Displaying all 15 publications

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  1. Khan SA, Omar H
    Telemed J E Health, 2013 Jul;19(7):565-7.
    PMID: 23672799 DOI: 10.1089/tmj.2012.0200
    Teledentistry can be defined as the remote provision of dental care, advice, or treatment through the medium of information technology, rather than through direct personal contact with any patient(s) involved. Within dental practice, teledentistry is used extensively in disciplines like preventive dentistry, orthodontics, endodontics, oral surgery, periodontal conditions, detection of early dental caries, patient education, oral medicine, and diagnosis. Some of the key modes and methods used in teledentistry are electronic health records, electronic referral systems, digitizing images, teleconsultations, and telediagnosis. All the applications used in teledentistry aim to bring about efficiency, provide access to underserved population, improve quality of care, and reduce oral disease burden.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentistry/methods*
  2. Chidambaram R
    JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc, 2016 12 10;54(201):46-54.
    PMID: 27935913
    Forensic odontology is a sub-discipline of dental science which involves the relationship between dentistry and the law. The specialty of forensic odontology is applied in radiographic investigation, human bite marks analysis, anthropologic examination and during mass disasters. Besides the fact that radiographs require pretentious laboratory, it is still claimed to be a facile, rapid, non-invasive method of age identification in the deceased. The budding DNA technology has conquered the traditional procedures and currently being contemplated as chief investigating tool in revealing the hidden mysteries of victims and suspects, especially in hopeless circumstances. Forensic odontology has played a chief role in solving cold cases and proved to be strong evidence in the court of law. Systematic collection of dental records and preservation of the same would marshal the legal officials in identification of the deceased. To serve the forensic operation and legal authorities, dental professionals need to be familiar with the basics of forensic odontology, which would create a consciousness to preserve the dental data. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the vital applications of forensic odontology in medico-legal issues. Conjointly the recent advancements applied in forensic human identification have been updated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Dentistry/methods*
  3. Nambiar P, Carson G, Taylor JA, Brown KA
    J Forensic Odontostomatol, 2001 Jun;19(1):5-8.
    PMID: 11494677
    A wad of used chewing gum recovered from the scene of a burglary contained impressions of human teeth. Casts of these impressions displayed unique morphological characteristics which were found to show concordance with corresponding features present on casts of the posterior teeth of a suspect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Dentistry/methods*
  4. Mayya A, Eachempati P, Nagraj SK, Kumar K
    BMJ Case Rep, 2020 Jun 09;13(6).
    PMID: 32522723 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2020-234297
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentistry/methods
  5. Ahmed N, Abbasi MS, Zuberi F, Qamar W, Halim MSB, Maqsood A, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:9751564.
    PMID: 34258283 DOI: 10.1155/2021/9751564
    Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the quality and outcome of studies into artificial intelligence techniques, analysis, and effect in dentistry.

    Materials and Methods: Using the MeSH keywords: artificial intelligence (AI), dentistry, AI in dentistry, neural networks and dentistry, machine learning, AI dental imaging, and AI treatment recommendations and dentistry. Two investigators performed an electronic search in 5 databases: PubMed/MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), Scopus (Elsevier), ScienceDirect databases (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), and the Cochrane Collaboration (Wiley). The English language articles reporting on AI in different dental specialties were screened for eligibility. Thirty-two full-text articles were selected and systematically analyzed according to a predefined inclusion criterion. These articles were analyzed as per a specific research question, and the relevant data based on article general characteristics, study and control groups, assessment methods, outcomes, and quality assessment were extracted.

    Results: The initial search identified 175 articles related to AI in dentistry based on the title and abstracts. The full text of 38 articles was assessed for eligibility to exclude studies not fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Six articles not related to AI in dentistry were excluded. Thirty-two articles were included in the systematic review. It was revealed that AI provides accurate patient management, dental diagnosis, prediction, and decision making. Artificial intelligence appeared as a reliable modality to enhance future implications in the various fields of dentistry, i.e., diagnostic dentistry, patient management, head and neck cancer, restorative dentistry, prosthetic dental sciences, orthodontics, radiology, and periodontics.

    Conclusion: The included studies describe that AI is a reliable tool to make dental care smooth, better, time-saving, and economical for practitioners. AI benefits them in fulfilling patient demand and expectations. The dentists can use AI to ensure quality treatment, better oral health care outcome, and achieve precision. AI can help to predict failures in clinical scenarios and depict reliable solutions. However, AI is increasing the scope of state-of-the-art models in dentistry but is still under development. Further studies are required to assess the clinical performance of AI techniques in dentistry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentistry/methods*
  6. Nik-Hussein NN, Kee KM, Gan P
    Forensic Sci Int, 2011 Jan 30;204(1-3):208.e1-6.
    PMID: 20869825 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.08.020
    BACKGROUND: One of the most commonly used method for dental age assessment is the method reported by Demirjian and coworkers in 1973. It was later modified by Willems and coworkers whereby they “performed a weighted ANOVA” in order to adapt the scoring system.
    AIM: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian and Willems methods for dental age estimation for Malaysian children and to correlate the accuracy of the findings with the chronology of tooth development of premolars and second molars.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 991 dental panoramic radiographs of 5-15-year-old Malaysian children were included in the study. The mean Demirjian and Willems estimated ages were compared to the mean chronological age.
    RESULTS: The mean chronological age of the sample was 10.1±2.8 and 9.9±3.0 years for males and females respectively. Using the Demirjian method, the mean estimated dental age was 10.8±2.9 years for males and 10.5±2.9 years for females. For Willems method, the mean estimated age was 10.3±2.8 years males and 10.0±3.0 years respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Willems method was more applicable for estimating dental age for Malaysian children. Overestimation in Demirjian method could be due to advanced development of second bicuspids and molars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Dentistry/methods
  7. Chidambaram R
    PMID: 26220069
    Chronic kidney disease, (CKD) a gradual and inevitable deterioration in renal function, is the disease with the most associations in dentistry. Dosage adjustment is one amongst the vital elements to be familiar with during their oral care. CKD patients take extended duration to filter out medications, therefore dosage must always be tailored under the supervision of nephrologist. The relished benefits from antibiotic could transform as anti-microbial resistance on their abuse and nephrotoxic when contraindicated drugs are encouraged. New patented drug belonging to oxazoliodine group has driven the researchers to handle the emerging AMR. The present communication discusses the pharmacological factors influencing in prescribing the antibiotics for CKD patient from the dentist's point of view. The formulas destined for calculating the optimal dosage of antibiotics have been documented to aid oral physicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentistry/methods*
  8. Subhan R, Ismail WA, Musharraf S, Khan M, Hafeez R, Alam MK
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:8757859.
    PMID: 34540998 DOI: 10.1155/2021/8757859
    The current scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic has forced dentists to seek different options for delivering healthcare services other than the in-person direct examination in clinical practice. Teledentistry is one of the options for remote patient care and monitoring. Objective. The present survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and perception of the dentists in Pakistan regarding teledentistry as an emergent supportive tool. Materials and Methods. A self-administered, close-ended, and prevalidated survey questionnaire was used, comprising 21 questions, and distributed electronically via e-mail, WhatsApp, and Facebook Messenger to evaluate the knowledge and perception of dentists regarding teledentistry. The data collected was compiled in a systematic manner and analyzed in terms of frequency (yes/no). Results. Out of a total of 350 dentists, 325 responded to the questionnaire, and it was seen that 62.5% of them did not have knowledge about teledentistry prior to COVID-19. 65.8% of dentists considered the practice of teledentistry in nonpandemic situations in the future. Conclusion. In the present study, it was observed that most of the dental professionals had inadequate knowledge about teledentistry before COVID-19, but the awareness and perception regarding teledentistry were currently satisfactory among the dental professionals in Pakistan. This emerging trend gives a positive hope for the implementation of teledentistry in the healthcare setup of Pakistan in the near future, as it will prove to be beneficial for safe dental practice during times of pandemic and even after.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentistry/methods*
  9. Maqsood A, Sadiq MSK, Mirza D, Ahmed N, Lal A, Alam MK, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:5437237.
    PMID: 34845437 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5437237
    Objective: The present study was aimed at assessing the impact of teledentistry, its application, and trends in uplifting dental practice and clinical care around the world. Material and Methods. The present observational study comprised of an electronic survey distributed among dental professionals around the globe. The validated survey form consisted of a total 26 questions with 5-point Likert scale response. The questionnaire used was divided into four domains: usefulness of teledentistry for patients, its usefulness in dental practice, its capacity to improve the existing practice, and the concerns attached to its use. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-25. ANOVA test was used to assess the effect of independent variables on dependent variables. A p value of ≤0.05 was taken as statistically significant.

    Results: A total of 506 dental professionals participated in the study with the response rate of 89.39%. More than half of the participants (50-75%) endorsed that teledentistry is a useful tool for improving clinical practice as well as patient care. Two-thirds of the participants (69.96%) considered that teledentistry would reduce cost for the dental practices. On the other hand, about 50-70% of dental professionals expressed their concerns regarding the security of the data and consent of patients. The most preferred communication tool for teledentistry was reported to be videoconference followed by phone. The majority of participants recommended the use of teledentistry in the specialty of oral medicine, operative dentistry, and periodontics. There was a significant difference between the age, experience of dentists, and their qualifications with domains of teledentistry.

    Conclusions: The overall impact of dental professionals towards teledentistry was positive with adequate willingness to incorporate this modality in their clinical practice. However, the perceived concerns pertaining to teledentistry are significant impediments towards its integration within the oral health system. An in-depth study of its business model and cost-benefit needs of time, especially in the context of developing countries, in order to avail the optimum benefits of teledentistry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentistry/methods*
  10. Mohd Nor NH, Berahim Z, Azlina A, Mokhtar KI, Kannan TP
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017;12(8):675-681.
    PMID: 28969579 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X12666170929124621
    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are the common cells used in clinical regenerative medicine and dentistry. These cells are known to appear heterogeneous in vivo. Previous studies have only investigated the biological properties of these cell subpopulations in vitro. Despite sharing similarity in their spindle-shaped appearance, previous literatures revealed that they play distinguished functional and biological activities in the body.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper highlights the similarities and differences among these cell subpopulations, particularly between intraoral fibroblasts (human periodontal ligament, gingival and oral mucosa fibroblasts) and dermal fibroblasts based on several factors including their morphology, growth and proliferation rate.

    RESULTS: It could be suggested that each subpopulation of fibroblasts demonstrate different positionspecified gene signatures and responses towards extracellular signals. These dissimilarities are crucial to be taken into consideration to employ specific methodologies in stimulating these cells in vivo.

    CONCLUSION: A comparison of the characteristics of these cell subpopulations is desired for identifying appropriate cellular applications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentistry/methods
  11. Othman N, Razak IA
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2010 Oct;22(4):415-25.
    PMID: 20462854 DOI: 10.1177/1010539510370794
    Feedback on satisfaction with dental care is vital for continuous improvement of the service delivery process and outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction with school dental service (SDS) provided via mobile dental squads in Selangor, Malaysia, under 4 domains of satisfaction: patient-personnel interaction, technical competency, administrative efficiency, and clinic setup using self-administered questionnaires. Among the 607 participants who had received treatment, 62% were satisfied with the services provided. In terms of domains, technical competency achieved the highest satisfaction score, whereas clinic setup was ranked the lowest. As for items within the domains, the most acceptable was "dental operator did not ask personal things which were not dentally related," whereas privacy of treatment was the least acceptable. In conclusion, whereas children were generally satisfied with the SDS, this study indicates that there are still areas for further improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: School Dentistry/methods
  12. Nambiar P, Yaacob H, Menon R
    J Forensic Odontostomatol, 1996 Dec;14(2):30-3.
    PMID: 9227080
    Teeth are the most durable structures in the human body. The timing and sequence of their development, as contained in dental development charts, have been used as valid criteria for age determination. The third molars however are the last teeth to erupt and are regarded as the most variable in the dentition. Age estimation in a legal context, using developing third molars must be carefully applied otherwise justice may miscarry. A case of wrongful use of the technique is presented here.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Dentistry/methods*
  13. Arora A, Khattri S, Ismail NM, Kumbargere Nagraj S, Eachempati P
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019 08 08;8:CD012595.
    PMID: 31425627 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012595.pub3
    BACKGROUND: School dental screening refers to visual inspection of children's oral cavity in a school setting followed by making parents aware of their child's current oral health status and treatment needs. Screening at school intends to identify children at an earlier stage than symptomatic disease presentation, hence prompting preventive and therapeutic oral health care for the children. This review evaluates the effectiveness of school dental screening in improving oral health status. It is an update of the original review, which was first published in December 2017.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of school dental screening programmes on overall oral health status and use of dental services.

    SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 4 March 2019), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Register of Studies, to 4 March 2019), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 4 March 2019), and Embase Ovid (15 September 2016 to 4 March 2019). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status when searching the electronic databases; however, the search of Embase was restricted to the last six months due to the Cochrane Centralised Search Project to identify all clinical trials and add them to CENTRAL.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (cluster or parallel) that evaluated school dental screening compared with no intervention or with one type of screening compared with another.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials (five were cluster-RCTs) with 20,192 children who were 4 to 15 years of age. Trials assessed follow-up periods of three to eight months. Four trials were conducted in the UK, two were based in India and one in the USA. We assessed two trials to be at low risk of bias, two trials to be at high risk of bias and three trials to be at unclear risk of bias.None of the trials had long-term follow-up to ascertain the lasting effects of school dental screening.None of the trials reported the proportion of children with untreated caries or other oral diseases, cost effectiveness or adverse events.Four trials evaluated traditional screening versus no screening. We performed a meta-analysis for the outcome 'dental attendance' and found an inconclusive result with high heterogeneity. The heterogeneity was found to be, in part, due to study design (three cluster-RCTs and one individual-level RCT). Due to the inconsistency, we downgraded the evidence to 'very low certainty' and are unable to draw conclusions about this comparison.Two cluster-RCTs (both four-arm trials) evaluated criteria-based screening versus no screening and showed a pooled effect estimate of RR 1.07 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.16), suggesting a possible benefit for screening (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference when criteria-based screening was compared to traditional screening (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.08) (very low-certainty evidence).In one trial, a specific (personalised) referral letter was compared to a non-specific one. Results favoured the specific referral letter with an effect estimate of RR 1.39 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.77) for attendance at general dentist services and effect estimate of RR 1.90 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.06) for attendance at specialist orthodontist services (low-certainty evidence).One trial compared screening supplemented with motivation to screening alone. Dental attendance was more likely after screening supplemented with motivation, with an effect estimate of RR 3.08 (95% CI 2.57 to 3.71) (low-certainty evidence).Only one trial reported the proportion of children with treated dental caries. This trial evaluated a post screening referral letter based on the common-sense model of self-regulation (a theoretical framework that explains how people understand and respond to threats to their health), with or without a dental information guide, compared to a standard referral letter. The findings were inconclusive. Due to high risk of bias, indirectness and imprecision, we assessed the evidence as very low certainty.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The trials included in this review evaluated short-term effects of screening. We found very low-certainty evidence that is insufficient to allow us to draw conclusions about whether there is a role for traditional school dental screening in improving dental attendance. For criteria-based screening, we found low-certainty evidence that it may improve dental attendance when compared to no screening. However, when compared to traditional screening, there is no evidence of a difference in dental attendance (very low-certainty evidence).We found low-certainty evidence to conclude that personalised or specific referral letters may improve dental attendance when compared to non-specific counterparts. We also found low-certainty evidence that screening supplemented with motivation (oral health education and offer of free treatment) may improve dental attendance in comparison to screening alone. For children requiring treatment, we found very-low certainty evidence that was inconclusive regarding whether or not a referral letter based on the 'common-sense model of self-regulation' was better than a standard referral letter.We did not find any trials addressing possible adverse effects of school dental screening or evaluating its effectiveness for improving oral health.

    Matched MeSH terms: School Dentistry/methods*
  14. Haron N, Zain RB, Nabillah WM, Saleh A, Kallarakkal TG, Ramanathan A, et al.
    Telemed J E Health, 2017 03;23(3):192-199.
    PMID: 27541205 DOI: 10.1089/tmj.2016.0128
    INTRODUCTION: This study examined the concordance in clinical diagnosis of high-risk lesions in the oral cavity and referral decisions between clinical oral examination (COE) and teledentistry.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen individuals with a range of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and normal oral mucosa were included. Five areas of the oral cavity were photographed by three dentists using mobile phone cameras with 5 MP-13 MP resolutions. On the same day, the patients were given COE by two oral medicine specialists (OMS) and 3 weeks later, they reviewed the images taken using the phone, and concordance was examined between the two by Kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis using the phone images were also measured. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were answered by both the dentists and the OMS to determine the feasibility of integrating teledentistry in their clinical practice.

    RESULTS: The Kappa values in determining the presence of lesion, category of lesion (OPMD or not), and making referral decision were moderate to strong (0.64-1.00). The overall sensitivity was more than 70% and specificity was 100%. The false negative rate decreased as the camera resolution increased. All dentists agreed that the process could facilitate early detection of oral mucosal lesion, and was easy to use in the clinic.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that teledentistry can be used for communication between primary care and OMS and could be readily integrated into clinical setting for patient management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentistry/methods*
  15. Yaacob H, Nambiar P, Naidu MD
    Malays J Pathol, 1996 Jun;18(1):1-7.
    PMID: 10879216
    Determining the racial affinity of an unknown individual from dentition for identification is indeed a difficult endeavour. However, there are certain dental characteristics which are predominant in certain racial groups and these contribute important indicators in the identification process. Inherited dental characteristics are modified by prenatal and postnatal environmental and nutritional conditions. They can also become less discernible due to admixture of the various races.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Dentistry/methods
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