction. However, its low strength has limited its application as load bearing implants. This paper presented a work focusing on the improvement of HAp mechanical property by synthesizing iron (Fe)-reinforced bovine HAp nanocomposite powders via mechanosynthesis method. The synthesis process was performed using high energy milling at varied milling time (3, 6, 9, and 12h). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its mechanical properties were investigated by micro-Vicker's hardness and compression tests. Results showed that milling time directly influenced the characteristics of the nanocomposite powders. Amorphous BHAp was formed after 9 and 12h milling in the presence of HPO4(2-) ions. Continuous milling has improved the crystallinity of Fe without changing the HAp lattice structure. The nanocomposite powders were found in spherical shape, agglomerated and dense after longer milling time. The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were also increased at 69% and 66%, respectively, as the milling time was prolonged from 3 to 12h. Therefore, the improvement of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite was attributed to high Fe crystallinity and homogenous, dense structure produced by mechanosynthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
  11. Mustaffa R, Besar I, Andanastuti M
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:95-6.
    PMID: 19025001
    In this study, porous hydroxyapatite (HA) samples were fabricated via sponge techniques with the aid of sago as part of the binder mixture. Development processes for the production of porous bone graft substitutes are studied using polyurethane sponge. To obtain the optimum amount of binder for successful fabrication of porous HA were done. Initially, porous HA powder was synthesized using calcium hydroxide and orthorphosphoric acid. Meanwhile, sago was mixed with PVA in a certain ratio to be used as binder for preparing the porous HA. After a series of investigative tests were conducted to characterize the sintered samples, the use of the sago and polymeric mixture was found to successfully aid the fabrication of porous HA samples. In this investigation, comparison of physical and mechanical characteristics between samples prepared using difference techniques was made.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis
  12. Hashim N, Sabudin S, Ibrahim S, Zin NM, Bakar SH, Fazan F
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:103-4.
    PMID: 15468839
    Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is one of the significant implant materials used in Orthopaedics and Dental applications. However, synthetically produced HA may not be stable under ionic environment, which it will unavoidably encounter during its applications. In this paper, the in vitro effects of three HA materials derived from different resources, i.e. commercial HA (HAC), synthesised HA from pure chemicals (HAS) and synthesised HA from kapur sireh; derived traditionally from natural limestone (HAK), were studied. The HA disc samples were prepared and immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 31-day period. The evaluation conducted focuses on the changes of the pH and the Calcium ion (Ca-ion) and Phosphate ion (P-ion) concentrations in the SBF solution, as well as the XRD and SEM data representing the reactions on the HA materials. From the XRD, it was found that HAK has the smallest crystallite sizes, which in turn affect the pH of the SBF during immersion. The Ca and P-ion concentrations generally decrease over time at different rates for different HA. Upon 1-day immersion in SBF, apatite growth was observed onto all three surfaces, which became more pronounced after 3-day immersion. However, the appetites formed were observed to be different in shapes and sizes. The reasons for the difference in the apatite-crystals and their subsequent effects on cells are still being investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
  13. Kokubo T
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:91-2.
    PMID: 15468833
    Metallic materials implanted into bone defects are generally encapsulated by a fibrous tissue. Some metallic materials such as titanium and tantalum, however, have been revealed to bond to the living bone without forming the fibrous tissue, when they were subjected to NaOH solution and heat treatments. Thus treated metals form bone tissue around them even in muscle, when they take a porous form. This kind of osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties are attributed to sodium titanate or tantalate layer on their surfaces formed by the NaOH and heat treatments. These layers induce the deposition of bonelike apatite on the surface of the metals in the living body. This kind of bioactive metals are useful as bone substitutes even highly loaded portions, such as hip joint, spine and tooth root.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
  14. Bang LT, Ramesh S, Purbolaksono J, Long BD, Chandran H, Ramesh S, et al.
    Biomed Mater, 2015 Aug;10(4):045011.
    PMID: 26225725 DOI: 10.1088/1748-6041/10/4/045011
    Interconnected porous tricalcium phosphate ceramics are considered to be potential bone substitutes. However, insufficient mechanical properties when using tricalcium phosphate powders remain a challenge. To mitigate these issues, we have developed a new approach to produce an interconnected alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) scaffold and to perform surface modification on the scaffold with a composite layer, which consists of hybrid carbonate apatite / poly-epsilon-caprolactone (CO3Ap/PCL) with enhanced mechanical properties and biological performance. Different CO3Ap combinations were tested to evaluate the optimal mechanical strength and in vitro cell response of the scaffold. The α-TCP scaffold coated with CO3Ap/PCL maintained a fully interconnected structure with a porosity of 80% to 86% and achieved an improved compressive strength mimicking that of cancellous bone. The addition of CO3Ap coupled with the fully interconnected microstructure of the α-TCP scaffolds coated with CO3Ap/PCL increased cell attachment, accelerated proliferation and resulted in greater alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Hence, our bone substitute exhibited promising potential for applications in cancellous bone-type replacement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Substitutes/chemical synthesis*
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