The rhetoric surrounding the transportation of prisoners to the Straits Settlements and the reformative capacity of the penal labor regime assumed a uniform subject, an impoverished criminal, who could be disciplined and accordingly civilized through labor. Stamford Raffles, as lieutenant governor of Benkulen, believed that upon realizing the advantages of the new colony, criminals would willingly become settlers. These two colonial prerogatives of labor and population categorized transportees into laboring classes where their exploitation supposedly brought mutual benefit. The colonized was collectively homogenized as a class of laborers and evidence to the contrary, of politically challenging and resistant individuals was suppressed. This paper focuses on two prisoners who were incriminated during the anti-colonial rebellions of the mid-nineteenth century and were transported to the Straits Settlements. Nihal Singh, a political prisoner from Lahore, was incarcerated in isolation to prevent his martyrdom and denied the supposed benefits of labor reform. Conversely, Tikiri Banda Dunuwille, a lawyer from Ceylon was sent to labor in Melaka as a form of humiliation. Tikiri’s many schemes to evade labor damned him in the eyes of the authorities. The personal histories of these two individuals expose how colonial penal policy recognized and manipulated individual differences during a time of rising anti-colonial sentiment. The experiences of these prisoners, the response of their communities and the voices of their descendents offer us a very different entry point into colonial penal history.
The origin of Malagasy DNA is half African and half Indonesian, nevertheless the Malagasy language, spoken by the entire population, belongs to the Austronesian family. The language most closely related to Malagasy is Maanyan (Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family), but related languages are also in Sulawesi, Malaysia and Sumatra. For this reason, and because Maanyan is spoken by a population which lives along the Barito river in Kalimantan and which does not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, the ethnic composition of the Indonesian colonizers is still unclear. There is a general consensus that Indonesian sailors reached Madagascar by a maritime trek, but the time, the path and the landing area of the first colonization are all disputed. In this research, we try to answer these problems together with other ones, such as the historical configuration of Malagasy dialects, by types of analysis related to lexicostatistics and glottochronology that draw upon the automated method recently proposed by the authors. The data were collected by the first author at the beginning of 2010 with the invaluable help of Joselinà Soafara Néré and consist of Swadesh lists of 200 items for 23 dialects covering all areas of the island.
Globally, more patients are intentionally travelling abroad as consumers for medical care. However, while scholars have begun to examine international medical travel's (IMT) impacts on the people and places that receive medical travellers, study of its impacts on medical travellers' home contexts has been negligible and largely speculative. While proponents praise IMT's potential to make home health systems more responsive to the needs of market-savvy healthcare consumers, critics identify it as a way to further de-politicise the satisfaction of healthcare needs. This article draws from work on political consumerism, health advocacy and social movements to argue for a reframing of IMT not as a 'one-off' statement about or an event external to struggles over access, rights and recognition within medical travellers' home health systems but rather as one of a range of critical forms of on-going engagement embedded within these struggles. To do this, the limited extant empirical work addressing domestic impacts of IMT is reviewed and a case study of Indonesian medical travel to Malaysia is presented. The case study material draws from 85 interviews undertaken in 2007-08 and 2012 with Indonesian and Malaysian respondents involved in IMT as care recipients, formal and informal care-providers, intermediaries, promoters and policy-makers. Evidence from the review and case study suggests that IMT may effect political and social change within medical travellers' home contexts at micro and macro levels by altering the perspectives, habits, expectations and accountability of, and complicity among, medical travellers, their families, communities, formal and informal intermediaries, and medical providers both within and beyond the container of the nation-state. Impacts are conditioned by the ideological foundations underpinning home political and social systems, the status of a medical traveller's ailment or therapy, and the existence of organised support for recognition and management of these in the home context.
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) gene frequencies have been shown to be distinctly different between populations and contribute to functional variation in the immune response. We have investigated KIR gene frequencies in 370 individuals representing three Asian populations in Singapore and report here the distribution of 14 KIR genes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) with two pseudogenes (2DP1, 3DP1) among Singapore Chinese (n = 210); Singapore Malay (n = 80), and Singapore Indian (n = 80). Four framework genes (KIR3DL3, 3DP1, 2DL4, 3DL2) and a nonframework pseudogene 2DP1 were detected in all samples while KIR2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL5, and 2DS5 had the greatest significant variation across the three populations. Fifteen significant linkage patterns, consistent with associations between genes of A and B haplotypes, were observed. Eighty-four distinct KIR profiles were determined in our populations, 38 of which had not been described in other populations. KIR haplotype studies were performed using nine Singapore Chinese families comprising 34 individuals. All genotypes could be resolved into corresponding pairs of existing haplotypes with eight distinct KIR genotypes and eight different haplotypes. The haplotype A2 with frequency of 63.9% was dominant in Singapore Chinese, comparable to that reported in Korean and Chinese Han. The A haplotypes predominate in Singapore Chinese, with ratio of A to B haplotypes of approximately 3:1. Comparison with KIR frequencies in other populations showed that Singapore Chinese shared similar distributions with Chinese Han, Japanese, and Korean; Singapore Indian was found to be comparable with North Indian Hindus while Singapore Malay resembled the Thai.
Sebaceous gland diseases are a group of common dermatological diseases with multiple causes. To date, a systematic report of the risk factors for sebaceous gland diseases in adolescents has not been published. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for certain sebaceous gland diseases (seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, androgenetic alopecia and rosacea) and their relationship to gastrointestinal dysfunction in adolescents. From August-October, 2002-2005, a questionnaire survey was carried out to obtain epidemiological data about sebaceous gland diseases. Using random cluster sampling, 13 215 Han adolescents aged 12-20 years were recruited from four countries or districts (Macau; Guangzhou, China; Malaysia; and Indonesia). The statistical software SPSS ver. 13.0 was used to analyze the data. The prevalence of seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, androgenetic alopecia and rosacea was 28.27%, 10.17%, 51.03%, 1.65% and 0.97%, respectively. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for sebaceous gland diseases included: age; duration of local residency; halitosis; gastric reflux; abdominal bloating; constipation; sweet food; spicy food; family history of acne; late night sleeping on a daily basis; excessive axillary, body and facial hair; excessive periareolar hair; and anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (halitosis; gastric reflux; abdominal bloating; constipation) between patients with and without sebaceous gland diseases (chi(2) = 150.743; P = 0.000). Gastrointestinal dysfunction is an important risk factor for diseases of the sebaceous glands and is correlated with their occurrence and development.
Malays, Chinese and Indians from peninsular Malaysia; Ibans and Bidayuh from Sarawak state, Northern Borneo; and Bataks, Minangkabau and Javanese from North Sumatra, Indonesia, were subtyped for Gc (group-specific component) by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing. All eight populations investigated were found to be polymorphic for three common alleles, Gc1F, Gc1S and Gc2.
Singapore is a tropical island city-state with a population of 2.4178 million consisting of Chinese (76.7%), Malays (14.7%), Indians (6.4%) and other races (2.2%). A diabetic survey of the adult population, aged 15 years and above, carried out in 1975, shows that the prevalence of diabetes is 1.99%; it is higher in males (2.36%) than in females (1.64%). It occurs mainly in the age group 40 years and above (5.08%) and is uncommon in the age group 15-39 years (0.40%). In males, the highest prevalence of diabetes (7.0%) is in the age group 45-49 years while in females the highest prevalence (7.2%) is in the age group 55-59 years. 43.3% of the diabetics are of normal weight while 44.3% are overweight and 12.4% are underweight. 59.6% of the diabetics are newly diagnosed while 40.4% are known diabetics; 64.3% of the newly diagnosed diabetics have no symptoms. The prevalence of diabetes among the Indians (6.07%) is significantly higher than that in Malays (2.43%) and Chinese (1.55%). Indian diabetics have a slightly higher positive family history of diabetes (12.7%) than Malays (10.9%) and Chinese (6.5%). Obesity is commoner in Malay diabetics (64.7%) than in Chinese (41.6%) and Indians (35.7%). The possible factors leading to the significantly higher prevalence of diabetes among the Indians compared to the other ethnic groups in Singapore are discussed. It is suggested that the Indian gene is susceptible to diabetes (diabetic genotype) and increased food consumption, altered lifestyle and greater obesity leads to the expression of diabetes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The Land Dayaks and the Sea Kayaks of Sarawak were surveyed for haptoglobin, transferrin and serum albumin variants. The Hp1 gene frequency was 0.385 in 283 Land Dayaks as well as in 205 Sea Kayaks. The TfDChi gene frequency in 283 Land Dayaks was 0.030 and in 188 Sea Kayaks it was 0.040. Serum albumin Medan was found in one of the 188 Sea Kayaks.
The Chinese minority plays a dominant role in the economies of Indonesia and Malaysia, a fact that evokes indigenous resentment. However, Indonesia and Malaysia dealt differently with the issue. Malaysia legislated the Malays into the economy and protected Chinese citizenship, making them an integral part of a multicultural state. By contrast, New Order Indonesia adopted policies of economic manipulation, forced assimilation, and unequal citizenship. Only when the New Order regime fell did Chinese integration begin. The policy trajectories of Indonesia and Malaysia offer important lessons for plural states.
Malaysian construction sector is regarded as critical in the field of health because of the high rates of accidents and fatalities. This research aimed to determine the prevalence, sources and severity of injuries and its association with commitment to safety among foreign construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 foreign construction workers from six construction projects of a large organization in Malaysia, using a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire to assess work-related injuries and safety commitment. The collected data was analysed by SPSS 22.0 using descriptive statistics and χ2 test. The prevalence of work-related injuries in a one year period was 22.6%, where most of the injuries were of moderate severity (39.7%) and falls from heights represented the main source (31.5%). The majority of the foreign construction workers had perceived between moderate and high safety commitment, which was significantly associated with work-related injuries. The results also showed a significant association of work-related injuries with the company's interest in Safety and Health, Safety and Health training, and safety equipment. Thus, the implementation of new procedures and providing relevant trainings and safety equipment; will lead to a decrease in injury rates in construction sites.
The pharmacokinetics of propofol was studied in 11 Asian patients with fentanyl-isoflurane anaesthesia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Instead of the usual increments of morphine and a benzodiazepine, propofol (4 mg/kg/h) was initiated at the start of CPB and ceased at CPB separation. Whole blood propofol concentrations were determined during and postinfusion using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Data from four patients seemed to fit a two-compartment model, whereas those from seven patients were significantly (F test, p < 0.05) better fitted to a three-compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: The mean (SD) of the initial distribution phase t1/2 pi, intermediate distribution phase t1/2 alpha, and elimination phase t1/2 beta were 2.22 (1.04) min, 42.9 (16.4) min, and 370 (138) min, respectively. The mean clearance of 1.31 (0.50) L/min was lower than those reported from other studies, whereas the mean blood concentration of 2.2 (1.0) mg/L at the 1-h infusion period was higher. The mean calculated apparent Css was 3.9 (1.5) mg/L. The low clearance is likely to be due to hemodynamic changes during CPB and CABG, thereby affecting drug distribution and blood flow to the liver.
Studies on the social and behavioral aspects of filariasis transmission were conducted in the transmigration area of Kumpeh, in the province of Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Three methods were used in the study namely, interview, participation observation and focus group discussion. A total of 266 respondents (136 males and 130 females) were interviewed. The results of the study showed the most of the transmigrants were not familiar with the word "filariasis". They were more used to the name of "penyakit kaki gajah" or "elephant's leg" disease or "untut". The word "untut" is similar to what people of Selangor, Malaysia call this disease. The community attitude towards control efforts against filariasis was positive, as evidenced by their readiness in being bled and their readiness to help change the environment which serves as mosquito breeding places. Usually the transmigrants live in the "ladang" or dry farming area for 3-4 months to protect their crops from damages by pests. This habit was rather negative, because in their "ladangs" they exposed themselves to high risk of mosquito bites and thus to filariasis infection.
"Bumiputra" or "son of the soil" is a term used to represent the Malays and other indigenous populations of Malaysia. The Malays are Austronesian speaking population and originated from different parts of the Indo-Malay Archipelago. The migration of Malay population from different parts of Indo-Malay Archipelago were mainly due to trading purposes which shaped the current Malay sub-ethnic groups with unique culture and with distinctive dialects. In this study, HLA typing was carried out using Sequence-based Typing (SBT) method on 109 individuals comprising of four Malay sub-ethnic groups namely Kelantan (n = 28), Champa (n = 29), Patani (n = 25) and Mandailing (n = 27) Malays. The HLA data is available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database (AFND).
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of death throughout the world and can lead to nicotine dependence, particularly when initiated at a young age. This paper describes the prevalence of smoking and nicotine dependence in the adult Singapore resident population, whilst also exploring rates among the major ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian), different education levels and those with chronic psychiatric and physical comorbidities.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) is a cross-sectional epidemiological study that was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010. Information on smoking status was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence measured nicotine dependence. Socio-demographic information was also collected.
RESULTS: In total, 6616 respondents participated in the SMHS giving a response rate of 75.9%. We found that 16% of the population were current smokers and 4.5% had nicotine dependence. Current smokers were more likely to be younger (18 to 34 years old), males, Malay and have lower education, whilst males had a 4.6 times higher risk of nicotine dependence to that of females. The prevalence of nicotine dependence was also higher in those with alcohol abuse and those experiencing chronic pain.
CONCLUSION: The results from this study highlight the important differences in the prevalence of smoking and nicotine dependence among different age groups, gender and ethnicity in Singapore and are important for developing future health policies and targeted preventive strategies.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting catabolism of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), with a wide range of clinical phenotype. We report a Malaysian Chinese boy with a severe early onset phenotype due to a previously unreported mutation. Urine organic acid chromatogram revealed elevated 4-hydroxybutyric acid. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated cerebral atrophy with atypical putaminal involvement. Molecular genetic analysis showed a novel homozygous 3-bp deletion at the ALDH5A1 gene c.1501_1503del (p.Glu501del). Both parents were confirmed to be heterozygotes for the p.Glu501del mutation. The clinical course was complicated by the development of subdural hemorrhage probably as a result of rocking the child to sleep for erratic sleep-wake cycles. This case illustrates the need to recognize that trivial or unintentional shaking of such children, especially in the presence of cerebral atrophy, can lead to subdural hemorrhage.
Sabah is a Malaysian state situated in the northern part of Borneo, and it is endemic for malaria. The incidence of malaria is the lowest (0.05/1,000 population) in Penampang districts of Sabah. In June 26, 2012, two Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases were notified to public health department from a village in Penampang. Immediate investigation was initiated to identify the risk factors and to institute control measures. We performed active case finding by asking household members of all houses in the village regarding malaria symptoms and by examining blood smears. Environmental investigation was performed by collecting samples to detect mosquito breeding sites and to identify malaria transmitting vector mosquitoes. A case-control study with a ratio of 1:4 (11 cases and 44 controls) was conducted using self-administered questionnaire. The microscopic examination of blood smear for malarial parasite and entomology sampling was carried out. The malarial attack rate was 2.3%, 6/11 smears have gametocyte, and the case fatality rate was 9.1%. One case was a migrant rubber tapper from Indonesia which happened to be the first case with gametocyte positive. Overall, the incidence of malaria was higher (6/11) among rubber tappers. The odds of cases for those living nearby stagnant water were 7.3 [95% confidence interval: 1.2-43.5] times higher. In conclusion, an outbreak of P. falciparum malaria was introduced into a malaria-free village by a migrant rubber tapper, by whom the imported parasite was introduced to the community via vector Anopheles balabacensis. Living near stagnant water bodies was the risk factor in this outbreak.