Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 153 in total

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  1. Trache D, Hussin MH, Hui Chuin CT, Sabar S, Fazita MR, Taiwo OF, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Dec;93(Pt A):789-804.
    PMID: 27645920 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.056
    Considering its widespread usage in various fields, such as food, pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic and polymer composites industries, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is becoming impellent due to increasing demand of alternatives to non-renewable and scarce fossil materials. Although it still suffers from some drawbacks, MCC has recently gained more interest owing to its renewability, non-toxicity, economic value, biodegradability, high mechanical properties, high surface area and biocompatibility. New sources, new isolation processes, and new treatments are currently under development to satisfy the increasing demand of producing new types of MCC-based materials on an industrial scale. Therefore, this review assembles the current knowledge on the isolation of MCC from different sources using various procedures, its characterization, and its application in bio-composites. Challenges and future opportunities of MCC-based composites are discussed as well as obstacles remaining for their extensive uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  2. Zianor Azrina ZA, Beg MDH, Rosli MY, Ramli R, Junadi N, Alam AKMM
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Apr 15;162:115-120.
    PMID: 28224888 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.035
    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  3. Kian LK, Jawaid M, Ariffin H, Karim Z
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Jul 15;114:54-63.
    PMID: 29551511 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.065
    Roselle fiber is a renewable and sustainable agricultural waste enriched with cellulose polysaccharides. The isolation of Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from roselle-derived microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an alternative approach to recover the agricultural roselle plant residue. In the present study, acid hydrolysis with different reaction time was carried out to degrade the roselle-derived MCC to form NCC. The characterizations of isolated NCC were conducted through Fourier Transform Infrared Ray (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). As evaluated from the performed morphological investigations, the needle-like shape NCC nanostructures were observed under TEM and AFM microscopy studies, while irregular rod-like shape of NCC was observed under FESEM analysis. With 60min hydrolysis time, XRD analysis demonstrated the highest NCC crystallinity degree with 79.5%. In thermal analysis by TGA and DSC, the shorter hydrolysis time tended to produce NCC with higher thermal stability. Thus, the isolated NCC from roselle-derived MCC has high potential to be used in application of pharmaceutical and biomedical fields for nanocomposite fabrication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  4. Karimi S, Tahir PM, Karimi A, Dufresne A, Abdulkhani A
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Jan 30;101:878-85.
    PMID: 24299851 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.09.106
    Cellulosic fibers from kenaf bast were isolated in three distinct stages. Initially raw kenaf bast fibers were subjected to an alkali pulping process. Then pulped fibers undergone a bleaching process and finally both pulped and bleached fibers were separated into their constituent nanoscale cellulosic fibers by mechanical shearing. The influence of each treatment on the chemical composition of fibers was investigated. Moreover morphology, functional groups, crystallinity, and thermal behavior of fiber hierarchy at different stages of purification were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Microscopy studies revealed that applied procedures successfully isolated nanoscale cellulosic fibers from both unbleached and bleached pulps. Chemical composition analysis and FTIR spectroscopy showed that lignin and hemicellulose were almost entirely removed by the applied treatments. XRD and TGA analyses demonstrated progressive enhancement of properties in fibers, hierarchically, in going from micro to nano scale. Interestingly no significant evolution was observed between obtained data of characterized ubnleached and bleached nanofibers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  5. Mohamed MA, W Salleh WN, Jaafar J, Mohd Hir ZA, Rosmi MS, Abd Mutalib M, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 08 01;146:166-73.
    PMID: 27112862 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.03.050
    Visible light driven C-doped mesoporous TiO2 (C-MTiO2) nanorods have been successfully synthesized through green, low cost, and facile approach by sol-gel bio-templating method using regenerated cellulose membrane (RCM) as nanoreactor. In this study, RCM was also responsible to provide in-situ carbon sources for resultant C-MTiO2 nanorods in acidified sol at low temperatures. The composition, crystallinity, surface area, morphological structure, and optical properties of C-MTiO2 nanorods, respectively, had been characterized using FTIR, XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption, TEM, UV-vis-NIR, and XPS spectroscopy. The results suggested that the growth of C-MTiO2 nanorods was promoted by the strong interaction between the hydroxyl groups of RCMs and titanium ion. Optical and XPS analysis confirmed that carbon presence in TiO2 nanorods were responsible for band-gap narrowing, which improved the visible light absorption capability. Photocatalytic activity measurements exhibited the capability of C-MTiO2 nanorods in degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution, with 96.6% degradation percentage under visible light irradiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  6. Chen YW, Lee HV, Abd Hamid SB
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Dec 15;178:57-68.
    PMID: 29050615 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.09.029
    For the first time, a highly efficient Cr(NO3)3 catalysis system was proposed for optimization the yield and crystallinity of nanocellulose end product. A five-level three-factor central composite design coupled with response surface methodology was employed to elucidate parameters interactions between three design factors, namely reaction temperature (x1), reaction time (x2) and concentration of Cr(NO3)3 (x3) over a broad range of process conditions and determine the effect on crystallinity index and product yield. The developed models predicted the maximum nanocellulose yield of 87% at optimum process conditions of 70.6°C, 1.48h, and 0.48M Cr(NO3)3. At these conditions, the obtained nanocellulose presented high crystallinity index (75.3%), spider-web-like interconnected network morphology with the average width of 31.2±14.3nm. In addition, the yielded nanocellulose rendered a higher thermal stability than that of original cellulosic source and expected to be widely used as reinforcement agent in bio-nanocomposites materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  7. Siva R, Valarmathi TN, Palanikumar K, Samrot AV
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Sep 15;244:116494.
    PMID: 32536404 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116494
    In recent days, there is an increasing use of green composites in composite manufacturing, where cellulosic natural fibers have been started using for this purpose. In line with this, a novel cellulose fiber was extracted from the Kigelia africana fruit and its physical, chemical and thermal properties, crystallography and surface morphology analysis were studied and reported in this investigative research paper. The physical analysis revealed the mean tensile strength as 50.31 ± 24.71 to 73.12 ± 32.48 MPa, diameter as 0.507 ± 0.162 to 0.629 ± 0.182 mm and density as 1.316 g/cm³ for the Kigelia africana fiber. The proximate chemical analysis estimated the cellulose percentage to be 61.5 % and the existence of different basic components like cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis establishes the thermal stability of the fiber as 212 ⁰C. The crystallinity index, 57.38 % of the fiber was determined by X-ray diffraction. Surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy reveals the presence of protrusions in fiber which aid in the better adhesion with the matrix in composite manufacturing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  8. Danial WH, Abdul Majid Z, Mohd Muhid MN, Triwahyono S, Bakar MB, Ramli Z
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Mar 15;118:165-9.
    PMID: 25542122 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.10.072
    The study reports on the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from wastepaper, as an environmental friendly approach of source material, which can be a high availability and low-cost precursor for cellulose nanomaterial processing. Alkali and bleaching treatments were employed for the extraction of cellulose particles followed by controlled-conditions of acid hydrolysis for the isolation of CNCs. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was used to analyze the cellulose particles extracted while Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of CNCs. The diameters of CNCs are in the range of 3-10nm with a length of 100-300nm while a crystallinity index of 75.9% was determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. The synthesis of this high aspect ratio of CNCs paves the way toward alternative reuse of wastepaper in the production of CNCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  9. John J, Ann Mani S, Palaniswamy K, Ramanathan A, Razak AA
    J Prosthodont, 2015 Apr;24(3):233-8.
    PMID: 24976147 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12191
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the flexural properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) reinforced with oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The flexural strength and flexural modulus of three OPEFB fiber-reinforced PMMA were compared with a conventional and a commercially available reinforced PMMA. The three test groups included OPEFB fibers of 0.5 mm thickness, 2.0 mm thickness, and OPEFB cellulose.

    RESULTS: All test group specimens demonstrated improved flexural strength and flexural modulus over conventional PMMA. Reinforcement with OPEFB cellulose showed the highest mean flexural strength and flexural modulus, which were statistically significant when compared to the conventional and commercially reinforced PMMA used in this study. OPEFB fiber in the form of cellulose and 0.5 mm thickness fiber significantly improved flexural strength and flexural modulus of conventional PMMA resin. Further investigation on the properties of PMMA reinforced with OPEFB cellulose is warranted.

    CONCLUSIONS: Natural OPEFB fibers, especially OPEFB in cellulose form, can be considered a viable alternative to existing commercially available synthetic fiber reinforced PMMA resin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  10. Sulaiman AZ, Ajit A, Chisti Y
    Biotechnol Prog, 2013 Nov-Dec;29(6):1448-57.
    PMID: 23926080 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.1786
    A recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellulase was used for the ultrasound-mediated hydrolysis of soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and insoluble cellulose of various particle sizes. The hydrolysis was carried out at low intensity sonication (2.4-11.8 W cm(-2) sonication power at the tip of the sonotrode) using 10, 20, and 40% duty cycles. [A duty cycle of 10%, for example, was obtained by sonicating for 1 s followed by a rest period (no sonication) of 9 s.] The reaction pH and temperature were always 4.8 and 50°C, respectively. In all cases, sonication enhanced the rate of hydrolysis relative to nonsonicated controls. The hydrolysis of CMC was characterized by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten parameter of the maximum reaction rate Vmax was enhanced by sonication relative to controls, but the value of the saturation constant Km was reduced. The optimal sonication conditions were found to be a 10% duty cycle and a power intensity of 11.8 W cm(-2) . Under these conditions, the maximum rate of hydrolysis of soluble CMC was nearly double relative to control. In the hydrolysis of cellulose, an increasing particle size reduced the rate of hydrolysis. At any fixed particle size, sonication at a 10% duty cycle and 11.8 W cm(-2) power intensity improved the rate of hydrolysis relative to control. Under the above mentioned optimal sonication conditions, the enzyme lost about 20% of its initial activity in 20 min. Sonication was useful in accelerating the enzyme catalyzed saccharification of cellulose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  11. H P S AK, Saurabh CK, A S A, Nurul Fazita MR, Syakir MI, Davoudpour Y, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Oct 05;150:216-26.
    PMID: 27312632 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.05.028
    Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polymers in world and it is used for the production of chitosan by deacetylation. Chitosan is antibacterial in nature, non-toxic, and biodegradable thus it can be used for the production of biodegradable film which is a green alternative to commercially available synthetic counterparts. However, their poor mechanical and thermal properties restricted its wide spread applications. Chitosan is highly compatible with other biopolymers thus its blending with cellulose and/or incorporation of nanofiber isolated from cellulose namely cellulose nanofiber and cellulose nanowhiskers are generally useful. Cellulosic fibers in nano scale are attractive reinforcement in chitosan to produce environmental friendly composite films with improved physical properties. Thus chitosan based composites have wide applicability and potential in the field of biomedical, packaging and water treatment. This review summarises properties and preparation procedure of chitosan-cellulose blends and nano size cellulose reinforcement in chitosan bionanocomposites for different applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  12. Xiang LY, P Mohammed MA, Samsu Baharuddin A
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 09 05;148:11-20.
    PMID: 27185110 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.04.055
    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) extracted from empty fruit bunches (EFB), stalk and spikelet were characterised through physicochemical and microstructure analyses. Raw stalk fibres yielded the highest cellulose content (42.43%), followed by EFB (32.33%) and spikelet (18.83%). Likewise, lowest lignin and residual oil content was reported in raw stalk fibres compared to EFB and spikelet. SEM revealed significant changes on fibres' surface morphology throughout the extraction process. FTIR analysis showed that main characteristic peaks of hemicellulose and lignin was absent on the extracted MCC. The crystallinity index for MCC extracted from EFB (82.5%), stalk (82.2%) and spikelet (86.5%) was comparable to commercial MCC (81.9%). Results suggested stalk fibres is more preferable for the production of MCC compared to EFB and spikelet. Further rheological studies showed viscoelastic behaviour with no significant differences between commercial and stalk-based MCC, while modelling work showed ability to simulate complex deformation of the MCC-hydrogel/food mixture during processing/handling stage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  13. Chen YW, Lee HV, Juan JC, Phang SM
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Oct 20;151:1210-1219.
    PMID: 27474672 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.06.083
    Nanocellulose was successfully isolated from Gelidium elegans red algae marine biomass. The red algae fiber was treated in three stages namely alkalization, bleaching treatment and acid hydrolysis treatment. Morphological analysis was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results revealed that the isolated nanocellulose had the average diameter and length of 21.8±11.1nm and of 547.3±23.7nm, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy proved that the non-cellulosic polysaccharides components were progressively removed during the chemically treatment, and the final derived materials composed of cellulose parent molecular structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that the crystallinity of yielded product had been improved after each successive treatments subjected to the treated fiber. The prepared nano-dimensional cellulose demonstrated a network-like structure with higher crystallinity (73%) than that of untreated fiber (33%), and possessed of good thermal stability which is suitable for nanocomposite material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  14. Saba N, Safwan A, Sanyang ML, Mohammad F, Pervaiz M, Jawaid M, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Sep;102:822-828.
    PMID: 28455253 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.04.074
    The current study presents about the effect of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) filler on the thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of epoxy composites as a function of temperature. In this study hand lay-up method was used to fabricate CNF reinforced Epoxy nanocomposites with CNF loading of 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% into epoxy resin. The obtained thermal and DMA results illustrates that thermal stability, char content, storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E") and glass transition temperature (Tg) increases for all CNF/epoxy nanocomposites compared to the pure epoxy. Thermal results revealed that 0.75% offers superior resistance or stability towards heat compared to its counterparts. In addition, 0.75% CNF/epoxy nanocomposites confers highest value of storage modulus as compared to 0.5% and 1% filler loading. Hence, it is concluded that 0.75% CNFs loading is the minimal to enhance both thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of the epoxy composites and can be utilized for advance material applications where thermal stability along with renewability are prime requirements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  15. Kian LK, Jawaid M, Ariffin H, Alothman OY
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Oct;103:931-940.
    PMID: 28549863 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.05.135
    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from roselle fiber through acid hydrolysis treatment and its properties were compared with those of commercially available MCC. The physicochemical and morphological characteristics, elemental composition, size distribution, crystallinity and thermal properties of the obtained MCC were analyzed in this work. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided clear evidence that the characteristic peak of lignin was absent in the spectrum of the MCC prepared from roselle fiber. Rough surface and slight aggregation of MCC were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that pure MCC with small quantities of residues and impurities was obtained, with a similar elemental composition to that of commercial MCC. A mean diameter of approximately 44.28μm was measured for MCC by using a particle size analyzer (PSA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the crystallinity increased from 63% in roselle pulp to 78% in roselle MCC, the latter having a slightly higher crystallinity than that of commercial MCC (74%). TGA and DSC results indicated that the roselle MCC had better thermal stability than the roselle pulp, whereas it had poorer thermal stability in comparison with commercial MCC. Thus, the isolated MCC from roselle fibers will be going to use as reinforcing element in green composites and may be a precursor for future roselle derived nanocellulose, and thus a promising subject in nanocomposite research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  16. Kian LK, Saba N, Jawaid M, Sultan MTH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Jan;121:1314-1328.
    PMID: 30208300 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.040
    The utilization of nanocellulose has increasingly gained attentions from various research fields, especially the field of polymer nanocomposites owing to the growing environmental hazardous of petroleum based fiber products. Meanwhile, the searching of alternative cellulose sources from different plants has become the interests for producing nanocellulose with varying characterizations that expectedly suit in specific field of applications. In this content the long and strong bast fibers from plant species was gradually getting its remarkable position in the field of nanocellulose extraction and nanocomposites fabrications. This review article intended to present an overview of the chemical structure of cellulose, different types of nanocellulose, bast fibers compositions, structure, polylactic acid (PLA) and the most probable processing techniques on the developments of nanocellulose from different bast fibers especially jute, kenaf, hemp, flax, ramie and roselle and its nanocomposites. This article however more focused on the fabrication of PLA based nanocomposites due to its high firmness, biodegradability and sustainability properties in developed products towards the environment. Along with this it also explored a couple of issues to improve the processing techniques of bast fibers nanocellulose and its reinforcement in the PLA biopolymer as final products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  17. Dasan YK, Bhat AH, Ahmad F
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Feb 10;157:1323-1332.
    PMID: 27987839 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.11.012
    The current research discusses the development of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) reinforced nanocrystalline cellulose bionanocomposites. The nanocrystalline cellulose was derived from waste oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber by acid hydrolysis process. The resulting nanocrystalline cellulose suspension was then surface functionalized by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and solvent exchange process. Furthermore, the PLA/PHBV/nanocrystalline cellulose bionanocomposites were produced by solvent casting method. The effect of the addition of nanocrystalline cellulose on structural, morphology, mechanical and barrier properties of bionanocomposites was investigated. The results revealed that the developed bionanocomposites showed improved mechanical properties and decrease in oxygen permeability rate. Therefore, the developed bio-based composite incorporated with an optimal composition of nanocrystalline cellulose exhibits properties as compared to the polymer blend.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  18. Mandal BH, Rahman ML, Yusoff MM, Chong KF, Sarkar SM
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Jan 20;156:175-181.
    PMID: 27842811 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.09.021
    Corn-cob cellulose supported poly(hydroxamic acid) Cu(II) complex was prepared by the surface modification of waste corn-cob cellulose through graft copolymerization and subsequent hydroximation. The complex was characterized by IR, UV, FESEM, TEM, XPS, EDX and ICP-AES analyses. The complex has been found to be an efficient catalyst for 1,3-dipolar Huisgen cycloaddition (CuAAC) of aryl/alkyl azides with a variety of alkynes as well as one-pot three-components reaction in the presence of sodium ascorbate to give the corresponding cycloaddition products in up to 96% yield and high turn over number (TON 18,600) and turn over frequency (TOF 930h-1) were achieved. The complex was easy to recover from the reaction mixture and reused six times without significant loss of its catalytic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  19. Krishnasamy S, Thiagamani SMK, Muthu Kumar C, Nagarajan R, R M S, Siengchin S, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Dec 01;141:1-13.
    PMID: 31472211 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.231
    Bio-composites are easy to manufacture and environmentally friendly, could reduce the overall cost and provide lightweight due to the low density of the natural fibers. In a bid to compete with the synthetic fiber reinforced composites, a single natural fiber composite may not be a good choice to obtain optimal properties. Hence, hybrid composites are produced by adding two or more natural fibers together to obtain improved properties, such as mechanical, physical, thermal, water absorption, acoustic and dynamic, among others. Regarding thermal stability, the composites showed a significant change by varying the individual fiber compositions, fiber surface treatments, addition of fillers and coupling agents. The glass transition temperature and melting point obtained from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are not the same values for several hybrid composites, since the volume variation was not always parallel with the enthalpy change. However, the difference between the temperature calculated from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry was lower. Significantly, this critical reviewed study has a potential of guiding all composite designers, manufacturers and users on right selection of composite materials for thermal applications, such as engine components (covers), heat shields and brake ducts, among others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry*
  20. Lee CBTL, Wu TY, Ting CH, Tan JK, Siow LF, Cheng CK, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Apr;278:486-489.
    PMID: 30711220 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.12.034
    The performances of various anhydrous and aqueous choline chloride-dicarboxylic acid based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were evaluated for furfural production from oil palm fronds without any additional catalyst. The effects of different carbon chain length dicarboxylic acids and water content in each DES on furfural production were investigated. Oil palm fronds, DES and water (0-5 ml) were mixed and reacted in an oil bath (60-300 min). Reacted oil palm fronds had the potential to be reused as cellulose-rich-valuable by-products. At 100 °C, aqueous choline chloride-oxalic acid (16.4 wt% H2O) produced the highest furfural yield of 26.34% and cellulose composition up to 72.79% in the reacted oil palm fronds. Despite operating at suitable reaction duration for dicarboxylic acid with longer carbon chain length, aqueous choline chloride-malonic acid and aqueous choline chloride-succinic acid performed poorly with furfural yield of less than 1%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/chemistry
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