This study was designed to investigate the surface properties especially surface porosity of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using scanning electron microscopy. PHB granules were sprinkled on the double-sided sticky tape attached on a SEM aluminium stub and sputtered with gold(10nm thickness) in a Polaron SC515 Coater, following which the samples were placed into the SEM specimen chamber for viewing and recording. Scanning electron micrographs with different magnification of PHB surface revealed multiple pores with different sizes.
Tantalum pentoxide nanotubes (Ta2O5NTs) can dramatically raise the biological functions of different kinds of cells, thus have promising applications in biomedical fields. In this study, Ta2O5NTs were prepared on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti64) via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and a successive two-step anodization in H2SO4: HF (99:1)+5% EG electrolyte at a constant potential of 15V. To improve the adhesion of nanotubular array coating on Ti64, heat treatment was carried out at 450°C for 1h under atmospheric pressure with a heating/cooling rate of 1°Cmin-1. The surface topography and composition of the nanostructured coatings were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), to gather information about the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and bioactivity in simulated body fluids (SBF). From the nanoindentation experiments, the Young's modulus and hardness of the 5min anodized sample were ~ 135 and 6GPa, but increased to ~ 160 and 7.5GPa, respectively, after annealing at 450°C. It was shown that the corrosion resistance of Ti64 plates with nanotubular surface modification was higher than that of the bare substrate, where the 450°C annealed specimen revealed the highest corrosion protection efficiency (99%). Results from the SBF tests showed that a bone-like apatite layer was formed on nanotubular array coating, as early as the first day of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating the importance of nanotubular configuration on the in-vitro bioactivity.
In this work, nanometer HA crystals have been synthesized via wet chemical precipitation and characterized. This research studies how key synthesis parameters affect the size and phase purity of the produced HA. Characterization work was carried out using X-ray powder diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy for phase identification and particle sizing, respectively.
Various blend ratios of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were prepared with the objective of determining their suitability as biomaterials. In the unfilled state, a blend of 50/50 (HDPE/UHMWPE) ratio by weight was found to yield optimum properties in terms of processability and mechanical properties. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was compounded with the optimum blend ratio. The effects of HA loading, varied from 0 to 50wt% for both filled and unfilled blends were tested for mechanical properties. It was found that the inclusion of HA in the blend led to a remarkable improvement of mechanical properties compared to the unfilled blend. In order to improve the bonding between the polymer blend and the filler, the HA used was chemically treated with a coupling agent known as 3-(trimethoxysiyl) propyl methacrylate and the treated HA was mixed into the blend. The effect of mixing the blend with silane-treated HA also led to an overall improvement of mechanical properties.
There is a great demand of Hydroxyapatite (HA) material in Orthopaedics and Dental applications due to its similarity to human bone. However, the lack of availability and due to high import cost of this material in Malaysia, research in producing synthetic HA locally is therefore timely. The use of local resources as the raw materials for the production of HA is also desirable in reducing the overall cost of HA. In this study, two HA materials were synthesised from different starting precursors, i.e. commercial pure Ca(OH)2 (HAS) and Ca(OH)2 directly from a local natural limestone deposit (HAL). Whereas a commercially available HA "Captal 60" (HAC) was used as reference. The synthesised powders obtained were fired at 1000 degrees C and at 1250 degrees C. Characterisation evaluations on bulk properties were carried out using XRD, SEM-EDX, ICP and FTIR. The results indicate that both HAS and HAL are comparable to HAC even at 1000 degrees C. Thus, the local natural limestone can be used to form HA. However, the overall appearance of these materials are quite different (HAC - blue, HAS - greenish and HAL - light green). The reasons for this and the subsequent mechanical and bioactive effects of these materials are currently being investigated.
The paper presents a method of producing synthetic Hydroxyapatite (HA) Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and other apatites for biological use by solid-state reaction. The solid-state reaction involves mix-grinding dry powders of beta-tricalcium phosphate powder (TCP) and either calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or combination thereof, from pure commercial chemicals or derived from natural limestone or from seashells, of total calcium/phosphorus molar ratio between 1.5 to 2.0, to particle size of less than 10 microns, and firing the resultant powder to temperature between 600 degrees C - 1250 degrees C in atmosphere or in controlled atmospheric condition. The resultant apatites formed were characterised using XRD, SEM-EDX and FTIR. The presented reaction process was found to be much simpler compared to conventional methods of producing synthetic apatites since it involves only dry mix-grinding of the reactants before firing at high temperatures based on the required levels of purity. It can also produce synthetic apatites with good reproducibility in a shorter time. Thus the presented method has a great industrial value.
Various proportions of chitosan/collagen films (70/30% to 95/05%) w/w were prepared and evaluated for its suitability as skin regenerating scaffold. Interactions between chitosan and collagen were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the blend. Mechanical properties were evaluated using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The chitosan/collagen films were found to swell proportionally with time until it reaches equilibrium. FTIR spectroscopy indicated no chemical interaction between the components of the blends. DSC data indicated only one peak proving that these two materials are compatible at all proportions investigated. SEM micrographs also indicated good homogeneity between these two materials.
Ayurveda oil contains numerous source of biological constituents which plays an important role in reducing the pain relief caused during bone fracture. The aim of the study is to fabricate the polyurethane (PU) scaffold for bone tissue engineering added with ayurveda amla oil using electrospinning technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (758 ± 185.46 nm) than the pristine PU (890 ± 116.91 nm). Fourier Infrared Analysis (FTIR) revealed the existence of amla oil in the PU matrix by hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle results revealed the decreased wettability (116° ± 1.528) of the prepared nanocomposites compared to the pure PU (100° ± 0.5774). The incorporation of amla oil into the PU matrix improved the surface roughness. Further, the coagulation assay indicated that the addition of amla oil into PU delayed the blood clotting times and exhibited less toxic to red blood cells. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites showed enhanced physicochemical and better blood compatibility parameters which may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
Nanotechnology is seeing higher propensity in various industries, including food and bioactives. New nanomaterials are constantly being developed from both natural biodegradable polymers of plant and animal origins such as polysaccharides and derivatives, peptides and proteins, lipids and fats, and biocompatible synthetic biopolyester polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA), and polycaprolactone (PCL). Applications in food industries include molecular synthesis of new functional food compounds, innovative food packaging, food safety, and security monitoring. The relevance of bioactives includes targeted delivery systems with improved bioavailability using nanostructure vehicles such as association colloids, lipid based nanoencapsulator, nanoemulsions, biopolymeric nanoparticles, nanolaminates, and nanofibers. The extensive use of nanotechnology has led to the need for parallel safety assessment and regulations to protect public health and adverse effects to the environment. This review covers the use of biopolymers in the production of nanomaterials and the propensity of nanotechnology in food and bioactives. The exposure routes of nanoparticles, safety challenges, and measures undertaken to ensure optimal benefits that outweigh detriments are also discussed.
A mixture with different compositions of HA and TCP were synthesize in this work by precipitation method using Ca(NO3)2 4H2 and (NH4)2HPO4 as the starting materials. A mixture with HA and TCP phases in different ratios were produced. The powders were sintered from 1000 degrees C to 1250 degrees C. The phase compositions of the mixtures were then studied via XRD. This work shows that the pH value determines the different phase compositions of the HA-TCP mixture. Chemical analyses were carried out by FTIR. The microstructure was observed under SEM.