Displaying all 15 publications

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  1. Khor BY, Lim TS, Noordin R, Choong YS
    J. Mol. Graph. Model., 2017 09;76:543-550.
    PMID: 28811153 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2017.07.004
    De novo approach was applied to design single chain fragment variable (scFv) for BmR1, a recombinant antigen from Bm17DIII gene which is the primary antigen used for the detection of anti-BmR1 IgG4 antibodies in the diagnostic of lymphatic filariasis. Three epitopes of the BmR1 was previously predicted form an ab initio derived three-dimensional structure. A collection of energetically favourable conformations was generated via hot-spot-centric approach. This resulted in a set of three different scFv scaffolds used to compute the high shape complementary conformations via dock-and-design approach with the predicted epitopes of BmR1. A total of 4227 scFv designs were generated where 200 scFv designs produced binding energies of less than -20 R.E.U with shape complementarity higher than 0.5. We further selected the design with at least one hydrogen bond and one salt bridge with the epitope, thus resulted in a total of 10, 1 and 19 sFv designs for epitope 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The results thus showed that de novo design can be an alternative approach to yield high affinity in silico scFv designs as a starting point for antibody or specific binder discovery processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology
  2. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, Ariff RH, Zurainee MN, A'shikin AN, Fadzillah A, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Mar;3(3):184-8.
    PMID: 9593356
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of antifilarial IgG4 antibody assay in detecting B. malayi infection in a filaria endemic area in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A sandwich ELISA using B. malayi soluble antigen was employed to detect antifilarial IgG4 antibodies in serum samples of 330 individuals who comprised 88 healthy individuals from nonendemic areas, 15 B. malayi microfilaraemic cases, 22 individuals with soil-transmitted helminthiases, 9 elephantiasis cases and 196 residents from a B. malayi-endemic area. An O.D. value of > 0.420 at serum dilution of 1:400 was used as the cut-off point. This cut-off point was obtained by taking the mean optical density (0.252 + 4 S.E.) of 36 negative sera which had O.D. values greater than 0.1 at serum dilution of 1:400.

    RESULTS: All 15 microfilaraemic persons were positive for antifilarial IgG4 antibody. Non-endemic normals, soil-transmitted helminth infected persons and chronic elephantiasis cases were negative for antifilarial IgG4 antibody. Of the 196 individuals from the filaria endemic area, 37 (18.8%) demonstrated presence of antifilarial IgG4 antibodies; and only eight individuals (4.1%) were positive for microfilariae. All eight microfilaraemic individuals were also positive for antifilarial IgG4 antibodies.

    CONCLUSION: Antifilarial IgG4-ELISA could detect 4.6 times more positive cases than the microfilaria detection method. With appropriate cut-off values that eliminate cross-reactivities, this serological tool is very useful for Brugia malayi prevalence surveys and diagnosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology*
  3. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, A'shikin AN, Lim BH, Mehdi R, Abdullah B, et al.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1998 Sep 29;250(3):586-8.
    PMID: 9784388
    Western blot analyses were performed on 444 serum specimens: 40 sera from microfilaraemic individuals, 10 sera from elephantiasis patients, 24 treated individuals, 50 sera from residents of endemic areas without anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (endemic normals), 20 sera from amicrofilaraemic individuals with high anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, 200 sera from healthy city-dwellers (non-endemic samples), and 100 sera from soil-transmitted helminth-infected individuals. Phast electrophoresis system was used to electrophorese Brugia malayi soluble adult worm antigen on 10-15% SDS-PAGE gradient gels followed by electrophoretic transfer onto PVDF membranes. Membrane strips were then successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, and monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP, with adequate washings done in between each incubation step. Luminol chemiluminescence detection was then used to develop the blots. An antigenic band with the MW of approximately 37 kDa was found to be consistently present in the Western blots of all microfilaraemic sera, all amicrofilaraemic sera with high titres of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, some treated patients, and some elephantiasis patients. The antigen did not occur in immunoblots of individuals with other helminthic infections, normal endemic individuals, and city dwellers. Therefore the B. malayi antigen of with the MW of approximately 37 kDa demonstrated specific reactions with sera of B. malayi-infected individuals and thus may be useful for diagnostic application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology*
  4. Noordin R, Abdullah KA, Azahri NA, Ramachandran CP
    PMID: 10928359
    Western blot analysis of infective larvae (L3) antigen of Brugia malayi were performed on 200 sera from six groups of individuals: 36 samples from B. malayi microfilaremic individuals; 10 samples from individuals with elephantiasis; 50 and 20 samples from amicrofilaremic individuals in a B. malayi endemic area with no anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (towards microfilaria and adult worm antigens) and samples with high titres of the anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively; 50 samples from non-endemic normals and 34 samples from geohelminth-infected individuals. After protein transfer, PVDF membrane strips were successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP and developed with luminol chemiluminescence substrate. 28/36 (78%), 1/10 (10%) and 16/20(80%) of sera from individuals with microfilariae, elephantiasis and amicrofilaremic individuals with high titers of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively recognized L3 antigenic epitopes; the dominant and consistent antigenic bands were of approximately MW 43 kDa, 14 kDa, 15 kDa and 59 kDa. The rest of the sera were unreactive. This study showed that microfilaremics may or may not mount a notable antibody response to somatic L3 antigens, thus lending evidence that antibody response to this antigen is not protective against establishment of Brugia malayi infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology*
  5. Omar N, Hamidon NH, Yunus MH, Noordin R, Choong YS, Lim TS
    Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 2018 May;65(3):346-354.
    PMID: 28833498 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1591
    Phage display has been applied successfully as a tool for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Naive antibody libraries are unique as they are able to overcome several limitations associated with conventional mAb generation methods like the hybridoma technology. Here, we performed an in vitro selection and generation of Fab antibodies against Brugia malayi SXP protein (BmSXP), a recombinant antigen for the detection of lymphatic filariasis. We developed a naïve multi ethnic Fab antibody library with an estimated diversity of 2.99 × 109 . The antibody library was used to screen for mAbs against BmSXP recombinant antigen. Soluble monoclonal Fab antibodies against BmSXP were successfully isolated from the naïve library. The Fab antibodies obtained were expressed and analyzed to show its binding capability. The diversity obtained from a pool of donors from various ethnic groups allowed for a diverse antibody library to be generated. The mAbs obtained were also functional in soluble form, which makes it useful for further downstream applications. We believe that the Fab mAbs are valuable for further studies and could also contribute to improvements in the diagnosis of filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology*
  6. Norsyahida A, Rahmah N, Ahmad RM
    Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 2009 Nov;49(5):544-50.
    PMID: 19832937 DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02694.x
    To investigate the effects of feeding and induction strategies on the production of BmR1 recombinant antigen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology
  7. Rahmah N, Taniawati S, Shenoy RK, Lim BH, Kumaraswami V, Anuar AK, et al.
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2002 1 31;95(6):601-4.
    PMID: 11816429
    A total of 753 serum samples from 6 institutions in 3 countries (Malaysia, Indonesia and India) were used to evaluate an immunochromatographic rapid dipstick test, Brugia Rapid, for diagnosis of Brugia malayi infection. The samples comprised sera from 207 microfilaria-positive individuals and 546 individuals from filaria non-endemic areas. The latter consisted of 70 individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infections, 68 with other helminth infections, 238 with protozoan infections, 12 with bacterial and viral infections and 158 healthy individuals. The dipstick is prepared with a goat anti-mouse antibody control line and a B. malayi recombinant-antigen test line. First, the dipstick is dipped into a well containing diluted patient serum, thus allowing specific anti-filarial antibody in the serum to react with the recombinant antigen. Then the dipstick is placed into an adjacent well containing reconstituted anti-human IgG4-gold. After 10 min, development of 2 red-purplish lines denotes a positive result and one line indicates a negative reaction. The overall results of the evaluation showed 97% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 97% positive predictive value and 99% negative predictive value. Brugia Rapid is thus a promising diagnostic tool for detection of B. malayi infection, and would be especially useful for the brugian filariasis elimination programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology
  8. Rahmah N, Shenoy RK, Nutman TB, Weiss N, Gilmour K, Maizels RM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Oct;8(10):895-900.
    PMID: 14516300
    A multicentre evaluation of the Brugia Rapid dipstick test was performed using 1263 serum samples in four international laboratories, i.e. T.D. Medical College (TDMC, India), National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA), Swiss Tropical Institute (STI, Switzerland) and Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC, Netherlands). In comparison with microscopy, the dipstick demonstrated sensitivities of 97.2% (70 of 72) at TDMC, 91.6% (175 of 191) at LUMC and 100% (six of six) at STI. Sera of chronic patients showed a positivity rate of 11.3% (19 of 168) and 61.2% (71of 116) at TDMC and LUMC, respectively. All 266 sera of non-endemic normals from STI, NIH and LUMC tested negative with the dipstick. At LUMC, sera of 'endemic normals' (amicrofilaraemics with no clinical disease) from an area with approximately 35% microfilaria positivity showed 60.8% positive results (31 of 51), thus demonstrating the likelihood of many cryptic infections occurring in this population. Specificities of the test with Onchocerca volvulus sera were 98.8% (80 of 81) and 100% (10 of 10) at the NIH and STI, respectively; while specificity with Loa loa sera at the NIH was 84.6% (44 of 52). At the STI, the dipstick test also demonstrated 100% specificity when tested with 75 sera from various protozoan and helminthic infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology
  9. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Azian H, Ramelah TS, Rohana AR
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Feb;8(2):158-63.
    PMID: 12581442
    Brugian filariasis infects 13 million people in Asia. The routine prevalence survey method using night thick blood smear is not sensitive enough to reflect the actual infection prevalence. In 1997-2001, only three microfilaraemic cases (of 5601 individuals screened; 0.05%) were reported in Pasir Mas, a district in Kelantan (Malaysia), which shares a border with Thailand. We therefore investigated the infection prevalence in this district by employing a sensitive and specific serological assay (Brugia-Elisa). This test is based on detection of specific IgG4 antibody against a Brugia malayi recombinant antigen. A total of 5138 children, aged 7-12 years, from 16 primary schools, were tested. Eighteen pupils in eight schools, located in five subdistricts, tested positive, giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.35%. Infection in these children is significant as they represent more recent cases. These subdistricts should be included in the national filariasis elimination programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology
  10. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Khairul Anuar A, Shenoy RK, Kumaraswami V, Lokman Hakim S, et al.
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2001 8 9;95(3):280-4.
    PMID: 11490997
    An IgG4 ELISA based on a novel recombinant antigen was evaluated for detection of Brugia malayi infection, using 2487 sera from various institutions: 2031 samples from Universiti Sains Malaysia, 276 blinded sera from 2 other institutions in Malaysia, 140 blinded sera from India and 40 blinded sera from Thailand. These sera were from various groups of individuals, i.e., microfilaraemics, chronic patients, endemic normals, non-endemic normals and individuals with other parasitic and bacterial infections. Based on a cut-off optical density reading of 0.300, the IgG4 ELISA demonstrated specificity rates of 95.6-100%, sensitivity rates of 96-100%, positive predictive values of 75-100% and negative predictive values of 98.9-100%. These evaluation studies demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of this test for the detection of active B. malayi infection. Thus, the IgG4 ELISA would be very useful as a tool in diagnosis and in elimination programmes for brugian filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology
  11. Soeyoko SS
    PMID: 7973941
    Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in Indonesia but in some endemic areas, B malayi is more commonly found. Diagnosis of filariasis is normally based on clinical, parasitological and immunological examinations but those methods have limitations. The discovery of monoclonal antibodies is expected to provide a new dimension to the efforts in the development of specific and sensitive immunological tests for the various stages of filariasis infection. This preliminary report, using monoclonal antibodies and dot-blot assay in human lymphatic filariasis showed that 75% of sera from microfilaremic patients with clinical signs, 40% of sera from amicrofilaraemic patients with clinical signs, 88.8% of sera from microfilaremic patients without clinical signs and 19.6% of sera from amicrofilaremic patients without clinical signs have circulating antigens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology
  12. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, Karim R, Mehdi R, Sinniah B, Omar AW
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1994 Nov 30;205(1):202-7.
    PMID: 7999024
    Sera from fifty subjects with different presentations of Brugian filariasis and from common soil-transmitted helminth infections were tested for specific anti-filarial IgG and its subclasses. Anti-filarial IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 showed cross-reactivities with soil-transmitted helminthic infections and no significant differences in optical densities among the various groups of filarial patients. In comparison with other groups of subjects, IgG4-ELISA of sera from microfilaraemic patients and some previously microfilaraemic patients showed a significant increase in optical density readings, while IgG2-ELISA showed elevated optical density readings in sera of patients with chronic elephantiasis. Therefore IgG2-ELISA is potentially useful in the diagnosis of brugian chronic elephantiasis while IgG4-ELISA may be beneficial for follow-up diagnosis of treated microfilaraemic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology*
  13. Lim BH, Noordin R, Nor ZM, Rahman RA, Abdullah KA, Sinnadurai S
    Exp. Parasitol., 2004 Sep-Oct;108(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 15491542
    BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology*
  14. Abdullah WO, Oothuman P, Yunus H
    PMID: 7973943
    In Peninsular Malaysia, only Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi are reported to cause human filariasis. Brugia pahangi infects many of the same animal hosts as the zoonotically transmitted subperiodic B. malayi. There is a well-recognized need for improved diagnostic techniques for lymphatic filariasis. Parasite antigen detection is a promising new approach, and it will probably prove to be more sensitive and specific than clinical, microscopic and antibody-based serological methods. We recently generated monoclonal antibodies (MAb XC3) from in vitro culture products of adult B. pahangi (B.p. IVP). Filarial antigenemia was quantitated in various hosts including the sera from 6 Malaysian Aborigines with acute lymphatic filariasis. In hosts infected with brugian filariasis and dirofilariasis, antigenemia was scored ranging from 90 ng/ml to 960 ng/ml. None of the control animal and human sera had antigenemia above 90 ng/ml. In addition, MAb XC3 and B.p. IVP were applied in several seroepidemiological surveys among household cats in Kuala Selangor in order to correlate information gathered for future studies of possible cases of human infection. Out of the 81 cats surveyed, 10 (12.35%) and 5 (6.17%) were parasitologically positive for B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. However, 21 (25.92%) were antigenemia positive when serologically investigated with MAb XC3. Antifilarial antibodies to B.p. IVP by direct ELISA showed very high cross-reactivity with non-filarial gut worm infections. 16 (19.75%) cats had reciprocal titers ranging from 320 to 2,560. Only 1 (1.23%) cat from this group was antigenemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology*
  15. Rahumatullah A, Ahmad A, Noordin R, Lim TS
    Mol. Immunol., 2015 Oct;67(2 Pt B):512-23.
    PMID: 26277276 DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.07.040
    Phage display technology is an important tool for antibody generation or selection. This study describes the development of a scFv library and the subsequent analysis of identified monoclonal antibodies against BmSXP, a recombinant antigen for lymphatic filariasis. The immune library was generated from blood of lymphatic filariasis infected individuals. A TA based intermediary cloning approach was used to increase cloning efficiency for the library construction process. A diverse immune scFv library of 10(8) was generated. Six unique monoclonal antibodies were identified from the 50 isolated clones against BmSXP. Analysis of the clones showed a bias for the IgHV3 and Vκ1 (45.5%) and IgHV2 and Vκ3 (27.3%) gene family. The most favored J segment for light chain is IgKJ1 (45.5%). The most favored D and J segment for heavy chain are IgHD6-13 (75%) and IgHJ3 (47.7%). The information may suggest a predisposition of certain V genes in antibody responses against lymphatic filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia malayi/immunology*
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