After two years' use of hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) as a larvicide in Georgetown, on Penang Island, control of Culex fatigans breeding became unsatisfactory. Two laboratory colonies of fatigans were established, one from Georgetown, and one from Kuala Lumpur where no insecticides had been used; tests were then made to determine the median lethal concentrations (MLC) of BHC, dieldrin, and DDT for the larvae of the two strains. The Georgetown strain was found to have acquired a tenfold resistance to BHC, and also to dieldrin to which it had not been exposed, but it showed no significant increase of resistance to DDT, to which it had also not been exposed. A year later, when both strains had passed through some ten generations in the laboratory without exposure to insecticides, the Georgetown strain was found to have lost much of its resistance to BHC, although the MLC was still twice that of the non-resistant Kuala Lumpur strain.
Although rove beetles (Paederus spp.) play a beneficial role as biological control agents to manage crop pests in agro-ecosystems, their high prevalence in human settings has elevated them to pest status in urban areas. Rove beetles neither bite nor sting, but accidental crushing on human skin causes them to release the toxin paederin, which causes dermatitis linearis. This review integrates currently available knowledge about the issues pertaining to Paederus infestation. For instance, the results of life history studies conducted under different food and temperature regimes are summarized, as they indicate how large a population can be in a habitat to cause massive and widespread infestation and illustrate the physiological traits required to maintain the population at the maximum level even under adverse conditions. In contrast to what is generally reported, we speculate that climatic factors do not necessarily result in Paederus dispersal in temperate regions; instead, habitat disturbance and site unsuitability may be the main factors that lead to massive dispersal to human settings. Factors such as whether dispersers are adaptable to xeric conditions in human settings, the probability that dispersed Paederus mate with the opposite sex, and whether dispersers have adequate nutrient intake to reproduce are considered to evaluate their potential to reproduce in human settings. Finally, the effectiveness of current commercial insecticides, challenges faced in managing infestations, and sustainable management practices are discussed to provide information for long-term control programs.
Seaweeds are one of the most widely studied natural resources for their biological activities. Novel seaweed compounds with unique chemical structures have been reported for their pharmacological properties. The urge to search for novel insecticidal compound with a new mode of action for development of botanical insecticides supports the relevant scientific research on discovering the bioactive compounds in seaweeds. The mosquitocidal potential of seaweed extracts and their isolated compounds are documented in this review paper, along with the discussion on bioactivities of the major components of seaweeds such as polysaccharides, phenolics, proteins, terpenes, lipids, and halogenated compounds. The effects of seaweed extracts and compounds toward different life stages of mosquito (egg, larva, pupa, and adult), its growth, development, and reproduction are elaborated. The structure-activity relationships of mosquitocidal compounds are discussed to extrapolate the possible chemical characteristics of seaweed compounds responsible for insecticidal properties. Furthermore, the possible target sites and mode of actions of the mosquitocidal seaweed compounds are included in this paper. The potential synergistic effects between seaweeds and commercial insecticides as well as the toxic effects of seaweed extracts and compounds toward other insects and non-target organisms in the same habitat are also described. On top of that, various factors that influence the mosquitocidal potential of seaweeds, such as abiotic and biotic variables, sample preparation, test procedures, and considerations for a precise experimental design are discussed. The potential of active seaweed extracts and compounds in the development of effective bioinsecticide are also discussed.
The efficacy and residual efficacy of commercial baits, Quick Bayt (0.5% w/w imidacloprid) and Agita (10.0% w/w thiamethoxam) against synanthropic flies were evaluated under field conditions. Efficacy was evaluated based on knockdown percentage (KD %). The bait efficacy and residual efficacy evaluation were conducted for a period of 3 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Baits were applied onto bait targets and placed on fly-count targets to facilitate the counting of flies. All baits were applied according to the manufacturer's recommended application rate. Three replicate treatments for each type of bait were placed at the study site each week. The number of flies feeding on baits and the knocked down flies were counted and collected. The efficacy of Agita and Quick Bayt did not differ significantly (t-test, P>0.05) over the 3-week period, even though Quick Bayt had a slightly higher KD% than Agita. In the residual efficacy evaluation, the (knockdown) KD% of Quick Bayt was consistent at around 36% for the first five weeks but dropped to 33.8 +/- 0.4% on the sixth week. The KD% for Agita on the first week was 33.6 +/- 12.2% and remained relatively consistent for the first 4 weeks at around 31%. KD% dropped to 16.7 +/- 3.3% on week 5 and to 15.7 +/- 1.2% on week 6. The difference in residual efficacy of the two baits was significant (t-test, p < 0.05).
The bioefficacy of a commercial formulation of temephos, Creek against Aedes aegypti larvae was studied in the laboratory. Earthen jars were filled with 10 L tap water each. One g of temephos (Creek) sand granule formulation was added into each earthen jar as recommended by the manufacturer. The final test concentration of Creek was 1 mg a.i./L. One earthen jar was filled with 10 L tap water and served as a test control (untreated). Thirty late 3(rd) or early 4(th) instar of lab-bred Ae. aegypti larvae were added into each earthen jar. Mortality of the larvae was recorded after 24 hours and percent mortality was calculated. Test was repeated every week. The results showed that complete larval mortality was achieved after 24 hours. The residual effect lasted 15 weeks (105 days), indicating that Creek is effective at the dosage recommended by the manufacturer which is 1 mg a.i./L.
Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240 ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m³. Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.
Budding and relocation of nests are important characteristics of the Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), an important pest of artificial structures. Pharaoh ant colony movements induced by several types of disturbances were evaluated in the laboratory. The percentages of workers and brood in the source and new nest sites were determined at Days 0, 1, 3, and 5 following physical disturbance (temporal removal of nestmates), chemical disturbance (application of pyrethroid insecticide), invasion by heterospecific ants, food depletion, and moisture depletion in the laboratory. All disturbances were performed in the source nest, which was connected to an empty new nest site. Almost all workers moved and carried the entire brood to the new nest site when subjected to physical disturbance, chemical disturbance, and ant invasion on Day 1, whereas only <5% of workers were present in the new nest site in the undisturbed control. After these disturbances, the brood was never relocated back to the original nest site in this 5-d study. When subjected to food depletion, ∼60% of the brood were found in the new nest site and ∼40% of the brood remained in the original nest on Day 5, resulting in a polydomous population. In contrast, moisture depletion did not show any significant effect on colony movement. These results provide useful information about the causes of Pharaoh ant colony budding and guidance about how to develop effective control and prevention strategies.
In Singapore, dose-response bioassays of Aedes aegypti (L.) adults have been conducted, but the mechanisms underlying resistance to insecticides remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanism in field populations of Ae. aegypti adults.
The resistance status of riceland Culex vishnui against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Biochemical assays (ESTα, ESTβ, MFO and GST) were also conducted to detect the resistance levels. Throughout a 12-month study period, multiple insecticide resistance was observed in both larvae and adult Cx vishnui. Culex vishnui larvae exhibited low resistance against malathion, temephos and permethrin with resistance ratio (RR) values < 5. In adult bioassay, Cx. vishnui were highly resistant against all tested adulticides with 24h post-treatment mortality < 70%. Correlations between permethrin and malathion resistance, as well as between deltamethrin and cyfluthrin resistance were found in Cx. vishnui. The results indicated that mixed function oxidases activity of Cx. vishnui was the highest compared to ESTα, ESTβ and GST. Spearman rank-order analysis showed that ESTα, ESTβ and GST were involved in multiple resistances in Cx. vishnui. The findings of this study established a baseline of insecticide susceptibility and revealed the effects of agricultural insecticide pressure on the vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Malaysia.
To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur.
House flies were collected from April 2007-April 2008 from two poultry farms (Balik Pulau and Juru) in the state of Penang. The resistance level of the first generation offspring was evaluated against DDT, malathion, propoxur, and permethrin using the topical application method. The resistance ratio (RR) of the Balik Pulau strain house flies for propoxur, malathion and DDT ranged from 10.28 to 99.00, 7.83 to 47.01 and 6.05 to 31.10, respectively. Resistance to propoxur and malathion in house fly was attributed to cross resistance to organophosphate insecticides used in the farm. Increased metabolic detoxification might be the mechanism involved in DDT resistance due to excessive application of cypermethrin formulation. The RR of the Juru strain for propoxur, malathion and DDT was in a decreasing pattern throughout the study period, ranging from 5.58 to 83.38, 15.19 to 27.82, and 10.04 to 22.69, respectively. Permethrin appeared to be the most potent insecticide in controlling house fly in both the Balik Pulau (RR=0.50 to 1.96) and Juru poultry farms (RR=0.64 to 2.40). The fluctuations of insecticides resistance in house fly was also found to correlate with climatic factors due to its rapid breeding. Relative humidity exhibited positive correlation indices with the changes in the resistance level for DDT (r=0.481, p<0.05), malathion (r=0.698, p<0.01), and permethrin (r=0.580, p<0.05) in Balik Pulau. Similarly, relative humidity in Juru also showed strong correlation with the RR for DDT (r=0.900, p<0.01), malathion (r=0.762, p<0.05), permethrin (r=0.760, p<0.05), and propoxur (r=0.897, p<0.01).
Here, we describe the biology of a relatively new pest cockroach species in Southeast Asia, Symploce pallens (Stephens) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). S. pallens collected from Penang Island, Malaysia, were used for the biological parameter studies and were observed for molting and reproduction events. Nymphal development took 118.2 +/- 1.7 d, with a mean of 9.5 +/- 0.1 molts. The oothecal incubation period was 36.1 +/- 0.2 d. Females produced a mean of 16.0 +/- 10.2 oothecae, with mean 17.6 +/- 0.1 nymphs per ootheca. Nymphal survivorship per ootheca was 90.4%, and 90.7% of nymphs achieved adulthood. The sex ratio did not deviate from 1:1. The mean longevity of adult males and females was 309.3 +/- 7.6 and 322.6 +/- 14.8 d, respectively. In general, S. pallens exhibited higher oothecal production and longer nymphal development and longevity compared with the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).
Effects of sublethal exposure to abamectin on the biological performance of Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) were studied under ambient laboratory conditions of 28 +/- 2 degrees C and 80 +/- 15% RH with 24 h light. The red form of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, complex (Acari: Tetranychidae), was offered as prey. The LC50 obtained from the contact bioassay at 48 h after treatment was 0.015 ppm (AI). A big change in kill for a given variation in dosage for the regression slope probably indicated that abamectin was unlikely selective. Sublethal exposure to abamectin caused a reduction in survival with the female reaching 50% mortality by the sixth day and the male 4 d later. The mean preoviposition period was extended by almost 1 d, whereas the mean oviposition period was shortened by almost 5 d causing a reduction in the mean fecundity female-1 to almost half that of the untreated females. The net reproductive rate (Ro), the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and the finite rate of increase (lambda) of the treated females were markedly inferior. Treated males were seriously affected; the mean life span was almost half that of the untreated.
Laboratory efficacy and residual activity of a water dispersible granule formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) at the dosages of 3000, 6000 and 15000 ITU/L were conducted in this study. The study was conducted in two different size containers, earthen jar (45 L) and glass jar (3 L) with or without daily replenishment of 6 L and 0.3 L of water in the earthen and glass jars, respectively. Results indicate that for both earthen jar and glass jar evaluations, Bti at the tested dosages, performed effectively against Aedes aegypti, giving a minimum of 42 days effective killing activity. When the dosage was increased from 3000 ITU/L to 6000 ITU/L or 15000 ITU/L, the effective periods of the Bti increased by an additional one to three weeks. The Bti water dispersible granule provided better larvicidal activity with replenishment of water compared with non-replenishment of water especially for the higher dosage (15000 ITU/L).
Studies were carried out on the residual efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 (water dispersible granule, VectoBac ABG 6511) as direct application in the control of Aedes larvae in the field. Field Aedes sp populations in the earthen and glass jars were predetermined before initiation of the trial. On confirmation of the presence of Aedes species in the designated area, Sungai Nibong Kecil, Penang Island, Malaysia, Bti was introduced in the 55L earthen and 3L glass jars). Two test designs were carried out. The first design had treated water replenished daily with 6L of seasoned water and the second design is without the replenishment of water but evaporated water was replenished. Bti was effective in the field for at least 35 days with more than 80% reduction in the Aedes larvae in the treated containers. For earthen jars with daily replenishment of water, 100% reduction was recorded for the first 3 days, while more than 80% reduction was recorded up to day 40. At day 60, Bti still provided an efficacy of 54.32 +/- 4.61 (%) of reduction. Whilst for earthen jars without daily replenishment of water, 100% reduction was recorded for the first 5 days, while more than 80% of reduction was recorded up to day 40. For the glass jars studied, similar efficacy was observed. In jars with daily replenishment of water a better larval control was observed. Percentage of reduction from day 50 to 60 for replenishment of water was between 50 to 70% compared to without replenishment of water with less than 40%.
Routine surveillance on resistant status of field mosquito populations is important to implement suitable strategies in order to prevent pest outbreaks. WHO test kit bioassay is the most frequent bioassay used to investigate the susceptibility status of field-collected mosquitoes, as it is relatively convenient to be carried out in the field. In contrast, the topical application of active ingredient is less popular in investigating the susceptibility status of mosquitoes. In this study, we accessed the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus Skuse collected from two dengue hotspots on Penang Island: Sungai Dua and Persiaran Mayang Pasir. Two active ingredients: permethrin and deltamethrin, were used. WHO test kit bioassay showed that both wild strains collected were susceptible to the two active ingredients; while topical application assay showed that they were resistant. This indicated that WHO test kit bioassay less sensitive to low level of resistance compared to topical application assay. Hence, topical application is expected to be more indicative when used in a resistance surveillance programme.