The indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test done with turkey red cells was applied to 173 serum samples obtained from patients and persons exposed to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi in endemic areas of Peninsular Malaysia. A crude extract of adult worms of the rat filaria, Breinlia booliati, was used as the antigen. When a titer of 1:16 was taken as negative, positive IHA test rates in sera from microfilaria-negative persons in endemic areas, microfilaremic cases, and patients with clinical filariasis were 13%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Results of the IHA test correlated well with results obtained with the indirect fluorescent technique.
Accurate diagnosis of human filarial infections still remains a problem for clinicians and co-ordinators of filariasis control programs. Diagnosis of filariasis is based on parasitological, histopathological, clinical and immunological approaches. No significant advances have been made for the first three approaches although some refinements in their use and interpretation of results have occurred. For the immunological approach, intradermal tests and antibody detection assays using crude parasite extracts generally lack specificity and/or sensitivity to discriminate between past and present filarial infections in humans. Antigen detection assays would therefore provide a more accurate indication of active filarial infections. Several monoclonal antibodies to various stages of lymphatic filarial parasites have been developed and appear potentially useful for filarial antigen detection.
The indirect immunofluorescence test using sonicated microfilariae of Brugia malayi has been evaluated on 173 sera from patients and persons exposed to Wuchereria bancrofti and B. malayi in endemic areas of Peninsular Malaysia. In the microfilaria-negative group, without signs and symptoms of filariasis 55/62 sera (89%) had titers of 1:16 and less. In the microfilaremic groups and in the amicrofilaremic cases with clinical filariasis, all the sera tested were positive, with the antibody titers ranging generally from 1:16 - 1:256. Cross-reaction tests were done on 16 samples of onchocerciasis sera from West Africa using sonicated antigen as well as antigen-coated CNB1-activated sepharose. Antibody titers were detected in all the sera. The usefulness of the sonicated microfilarial antigen in serodiagnosis of filariasis is discussed.
Biotechnological tools are being used in malaria, filariasis and dengue research. The main emphasis has been on the production of reagents for immunodiagnosis and research. In this respect monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against various species and stages of the above pathogens have been produced. It is hoped that these McAbs will be useful not only in immunodiagnosis but also for seroepidemiological applications. A DNA probe against Brugia malayi has been tested in Malaysia and was found to be sensitive and specific.
Quantitation of serum immunoglobulin M, G, A, D and E levels was carried out in Malaysians with Brugia malayi infections. Results showed highly elevated levels of IgM and IgE as well as moderately elevated levels of IgG. These were most significant in patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or elephantiasis. Serum IgE levels were extremely high in microfilaraemic patients (6,060 +/- 3,958 IU ml) probably due to a constant antigenic stimulation by dead and dying microfilariae.
Laboratory strain of the Malaysian Culex quinquefasciatus was susceptible to Wuchereria bancrofti. Thirty three percent of the Cx. quinquefasciatus that fed on W. bancrofti patient were infective after 12-14 days. There is a possibility for W. bancrofti to occur in the urban areas of the Malaysia in the near future.
The blood filtration method was used as the gold standard to determine the detection level of simple blood-spot sampling and nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Brugia malayi. Of 100 samples, 48 were filtration-positive. Of these, 26 had microfilaria counts that were low enough (<1-29 microfilariae/ml) to accurately assess the limit of detection by nested-PCR. Nested-PCR consistently detected B. malayi DNA in samples with > or = 10 microfilariae/ml. Post-filtration, microfilaria-depleted, blood-spots from microfilaria-positive samples were screened by nested-PCR and B. malayi specific 'free' DNA was detected in 51.7% of these samples. There was no evidence for 'free' DNA in microfilaria-negative individuals from this endemic community.
Parasite infestation of the testicular tunica and spermatic cord by filariae are rarely reported and may present with few clinical signs, depending upon the stage. Occasionally, it may mimic a testicular tumor. We present a case of a 29-year-old man who presented with left testicular swelling and discomfort for 4 months. Clinical examination and imaging suggested an intrascrotal cystic lesion with a normal left testis. However, the intraoperative findings revealed a tumor-like mass; hence, a left orchidectomy was performed. However, histopathology reported a diagnosis of a cystic testicular tunica and spermatic cord with parasite infection. Here, we review the literature of scrotal and testicular parasite disease and discuss the course of the appropriate management involved.
A multicentre evaluation of the Brugia Rapid dipstick test was performed using 1263 serum samples in four international laboratories, i.e. T.D. Medical College (TDMC, India), National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA), Swiss Tropical Institute (STI, Switzerland) and Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC, Netherlands). In comparison with microscopy, the dipstick demonstrated sensitivities of 97.2% (70 of 72) at TDMC, 91.6% (175 of 191) at LUMC and 100% (six of six) at STI. Sera of chronic patients showed a positivity rate of 11.3% (19 of 168) and 61.2% (71of 116) at TDMC and LUMC, respectively. All 266 sera of non-endemic normals from STI, NIH and LUMC tested negative with the dipstick. At LUMC, sera of 'endemic normals' (amicrofilaraemics with no clinical disease) from an area with approximately 35% microfilaria positivity showed 60.8% positive results (31 of 51), thus demonstrating the likelihood of many cryptic infections occurring in this population. Specificities of the test with Onchocerca volvulus sera were 98.8% (80 of 81) and 100% (10 of 10) at the NIH and STI, respectively; while specificity with Loa loa sera at the NIH was 84.6% (44 of 52). At the STI, the dipstick test also demonstrated 100% specificity when tested with 75 sera from various protozoan and helminthic infections.
We conducted a field study of a rapid test (Brugia Rapid) for detection of Brugia malayi infection to validate its sensitivity and specificity under operational conditions. Seven districts in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, which are endemic for brugian filariasis, were used to determine the test sensitivity. Determination of specificity was performed in another state in Malaysia (Bachok, Kelantan) which is non-endemic for filariasis but endemic for soil-transmitted helminths. In Sarawak both the rapid test and thick blood smear preparation were performed in the field. The rapid test was interpreted on site, whereas blood smears were taken to the district health centres for staining and microscopic examination. Sensitivity of Brugia Rapid dipstick as compared with microscopy of thick blood smears was 87% (20/23; 95% CI: 66.4-97.2) whereas the specificity was 100% (512/512). The lower sensitivity of the test in the field than in laboratory evaluations (> or =95%), was probably due to the small number of microfilaraemic individuals, in addition to difficulties in performing the test in remote villages by field personnel. The overall prevalence of brugian filariasis as determined by the dipstick is 9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-0.5) while that determined by microscopy is 0.90% (95% CI: 0.5-1.3) thus the dipstick detected about 10 times more cases than microscopy. Equal percentages of adults and children were found to be positive by the dipstick whereas microscopy showed that the number of infected children was seven times less than infected adults. The rapid dipstick test was useful as a diagnostic tool for mapping and certification phases of the lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in B. malayi-endemic areas.
A total of 753 serum samples from 6 institutions in 3 countries (Malaysia, Indonesia and India) were used to evaluate an immunochromatographic rapid dipstick test, Brugia Rapid, for diagnosis of Brugia malayi infection. The samples comprised sera from 207 microfilaria-positive individuals and 546 individuals from filaria non-endemic areas. The latter consisted of 70 individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infections, 68 with other helminth infections, 238 with protozoan infections, 12 with bacterial and viral infections and 158 healthy individuals. The dipstick is prepared with a goat anti-mouse antibody control line and a B. malayi recombinant-antigen test line. First, the dipstick is dipped into a well containing diluted patient serum, thus allowing specific anti-filarial antibody in the serum to react with the recombinant antigen. Then the dipstick is placed into an adjacent well containing reconstituted anti-human IgG4-gold. After 10 min, development of 2 red-purplish lines denotes a positive result and one line indicates a negative reaction. The overall results of the evaluation showed 97% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 97% positive predictive value and 99% negative predictive value. Brugia Rapid is thus a promising diagnostic tool for detection of B. malayi infection, and would be especially useful for the brugian filariasis elimination programme.
An IgG4 ELISA based on a novel recombinant antigen was evaluated for detection of Brugia malayi infection, using 2487 sera from various institutions: 2031 samples from Universiti Sains Malaysia, 276 blinded sera from 2 other institutions in Malaysia, 140 blinded sera from India and 40 blinded sera from Thailand. These sera were from various groups of individuals, i.e., microfilaraemics, chronic patients, endemic normals, non-endemic normals and individuals with other parasitic and bacterial infections. Based on a cut-off optical density reading of 0.300, the IgG4 ELISA demonstrated specificity rates of 95.6-100%, sensitivity rates of 96-100%, positive predictive values of 75-100% and negative predictive values of 98.9-100%. These evaluation studies demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of this test for the detection of active B. malayi infection. Thus, the IgG4 ELISA would be very useful as a tool in diagnosis and in elimination programmes for brugian filariasis.
A case of human eye infection caused by Brugia pahangi was reported in 2010 in a semi rural village in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Our report here reveals results of investigation on the vector and animal host for the transmission of the infection. We conducted entomological survey and cat blood examination in the vicinity of the patient's home. The mosquito species Armigeres subalbatus was incriminated as the vector, whereas cat served as the reservoir host.
BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.