Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

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  1. Maaroufi A, Vince A, Himatt SM, Mohamed R, Fung J, Opare-Sem O, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:8-24.
    PMID: 29105285 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12762
    Due to the introduction of newer, more efficacious treatment options, there is a pressing need for policy makers and public health officials to develop or adapt national hepatitis C virus (HCV) control strategies to the changing epidemiological landscape. To do so, detailed, country-specific data are needed to characterize the burden of chronic HCV infection. In this study of 17 countries, a literature review of published and unpublished data on HCV prevalence, viraemia, genotype, age and gender distribution, liver transplants and diagnosis and treatment rates was conducted, and inputs were validated by expert consensus in each country. Viraemic prevalence in this study ranged from 0.2% in Hong Kong to 2.4% in Taiwan, while the largest viraemic populations were in Nigeria (2 597 000 cases) and Taiwan (569 000 cases). Diagnosis, treatment and liver transplant rates varied widely across the countries included in this analysis, as did the availability of reliable data. Addressing data gaps will be critical for the development of future strategies to manage and minimize the disease burden of hepatitis C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis; Hepatitis C, Chronic/mortality; Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/therapy
  2. Poynard T
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:77-9.
    PMID: 16108180
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/physiopathology
  3. Poynard T
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:70-1.
    PMID: 16108178
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis; Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology
  4. Suresh RL, Kananathan R, Merican I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2001 Jun;56(2):243-7.
    PMID: 11771088
    An analysis of 105 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C at the gastroenterology outpatient's clinic in Hospital Kuala Lumpur was performed. The clinical, laboratory and virological data was prospectively recorded in the case notes and comprised of data on patient characteristics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory features, virology screen and management. Chronic Hepatitis C cases accounted for 2.1% of the total number of cases seen at this clinic during the entire period. There were 78 (74%) males and 27 (26%) females. The ethnic breakdown consisted of Chinese (44.2%), Malays (39.4%), Indians (15.4%) and others (1%). There was higher male preponderance in all the ethnic groups. The main mode of transmission was blood transfusion comprising 51 patients (48.8%). A total of 35.2% of cases underwent treatment, of which a proportion had interferon monotherapy for 6 or 12 months and a subsequent group of naïve patients and non-responders underwent combination therapy with interferon and ribavarin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology; Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology
  5. Chan HLY, Chen CJ, Omede O, Al Qamish J, Al Naamani K, Bane A, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:25-43.
    PMID: 29105283 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12760
    Factors influencing the morbidity and mortality associated with viremic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection change over time and place, making it difficult to compare reported estimates. Models were developed for 17 countries (Bahrain, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Colombia, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Qatar and Taiwan) to quantify and characterize the viremic population as well as forecast the changes in the infected population and the corresponding disease burden from 2015 to 2030. Model inputs were agreed upon through expert consensus, and a standardized methodology was followed to allow for comparison across countries. The viremic prevalence is expected to remain constant or decline in all but four countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Jordan and Oman); however, HCV-related morbidity and mortality will increase in all countries except Qatar and Taiwan. In Qatar, the high-treatment rate will contribute to a reduction in total cases and HCV-related morbidity by 2030. In the remaining countries, however, the current treatment paradigm will be insufficient to achieve large reductions in HCV-related morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy; Hepatitis C, Chronic/mortality*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology*
  6. Chen DS, Hamoudi W, Mustapha B, Layden J, Nersesov A, Reic T, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:44-63.
    PMID: 29105286 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12759
    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic was forecasted through 2030 for 17 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East, and interventions for achieving the Global Health Sector Strategy on viral hepatitis targets-"WHO Targets" (65% reduction in HCV-related deaths, 90% reduction in new infections and 90% of infections diagnosed by 2030) were considered. Scaling up treatment and diagnosis rates over time would be required to achieve these targets in all but one country, even with the introduction of high SVR therapies. The scenarios developed to achieve the WHO Targets in all countries studied assumed the implementation of national policies to prevent new infections and to diagnose current infections through screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis; Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy; Hepatitis C, Chronic/mortality*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology*
  7. Gane E
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:72-6.
    PMID: 16108179
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology; Hepatitis C, Chronic/physiopathology
  8. Hairul Aini H, Mustafa MIA, Seman MR, Nasuruddin BA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Apr;67(2):199-203.
    PMID: 22822643 MyJurnal
    Mixed-genotypes hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are normally ignored in chronic hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of mixed-genotypes infections among hemodialysis patients in Pahang province, Malaysia. Reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction methods were performed using two different sets of primers, targeting the 5' untranslated region and nonstructural 5B region. Target region base sequences were obtained by direct sequencing. Discrepancy in outcomes from phylogenetic analysis of both regions suggests double infections. Of 40 subjects in eight hemodialysis centres, evidence of mixed-genotypes infections was found in 5 subjects (12.5%) from three different centres. Four patients were infected with mixed genotypes 3 and 1 and one with genotypes 3 and 4. Cases of mixed HCV genotypes infection were considered high among hemodialysis patients in Pahang. However, further investigation is needed to confirm whether they are true mixed infections or perhaps infection with recombinant virus and also to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics of the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology; Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology*
  9. Barathan M, Gopal K, Mohamed R, Ellegård R, Saeidi A, Vadivelu J, et al.
    Apoptosis, 2015 Apr;20(4):466-80.
    PMID: 25577277 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-014-1084-y
    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection appears to trigger the onset of immune exhaustion to potentially assist viral persistence in the host, eventually leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of HCV on the spontaneous expression of markers suggestive of immune exhaustion and spontaneous apoptosis in immune cells of chronic HCV (CHC) disease largely remain elusive. We investigated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CHC patients to determine the spontaneous recruitment of cellular reactive oxygen species (cROS), immunoregulatory and exhaustion markers relative to healthy controls. Using a commercial QuantiGenePlex(®) 2.0 assay, we determined the spontaneous expression profile of 80 different pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in persistent HCV disease. Onset of spontaneous apoptosis significantly correlated with the up-regulation of cROS, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin H synthase (COX-2/PGHS), Foxp3, Dtx1, Blimp1, Lag3 and Cd160. Besides, spontaneous differential surface protein expression suggestive of T cell inhibition viz., TRAIL, TIM-3, PD-1 and BTLA on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CTLA-4 on CD4+ T cells was also evident. Increased up-regulation of Tnf, Tp73, Casp14, Tnfrsf11b, Bik and Birc8 was observed, whereas FasLG, Fas, Ripk2, Casp3, Dapk1, Tnfrsf21, and Cflar were moderately up-regulated in HCV-infected subjects. Our observation suggests the spontaneous onset of apoptosis signaling and T cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/metabolism; Hepatitis C, Chronic/physiopathology*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology
  10. Lim SG, Phyo WW, Shah SR, Win KM, Hamid S, Piratvisuth T, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2018 12;25(12):1533-1542.
    PMID: 30141214 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12989
    There is a paucity of information on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients treated with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) in Asia. We invited Asia-Pacific physicians to collate databases of patients enrolled for CHC treatment, recording baseline clinical, virologic and biochemical characteristics, sustained virologic response at week 12 (SVR12) and virologic failure. SVR12 outcome was based on intention to treat (ITT). Multivariate analysis was used to assess independent risk factors for SVR12 using SPSS version 20. A total of 2171 patients from India (n = 977), Myanmar (n = 552), Pakistan (n = 406), Thailand (n = 139), Singapore (n = 72) and Malaysia (n = 25) were collected. At baseline, mean age was 49 years, 50.2% were males, and 41.8% had cirrhosis. Overall, SVR12 was 89.5% and by genotype (GT) based on ITT and treatment completion, respectively, was 91% and 92% for GT1, 100% and 100% for GT2, 91% and 97% for GT3, 64% and 95% for GT4, 87% and 87% for GT6 and 79% and 91% for GT untested. Patients with cirrhosis had SVR12 of 85% vs 93% for noncirrhosis (P < 0.001) (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.1, P = 0.0002). Patients with GT1 and GT3 treated with sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SR) had 88% and 89% SVR12, respectively, but those GT6 treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SL) had only 77.6% SVR12. Multivariate analysis showed absence of cirrhosis was associated with higher SVR12 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1, P = 0.002). In conclusion, patients with GT1 and GT3 with/without cirrhosis had surprisingly high efficacy using SR, suggesting that Asians may respond better to some DAAs. However, poor GT6 response to SL suggests this regimen is suboptimal for this genotype.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications; Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology; Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology*
  11. Ahmad F, Che Hamzah NA, Mustaffa N, Hua GS
    Hepatogastroenterology, 2011 07 15;58(110-111):1725-9.
    PMID: 21940338 DOI: 10.5754/hge11107
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: CYP3A4 is the major cytochrome in humans which shows reduced activity in chronic liver disease as well as in hepatic cirrhosis. The detection of this polymorphism may give an indication on the prognosis of patients having chronic viral hepatitis with superimposed hepatitis A infection. The aim of this study is to correlate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in chronic liver disease patients having CYP3A4*18 polymorphisms.

    METHODOLOGY: This is a prospective study where patients (n=119) blood was tested for anti-HAVIgG and CYP3A4*18 polymorphism.

    RESULTS: The overall anti-HAV seroprevalence was 88.2%. The etiology of CLD was hepatitis B in 96 patients (80.7%) and hepatitis C in 23 patients (19.3%). There was a significant increase in the age of the prevalence of this disease after 30 years of age (p=0.008). CYP3A4*18 polymorphism was detected in 3 (2.5%) of the patients with chronic liver disease. However, there was no significant association between CP3A4*18 mutation and anti-HAV serology.

    CONCLUSIONS: Age was the most important factor in determining anti-HAV positivity. It is concluded that CYP3A4*18 genetic polymorphism does not play a main role in influencing the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A among chronic viral hepatitis B and C liver disease patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/blood*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics*
  12. Teo SM, Morad Z
    Transplant. Proc., 2000 Nov;32(7):1950-1.
    PMID: 11120015
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/mortality; Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology*
  13. Hamidah A, Yong JF, Zulkifli HI, Jamal R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2002 Sep;57(3):353-6.
    PMID: 12440276
    We describe two cases of transfusion dependent thalassaemics with chronic hepatitis C virus infection whom were treated successfully with interferon and ribavirin, following failure of response or relapse after an initial response to interferon monotherapy. They had sustained virological response for more than twelve months after completing therapy. Transfusion requirements were significantly increased during the combination therapy, probably due to ribavirin-induced haemolysis. Serum ferritin level decreased significantly during the treatment. Combination therapy with interferon alfa and ribavirin may be a feasible treatment option for some nonresponders to prior interferon monotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  14. Suresh RL, Suryati Y, Merican I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):594-6.
    PMID: 15190636
    Chronic hepatitis C manifests with many extrahepatic features including renal involvement. However, less commonly, interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C can also result in renal involvement and we describe a case when interferon therapy resulted in minimal change glomerulopathy, a form of involvement which, carries a good prognosis. Our patient developed nephrotic syndrome while on interferon therapy and HCV RNA levels were undetectable at that time. The disease showed excellent response to steroid therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  15. Sachithanandan S, Fielding JF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Mar;54(1):110-3.
    PMID: 10972013
    The aim of this study was to determine if knowledge of both the serum HCV RNA and serum anti core IgM antibody status enabled one to predict the histological severity in chronic hepatitis C. We studied 45 female patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. The presence or absence of IgM antibodies to HCV and HCV RNA by PCR in each patient's serum was determined. Liver biopsies performed were scored according to a modified Desmet's histological activity index. Negative HCV RNA patients had least histological change. HCV RNA positive patients who were also IgM antibody positive had lower scores than their IgM negative counterparts. The grade of histological severity is more accurately predictable from knowledge of both the HCV RNA and IgM anti HCV status of the patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology*
  16. Bukhsh A, Goh BH, Lee LH, Khan TM
    J Infect Public Health, 2017 02 10;10(5):692-693.
    PMID: 28209323 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.09.012
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  17. Morad Z
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Apr;67(2):145-6.
    PMID: 22822631
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology*
  18. Durier N, Yunihastuti E, Ruxrungtham K, Kinh NV, Kamarulzaman A, Boettiger D, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 03;24(3):187-196.
    PMID: 27917597 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12630
    Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan® ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76.0%) reported HCV exposure through injecting drug use, and 453 (94.4%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy. The median (IQR) CD4 count was 446 (325-614) cells/mm3 and 208 (94.1%) of 221 patients tested had HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL. A total of 412 (85.8%) had detectable HCV RNA, at a median (IQR) of 6.2 (5.4-6.6) log10 IU/mL. Among 380 patients with HCV GT, 223 (58.7%) had GT1, 97 (25.5%) had GT3, 43 (11.3%) had GT6, eight (2.1%) had GT4, two (0.5%) had GT2, and seven (1.8%) had indeterminate GT. Of 222 patients with IL28B testing, 189 (85.1%) had rs12979860 CC genotype, and 199 (89.6%) had rs8099917 TT genotype. Of 380 patients with FibroScan® , 143 (37.6%) had no/mild liver fibrosis (F0-F1), 83 (21.8%) had moderate fibrosis (F2), 74 (19.5%) had severe fibrosis (F3), and 79 (20.8%) had cirrhosis (F4). One patient (0.3%) had FibroScan® failure. In conclusion, a high proportion of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients had chronic HCV infection. HCV GT1 was predominant, and 62% of patients had liver disease warranting prompt treatment (≥F2).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology; Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology
  19. Rafique G, Bukhsh A, Gul A, Khiljee S, Ashraf M, Omer MO
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2017 Jan;30(1):11-16.
    PMID: 28603106
    180 million people are affected by chronic Hepatitis C Virus infection globally and more than 50 million in South East Asia. Combination of Interferon and Ribavirin is the current anti-HCV therapy in practice and is associated with certain hematologic adverse effects. In this concurrent observational study the incidence rate of major hematologic adverse effects and efficacy outcomes of Interferon and Ribavirin combination therapy was evaluated in 288 chronic hepatitis C patients at Lahore General Hospital. Levels of Hb, TLC, and Platelets counts were monitored for hematologic adverse effects monitoring, whereas, ALT, AST and bilirubin levels were monitored for efficacy. PCR was done at week 4, 12 &36 for therapeutic success evaluation. A significant reduction in Hb levels (p<0.05) was observed after week 4, 8 and 12 of therapy. Frequency of anemia increased in both genders with body weight <65kg and platelet count <150,000/mm(3). End Treatment Response (ETR) was achieved in 64.5%. Anemia was the major side effect of the combination therapy particularly in the males. Higher ETR was observed in patients who achieved RVR and were <50 years of age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/blood; Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis; Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology
  20. Naing C, Sitt T, Aung AT, Aung K
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2015 Jul;94(30):e1234.
    PMID: 26222859 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001234
    In Myanmar, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence is 2%. A combination therapy of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (PEG-IFNa/RBV) is a standard treatment, but the effect of this antiviral therapy needs evaluation as to determine the efficacy and safety of dual PEG-IFNa/RBV therapy in treating patients infected with HCV in Myanmar.This was a retrospective analysis of data from a single clinic exclusively for gastrointestinal diseases in Yangon, Myanmar. We assessed treatment responses at the defined time points and stratified by genotypes of HCV. We also determined incidences of adverse events (AEs). We investigated independent predictors of sustained virologic response (SVR) in the participants.A total of 362 HCV-infected cases were included in this study. The majority were females (51.7%) with mean age of 47.12 years (±11.6) and noncirrhosis patients (82%). Rapid virologic response (RVR), early virologic response (EVR), end of treatment response (ETR), and SVR 24 weeks after completion of the dual treatment were 50.3% (178/362), 88% (314/357), 80.1% (286/357), and 85.6% (167/195), respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were nausea/anorexia (72.8%) and flu-like symptoms (62.4%). In multivariate analysis, 4 factors were independently associated with SVR; SVR to genotype 3 (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% CI: 1.24-4.62), EVR (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.3-0.95), and duration of treatment (OR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18-1.98). Study limitations were acknowledged.The efficacy and safety of the dual therapy in treating HCV-infected patient in Myanmar was acceptable. We recommend a prospective randomized control trial looking at duration of therapy and rates of achieving SVR, which could significantly impact the care of HCV-infected patients in Myanmar and perhaps other countries as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology
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