Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Alina MF, Azma RZ, Norunaluwar J, Azlin I, Darnina AJ, Cheah FC, et al.
    J Hum Genet, 2020 Mar;65(3):263-270.
    PMID: 31863082 DOI: 10.1038/s10038-019-0700-7
    G6PD deficiency is the commonest enzyme deficiency found in humans. Current diagnostic methods lack sensitivity to detect all cases of G6PD deficiency. We evaluated the reverse dot blot flow-through hybridisation assay designed to detect simultaneously multiple known G6PD mutations in a group of Malaysian neonates. Archival DNA samples from 141 G6PD-deficient neonates were subjected to reverse dot blot flow-through hybridisation assay using the GenoArray Diagnostic Kit (Hybribio Limited, Hong Kong) and DNA sequencing. The method involved PCR amplification of 5 G6PD exons using biotinylated primers, hybridisation of amplicons to a membrane containing oligoprobes designed for G6PD mutations known to occur in the Malaysian population and colour detection by enzyme immunoassay. The assay detected 13 of the 14 G6PD mutations and genotyped 133 (94.3%) out of 141 (102 males, 39 females) cases. Among the 39 female G6PD-deficient neonates, there were 7 homozygous and 6 compound heterozygous cases. The commonest alleles were G6PD Viangchan 871G > A (21%) and G6PD Mahidol 487G > A(20%) followed by G6PD Mediterranean 563C > T, (14%), G6PD Vanua Lava 383T > C (12%), G6PD Canton 1376G > T (10%), G6PD Orissa 131C > G (6.3%) G6PD Coimbra 592C > T (5.6%) plus 6 other mutations. DNA sequencing of remaining cases revealed 6 cases of intron 11 nt 93C > T not previously reported in Malaysia and two novel mutations, one case each of nt 1361G > T and nt 1030G > A. We found the reverse dot blot assay easy to perform, rapid, accurate and reproducible, potentially becoming an improved diagnostic test for G6PD deficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
  2. Bunawan H, Yen CC, Yaakop S, Noor NM
    BMC Res Notes, 2017 Jan 26;10(1):67.
    PMID: 28126013 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-2379-1
    The chloroplastic trnL intron and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were sequenced for 11 Nepenthes species recorded in Peninsular Malaysia to examine their phylogenetic relationship and to evaluate the usage of trnL intron and ITS sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of this genus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics*
  3. Duff-Farrier CRA, Mbanzibwa DR, Nanyiti S, Bunawan H, Pablo-Rodriguez JL, Tomlinson KR, et al.
    Mol Biotechnol, 2019 Feb;61(2):93-101.
    PMID: 30484144 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-018-0139-7
    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has major impacts on yield and quality of the tuberous roots of cassava in Eastern and Central Arica. At least two Potyviridae species cause the disease: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Cloned viral genome sequences known as infectious clones (ICs) have been important in the study of other viruses, both as a means of standardising infectious material and characterising viral gene function. IC construction is often technically challenging for Potyviridae due to sequence instability in E. coli. Here, we evaluate three methods for the construction of infectious clones for CBSD. Whilst a simple IC for in vitro transcription was made for UCBSV isolate 'Kikombe', such an approach failed to deliver full-length clones for CBSV isolates 'Nampula' or 'Tanza', necessitating more complex approaches for their construction. The ICs successfully generated symptomatic infection in the model host N. benthamiana and in the natural host cassava. This shows that whilst generating ICs for CBSV is still a technical challenge, a structured approach, evaluating both in vitro and in planta transcription systems should successfully deliver ICs, allowing further study into the symptomology and virulence factors in this important disease complex.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
  4. Courage C, Oliver KL, Park EJ, Cameron JM, Grabińska KA, Muona M, et al.
    Am J Hum Genet, 2021 04 01;108(4):722-738.
    PMID: 33798445 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.03.013
    Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) comprise a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous rare diseases. Over 70% of PME cases can now be molecularly solved. Known PME genes encode a variety of proteins, many involved in lysosomal and endosomal function. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 84 (78 unrelated) unsolved PME-affected individuals, with or without additional family members, to discover novel causes. We identified likely disease-causing variants in 24 out of 78 (31%) unrelated individuals, despite previous genetic analyses. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher for individuals studied as trios or families (14/28) versus singletons (10/50) (OR = 3.9, p value = 0.01, Fisher's exact test). The 24 likely solved cases of PME involved 18 genes. First, we found and functionally validated five heterozygous variants in NUS1 and DHDDS and a homozygous variant in ALG10, with no previous disease associations. All three genes are involved in dolichol-dependent protein glycosylation, a pathway not previously implicated in PME. Second, we independently validate SEMA6B as a dominant PME gene in two unrelated individuals. Third, in five families, we identified variants in established PME genes; three with intronic or copy-number changes (CLN6, GBA, NEU1) and two very rare causes (ASAH1, CERS1). Fourth, we found a group of genes usually associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, but here, remarkably, presenting as PME, with or without prior developmental delay. Our systematic analysis of these cases suggests that the small residuum of unsolved cases will most likely be a collection of very rare, genetically heterogeneous etiologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
  5. Song BK, Hein I, Druka A, Waugh R, Marshall D, Nadarajah K, et al.
    Funct Integr Genomics, 2009 Feb;9(1):97-108.
    PMID: 18633654 DOI: 10.1007/s10142-008-0091-x
    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) plays an important role by contributing to modern rice breeding. In this paper, we report the sequence and analysis of a 172-kb genomic DNA region of wild rice around the RM5 locus, which is associated with the yield QTL yld1.1. Comparative sequence analysis between orthologous RM5 regions from Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica and O. rufipogon revealed a high level of conserved synteny in the content, homology, structure, orientation, and physical distance of all 14 predicted genes. Twelve of the putative genes were supported by matches to proteins with known function, whereas two were predicted by homology to rice and other plant expressed sequence tags or complementary DNAs. The remarkably high level of conservation found in coding, intronic and intergenic regions may indicate high evolutionary selection on the RM5 region. Although our analysis has not defined which gene(s) determine the yld1.1 phenotype, allelic variation and the insertion of transposable elements, among other nucleotide changes, represent potential variation responsible for the yield QTL. However, as suggested previously, two putative receptor-like protein kinase genes remain the key suspects for yld1.1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
  6. Ong-Abdullah M, Ordway JM, Jiang N, Ooi SE, Kok SY, Sarpan N, et al.
    Nature, 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):533-7.
    PMID: 26352475 DOI: 10.1038/nature15365
    Somaclonal variation arises in plants and animals when differentiated somatic cells are induced into a pluripotent state, but the resulting clones differ from each other and from their parents. In agriculture, somaclonal variation has hindered the micropropagation of elite hybrids and genetically modified crops, but the mechanism responsible remains unknown. The oil palm fruit 'mantled' abnormality is a somaclonal variant arising from tissue culture that drastically reduces yield, and has largely halted efforts to clone elite hybrids for oil production. Widely regarded as an epigenetic phenomenon, 'mantling' has defied explanation, but here we identify the MANTLED locus using epigenome-wide association studies of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. DNA hypomethylation of a LINE retrotransposon related to rice Karma, in the intron of the homeotic gene DEFICIENS, is common to all mantled clones and is associated with alternative splicing and premature termination. Dense methylation near the Karma splice site (termed the Good Karma epiallele) predicts normal fruit set, whereas hypomethylation (the Bad Karma epiallele) predicts homeotic transformation, parthenocarpy and marked loss of yield. Loss of Karma methylation and of small RNA in tissue culture contributes to the origin of mantled, while restoration in spontaneous revertants accounts for non-Mendelian inheritance. The ability to predict and cull mantling at the plantlet stage will facilitate the introduction of higher performing clones and optimize environmentally sensitive land resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
  7. Tang K, Ngoi SM, Gwee PC, Chua JM, Lee EJ, Chong SS, et al.
    Pharmacogenetics, 2002 Aug;12(6):437-50.
    PMID: 12172212
    The MDR1 multidrug transporter plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability, and differences in drug response exist amongst different ethnic groups. Numerous studies have identified an association between the MDR1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) exon 26 3435C>T and differences in MDR1 function. We performed a haplotype analysis of the MDR1 gene in three major ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) by examining 10 intragenic SNPs. Four were polymorphic in all three ethnic groups: one occurring in the non-coding region and three occurring in coding exons. All three coding SNPs (exon 12 1236C>T, exon 21 2677G>T/A and exon 26 3435C>T) were present in high frequency in each ethnic group, and the derived haplotype profiles exhibited distinct differences between the groups. Fewer haplotypes were observed in the Malays (n = 6) compared to the Chinese (n = 10) and Indians (n = 9). Three major haplotypes (> 10% frequency) were observed in the Malays and Chinese; of these, two were observed in the Indians. Strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected between the three SNPs in all three ethnic groups. The strongest LD was present in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays, with the corresponding LD blocks estimated to be approximately 80 kb, 60 kb and 40 kb, respectively. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strong LD between the neutral SNP exon 26 3435C>T and a nearby unobserved causal SNP underlies the observed associations between the neutral SNP and MDR1 functional differences. Furthermore, strong LD between exon 26 3435T and different unobserved causal SNPs in different study populations may provide a plausible explanation for conflicting reports associating the same exon 26 3435T allele with different MDR1 functional changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
  8. Liu Y, Saha N, Low PS, Tay JS
    Hum. Hered., 1995 Jul-Aug;45(4):192-8.
    PMID: 7558050
    The distribution of two common DNA polymorphisms (5' untranslated exon 1 and intron 5-DdeI) of the antithrombin III (ATIII) gene was studied in three ethnic groups in Singapore: 251 Chinese, 221 Dravidian Indians and 102 Malays. The polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction and size fractionation in agarose gels. The 5' untranslated to exon 1 polymorphism is a length polymorphism while the intron 5 polymorphism is a restriction site (DdeI) polymorphism. The frequency of the short fragment (S) of the 5' to exon 1 length polymorphism of the ATIII gene was found to be 0.37 in the Chinese, 0.54 in the Malays and 0.65 in the Dravidian Indians. For the Chinese, this was significantly lower compared to the Caucasians and Indians (p < 0.0001) and the Malays (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the frequencies of DdeI+ did not vary significantly among these three populations (p > 0.05). The distribution of different genotypes at these two loci of the ATIII gene was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all three ethnic groups. A strong linkage disequilibrium between these two polymorphisms was observed in all the ethnic groups and the estimated correlation coefficient (delta) was 0.42 in the Chinese (p < 0.001), 0.61 in the Dravidian Indians (p < 0.001) and 0.43 in the Malays (p < 0.001). The frequencies of haplotype S+, L+ and L- were, respectively, 0.37, 0.40 and 0.23 in the Chinese, 0.65, 0.18 and 0.16 in the Dravidian Indians and 0.54, 0.37 and 0.09 in the Malays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
  9. Coppard SE, Jessop H, Lessios HA
    Sci Rep, 2021 Aug 16;11(1):16568.
    PMID: 34400682 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-95872-0
    The sea urchins Echinothrix calamaris and Echinothrix diadema have sympatric distributions throughout the Indo-Pacific. Diverse colour variation is reported in both species. To reconstruct the phylogeny of the genus and assess gene flow across the Indo-Pacific we sequenced mitochondrial 16S rDNA, ATPase-6, and ATPase-8, and nuclear 28S rDNA and the Calpain-7 intron. Our analyses revealed that E. diadema formed a single trans-Indo-Pacific clade, but E. calamaris contained three discrete clades. One clade was endemic to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Oman. A second clade occurred from Malaysia in the West to Moorea in the East. A third clade of E. calamaris was distributed across the entire Indo-Pacific biogeographic region. A fossil calibrated phylogeny revealed that the ancestor of E. diadema diverged from the ancestor of E. calamaris ~ 16.8 million years ago (Ma), and that the ancestor of the trans-Indo-Pacific clade and Red Sea and Gulf of Oman clade split from the western and central Pacific clade ~ 9.8 Ma. Time since divergence and genetic distances suggested species level differentiation among clades of E. calamaris. Colour variation was extensive in E. calamaris, but not clade or locality specific. There was little colour polymorphism in E. diadema.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
  10. Shmukler BE, Kedar PS, Warang P, Desai M, Madkaikar M, Ghosh K, et al.
    Am J Hematol, 2010 Oct;85(10):824-8.
    PMID: 20799361 DOI: 10.1002/ajh.21836
    Familial distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can be caused by mutations in the Cl2/HCO32 exchanger of the renal Type A intercalated cell, kidney AE1/SLC4A1. dRTA-associated AE1 mutations have been reported in families from North America, Europe, Thailand, Malaysia, Papua-New Guinea, Taiwan, and the Philippines, but not India. The dRTA mutation AE1 A858D has been detected only in the context of compound heterozygosity. We report here two unrelated Indian patients with combined hemolytic anemia and dRTA who share homozygous A858D mutations of the AE1/SLC4A1 gene. The mutation creates a novel restriction site that is validated for diagnostic screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Introns/genetics
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