Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

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  1. Abidi SS
    J Med Syst, 2001 Jun;25(3):147-65.
    PMID: 11433545
    Worldwide healthcare delivery trends are undergoing a subtle paradigm shift--patient centered services as opposed to provider centered services and wellness maintenance as opposed to illness management. In this paper we present a Tele-Healthcare project TIDE--Tele-Healthcare Information and Diagnostic Environment. TIDE manifests an 'intelligent' healthcare environment that aims to ensure lifelong coverage of person-specific health maintenance decision-support services--i.e., both wellness maintenance and illness management services--ubiquitously available via the Internet/WWW. Taking on an all-encompassing health maintenance role--spanning from wellness to illness issues--the functionality of TIDE involves the generation and delivery of (a) Personalized, Pro-active, Persistent, Perpetual, and Present wellness maintenance services, and (b) remote diagnostic services for managing noncritical illnesses. Technically, TIDE is an amalgamation of diverse computer technologies--Artificial Intelligence, Internet, Multimedia, Databases, and Medical Informatics--to implement a sophisticated healthcare delivery infostructure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  2. Mat Kiah ML, Al-Bakri SH, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Hussain M
    J Med Syst, 2014 Oct;38(10):133.
    PMID: 25199651 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-014-0133-y
    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  3. Short CE, DeSmet A, Woods C, Williams SL, Maher C, Middelweerd A, et al.
    J. Med. Internet Res., 2018 11 16;20(11):e292.
    PMID: 30446482 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.9397
    Engagement in electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) behavior change interventions is thought to be important for intervention effectiveness, though what constitutes engagement and how it enhances efficacy has been somewhat unclear in the literature. Recently published detailed definitions and conceptual models of engagement have helped to build consensus around a definition of engagement and improve our understanding of how engagement may influence effectiveness. This work has helped to establish a clearer research agenda. However, to test the hypotheses generated by the conceptual modules, we need to know how to measure engagement in a valid and reliable way. The aim of this viewpoint is to provide an overview of engagement measurement options that can be employed in eHealth and mHealth behavior change intervention evaluations, discuss methodological considerations, and provide direction for future research. To identify measures, we used snowball sampling, starting from systematic reviews of engagement research as well as those utilized in studies known to the authors. A wide range of methods to measure engagement were identified, including qualitative measures, self-report questionnaires, ecological momentary assessments, system usage data, sensor data, social media data, and psychophysiological measures. Each measurement method is appraised and examples are provided to illustrate possible use in eHealth and mHealth behavior change research. Recommendations for future research are provided, based on the limitations of current methods and the heavy reliance on system usage data as the sole assessment of engagement. The validation and adoption of a wider range of engagement measurements and their thoughtful application to the study of engagement are encouraged.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  4. Morse SS, Murugiah MK, Soh YC, Wong TW, Ming LC
    Ther Innov Regul Sci, 2018 05;52(3):383-391.
    PMID: 29714538 DOI: 10.1177/2168479017725557
    BACKGROUND: Despite the surge in mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) about pediatric care in commercial app stores, to our knowledge, reviews of the quality of such apps are lacking. Consequently, it is a great challenge for health care professionals (HCPs) to identify appropriate and reliable mHealth apps for delivering health care services. Thus, we performed a structured review of the extant literature about mHealth apps in pediatric care and quality assessment of selected apps found in commercial app stores.

    METHODS: A review and comparison of mHealth apps in pediatric care found in Google's Play Store (Android system) and Apple's App Store (iOS system) were performed. For the structured review of the available literature, Google Scholar, PubMed, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, and Science Direct online databases were used for the literature search. The assessment criteria used for comparison included requirement for Internet connection, size of application, information on disease, diagnostic tools, medical calculator, information on disease treatments, dosage recommendations, and drug interaction checker.

    RESULTS: Fifty mHealth apps for general pediatric care and 8 mHealth apps for specific pediatric diseases were discussed in the literature. Of the 90 mHealth apps we reviewed, 27 that fulfilled the study criteria were selected for quality assessment. Medscape, Skyscape, and iGuideline scored the highest (score=7), while PediaBP scored the lowest (score=3).

    CONCLUSIONS: Medscape, Skyscape, and iGuideline are the most comprehensive mHealth apps for HCPs as quick references for pediatric care. More studies about mHealth apps in pediatric care are warranted to ensure the quality and reliability of mHealth apps.

    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  5. Müller AM, Khoo S, Morris T
    J. Med. Internet Res., 2016 Jan 07;18(1):e5.
    PMID: 26742999 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.5235
    BACKGROUND: Mobile technology to promote exercise is effective; however, most evidence is from studies of younger groups in high-income countries. Investigating if short message service (SMS) texting can affect exercise participation in older adults from an upper-middle-income country is important considering the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions and the increased interest of older adults in using mobile phones.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to examine the short- and long-term effects of SMS text messaging on exercise frequency in older adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate how SMS text messages impact study participants' exercise frequency and the effects of the intervention on secondary outcomes.

    METHODS: The Malaysian Physical Activity for Health Study (myPAtHS) was a 24-week, 2-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted in urban Malaysia. Participants were recruited via health talks in resident associations and religious facilities. Older Malaysians (aged 55-70 years) who used mobile phones and did not exercise regularly were eligible to participate in the study. Participants randomly allocated to the SMS texting arm received an exercise booklet and 5 weekly SMS text messages over 12 weeks. The content of the SMS text messages was derived from effective behavior change techniques. The non-SMS texting arm participants received only the exercise booklet. Home visits were conducted to collect outcome data: (1) exercise frequency at 12 and 24 weeks, (2) secondary outcome data (exercise self-efficacy, physical activity-related energy expenditure, sitting time, body mass index, grip and leg strength) at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. Intention-to-treat procedures were applied for data analysis. Semistructured interviews focusing primarily on the SMS text messages and their impact on exercise frequency were conducted at weeks 12 and 24.

    RESULTS: In total, 43 participants were randomized into the SMS texting arm (n=22) and the non-SMS texting arm (n=21). Study-unrelated injuries forced 4 participants to discontinue after a few weeks (they were not included in any analyses). Overall retention was 86% (37/43). After 12 weeks, SMS texting arm participants exercised significantly more than non-SMS texting arm participants (mean difference 1.21 times, bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap [BCa] 95% CI 0.18-2.24). Interview analysis revealed that the SMS text messages positively influenced SMS texting arm participants who experienced exercise barriers. They described the SMS text messages as being encouraging, a push, and a reminder. After 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between the research arms (mean difference 0.74, BCa 95% CI -0.30 to 1.76). There were no significant effects for secondary outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that SMS text messaging is effective in promoting exercise in older adults from an upper-middle-income country. Although the effects were not maintained when SMS text messaging ceased, the results are promising and warrant more research on behavioral mobile health interventions in other regions.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02123342; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02123342 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eGSsu2EI).

    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  6. Keikhosrokiani P, Mustaffa N, Zakaria N, Sarwar MI
    PMID: 23138083
    Healthcare for elderly people has become a vital issue. The Wearable Health Monitoring System (WHMS) is used to manage and monitor chronic disease in elderly people, postoperative rehabilitation patients and persons with special needs. Location-aware healthcare is achievable as positioning systems and telecommunications have been developed and have fulfilled the technology needed for this kind of healthcare system. In this paper, the researchers propose a Location-Based Mobile Cardiac Emergency System (LMCES) to track the patient's current location when Emergency Medical Services (EMS) has been activated as well as to locate the nearest healthcare unit for the ambulance service. The location coordinates of the patients can be retrieved by GPS and sent to the healthcare centre using GPRS. The location of the patient, cell ID information will also be transmitted to the LMCES server in order to retrieve the nearest health care unit. For the LMCES, we use Dijkstra's algorithm for selecting the shortest path between the nearest healthcare unit and the patient location in order to facilitate the ambulance's path under critical conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  7. Vedanthan R, Bernabe-Ortiz A, Herasme OI, Joshi R, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Thrift AG, et al.
    Cardiol Clin, 2017 Feb;35(1):99-115.
    PMID: 27886793 DOI: 10.1016/j.ccl.2016.08.010
    Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, is the leading global risk for mortality. Treatment and control rates are very low in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases sponsored research projects focus on controlling hypertension, including community engagement, salt reduction, salt substitution, task redistribution, mHealth, and fixed-dose combination therapies. This paper reviews the rationale for each approach and summarizes the experience of some of the research teams. The studies demonstrate innovative and practical methods for improving hypertension control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  8. Balasingam M
    Int. J. Clin. Pract., 2017 Sep;71(9).
    PMID: 28851081 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.12989
    This is a medical kitty hawk moment. Drones are pilotless aircrafts that were initially used exclusively by the military but are now also used for various scientific purposes, public safety, and in commercial industries. The healthcare industry in particular can benefit from their technical capabilities and ease of use. Common drone applications in medicine include the provision disaster assessments when other means of access are severely restricted; delivering aid packages, medicines, vaccines, blood and other medical supplies to remote areas; providing safe transport of disease test samples and test kits in areas with high contagion; and potential for providing rapid access to automated external defibrillators for patients in cardiac arrest. Drones are also showing early potential to benefit geriatric medicine by providing mobility assistance to elderly populations using robot-like technology. Looking further to the future, drones with diagnostic imaging capabilities may have a role in assessing health in remote communities using telemedicine technology. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) in the European Union are some examples of legislative bodies with regulatory authority over drone usage. These agencies oversee all technical, safety, security and administrative issues related to drones. It is important that drones continue to meet or exceed the requirements specified in each of these regulatory areas. The FAA is challenged with keeping pace legislatively with the rapid advances in drone technology. This relative lag has been perceived as slowing the proliferation of drone use. Despite these regulatory limitations, drones are showing significant potential for transforming healthcare and medicine in the 21st century.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  9. Müller AM, Maher CA, Vandelanotte C, Hingle M, Middelweerd A, Lopez ML, et al.
    J. Med. Internet Res., 2018 04 18;20(4):e122.
    PMID: 29669703 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.8954
    BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) approaches to address low physical activity levels, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy diets have received significant research attention. However, attempts to systematically map the entirety of the research field are lacking. This gap can be filled with a bibliometric study, where publication-specific data such as citations, journals, authors, and keywords are used to provide a systematic overview of a specific field. Such analyses will help researchers better position their work.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to use bibliometric data to provide an overview of the eHealth and mHealth research field related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet.

    METHODS: The Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection was searched to retrieve all existing and highly cited (as defined by WoS) physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet related eHealth and mHealth research papers published in English between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2016. Retrieved titles were screened for eligibility, using the abstract and full-text where needed. We described publication trends over time, which included journals, authors, and countries of eligible papers, as well as their keywords and subject categories. Citations of eligible papers were compared with those expected based on published data. Additionally, we described highly-cited papers of the field (ie, top ranked 1%).

    RESULTS: The search identified 4805 hits, of which 1712 (including 42 highly-cited papers) were included in the analyses. Publication output increased on an average of 26% per year since 2000, with 49.00% (839/1712) of papers being published between 2014 and 2016. Overall and throughout the years, eHealth and mHealth papers related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet received more citations than expected compared with papers in the same WoS subject categories. The Journal of Medical Internet Research published most papers in the field (9.58%, 164/1712). Most papers originated from high-income countries (96.90%, 1659/1717), in particular the United States (48.83%, 836/1712). Most papers were trials and studied physical activity. Beginning in 2013, research on Generation 2 technologies (eg, smartphones, wearables) sharply increased, while research on Generation 1 (eg, text messages) technologies increased at a reduced pace. Reviews accounted for 20 of the 42 highly-cited papers (n=19 systematic reviews). Social media, smartphone apps, and wearable activity trackers used to encourage physical activity, less sedentary behavior, and/or healthy eating were the focus of 14 highly-cited papers.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the rapid growth of the eHealth and mHealth physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet research field, emphasized the sizeable contribution of research from high-income countries, and pointed to the increased research interest in Generation 2 technologies. It is expected that the field will grow and diversify further and that reviews and research on most recent technologies will continue to strongly impact the field.

    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  10. Shuwandy ML, Zaidan BB, Zaidan AA, Albahri AS
    J Med Syst, 2019 Jan 06;43(2):33.
    PMID: 30612191 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-018-1149-5
    The new and groundbreaking real-time remote healthcare monitoring system on sensor-based mobile health (mHealth) authentication in telemedicine has considerably bounded and dispersed communication components. mHealth, an attractive part in telemedicine architecture, plays an imperative role in patient security and privacy and adapts different sensing technologies through many built-in sensors. This study aims to improve sensor-based defence and attack mechanisms to ensure patient privacy in client side when using mHealth. Thus, a multilayer taxonomy was conducted to attain the goal of this study. Within the first layer, real-time remote monitoring studies based on sensor technology for telemedicine application were reviewed and analysed to examine these technologies and provide researchers with a clear vision of security- and privacy-based sensors in the telemedicine area. An extensive search was conducted to find articles about security and privacy issues, review related applications comprehensively and establish the coherent taxonomy of these articles. ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases were investigated for articles on mHealth in telemedicine-based sensor. A total of 3064 papers were collected from 2007 to 2017. The retrieved articles were filtered according to the security and privacy of sensor-based telemedicine applications. A total of 19 articles were selected and classified into two categories. The first category, 57.89% (n = 11/19), included survey on telemedicine articles and their applications. The second category, 42.1% (n = 8/19), included articles contributed to the three-tiered architecture of telemedicine. The collected studies improved the essential need to add another taxonomy layer and review the sensor-based smartphone authentication studies. This map matching for both taxonomies was developed for this study to investigate sensor field comprehensively and gain access to novel risks and benefits of the mHealth security in telemedicine application. The literature on sensor-based smartphones in the second layer of our taxonomy was analysed and reviewed. A total of 599 papers were collected from 2007 to 2017. In this layer, we obtained a final set of 81 articles classified into three categories. The first category of the articles [86.41% (n = 70/81)], where sensor-based smartphones were examined by utilising orientation sensors for user authentication, was used. The second category [7.40% (n = 6/81)] included attack articles, which were not intensively included in our literature analysis. The third category [8.64% (n = 7/81)] included 'other' articles. Factors were considered to understand fully the various contextual aspects of the field in published studies. The characteristics included the motivation and challenges related to sensor-based authentication of smartphones encountered by researchers and the recommendations to strengthen this critical area of research. Finally, many studies on the sensor-based smartphone in the second layer have focused on enhancing accurate authentication because sensor-based smartphones require sensors that could authentically secure mHealth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  11. Abdul Karim R, Zakaria NF, Zulkifley MA, Mustafa MM, Sagap I, Md Latar NH
    Biomed Eng Online, 2013;12:21.
    PMID: 23496940 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-12-21
    Telepointer is a powerful tool in the telemedicine system that enhances the effectiveness of long-distance communication. Telepointer has been tested in telemedicine, and has potential to a big influence in improving quality of health care, especially in the rural area. A telepointer system works by sending additional information in the form of gesture that can convey more accurate instruction or information. It leads to more effective communication, precise diagnosis, and better decision by means of discussion and consultation between the expert and the junior clinicians. However, there is no review paper yet on the state of the art of the telepointer in telemedicine. This paper is intended to give the readers an overview of recent advancement of telepointer technology as a support tool in telemedicine. There are four most popular modes of telepointer system, namely cursor, hand, laser and sketching pointer. The result shows that telepointer technology has a huge potential for wider acceptance in real life applications, there are needs for more improvement in the real time positioning accuracy. More results from actual test (real patient) need to be reported. We believe that by addressing these two issues, telepointer technology will be embraced widely by researchers and practitioners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  12. Lua PL, Neni WS
    J Telemed Telecare, 2013 Jan;19(1):23-8.
    PMID: 23390210 DOI: 10.1177/1357633X12473920
    We evaluated an epilepsy education programme based on text messaging (SMS). Epilepsy outpatients from three hospitals in Malaysia were randomised into two groups: intervention and control. Patients in the control group were supplied with printed epilepsy educational material while those in the intervention group also received text messages from the Mobile Epilepsy Educational System (MEES). A total of 136 patients completed the study (mean age 31 years; 91% Malay; 51% with an illness duration of more than 5 years). A between-group analysis showed that the awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) about epilepsy did not significantly differ between the groups at baseline (P > 0.05). The intervention patients reported better AKA levels during follow-up compared to the control patients (P < 0.05). A within-group analysis showed that in intervention patients, there were significant improvements in all AKA domains with larger effect sizes (P < 0.01) while control patients also exhibited significant improvement in most domains except for Awareness but with smaller effect sizes. After controlling for possible confounding variables (age, gender, educational qualification, monthly income and baseline mean for each domain), the intervention group still reported significantly higher AKA than the control group particularly in Awareness (P < 0.001) and Total AKA (P = 0.003). There was also significantly better medication adherence and clinic attendance in the intervention group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the addition of the MEES to conventional epilepsy education is effective in improving AKA.
    Study site: Neurology clinics, public hospitals, Terengganu, Pahang, Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  13. Wong KI, Ho MM
    PMID: 19162703 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4649200
    Extended patient monitoring has become increasingly important for detection of cardiac conditions, such as irregularities in the rhythms of the heart, while patient is practicing normal daily activity. This paper presents a design of a single lead wireless cardiac rhythm interpretive instrument that capable of capture the electrocardiogram (ECG) in digital format and transmitted to a remote base-station (i.e. PC) for storage and further interpretation. The design has achieved high quality of ECG and free of interference in the presence of motion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods
  14. Kennedy C, Bowman R, Fariza N, Ackuaku E, Ntim-Amponsah C, Murdoch I
    J Telemed Telecare, 2006;12(2):88-91.
    PMID: 16539756
    A Web-based service was set up to link subspecialist ophthalmologists with those seeking advice on particular clinical problems in ophthalmology. The service operated between countries, with centres in Malaysia, Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa and Gambia seeking advice from Moorfields Eye Hospital in the UK. It also operated within country, where a rural clinic in The Gambia sought advice from the central hospital on difficult cases or cases for possible referral. Provision of Web access and training in image capture and manipulation were undertaken in each participating centre. During the first 12 months, 132 cases were posted to the Website from five of the six centres participating. The rate of case referral rose to about 12-14 cases per month by the end of the study. Overall, 24% of referrals did not use images. In the first four months the response time was 13 days, and in the last four months it was three days. Most cases were answered with a single response from the specialist. The main problem was the amount of Internet down-time in each of the locations. The main benefit was safe and reliable access to specialist advice for practitioners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  15. Papakostopoulos D, Williams A, Ramani V, Hart CJ, Dodson K, Papakostopoulos S
    J Telemed Telecare, 1999;5 Suppl 1:S17-20.
    PMID: 10534828
    The First International Teleconference in Ophthalmology was held during March 1998 between five sites in the UK, USA, Greece and Malaysia. ISDN transmission at 128 kbit/s was used to reduce costs while maintaining the clarity of the presented material. Specialized lecture theatres were not available at all sites and conventional halls had to be adapted for videoconferencing. For this reason initial point-to-point testing was carried with Bristol to simplify problem solving. Thereafter, a multipoint bridge was used to connect all sites together. During the conference a number of individual presentations were given, all followed by extensive discussion periods. Special instructions were given beforehand on the production of slide material, with particular reference to font sizes and colour combinations. Full use was made of various presentation media, including slides, videos and live demonstrations. The conference was attended by over 500 delegates, all of whom were specialists in ophthalmology. The technology employed was ideal for teaching purposes. However, if used in a clinical field, it should be kept in mind that the choice of transmission rate makes certain features not easily apparent in images but they become clearer when pointed out by the presenter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  16. Mohammed S, Orabi A, Fiaidhi J, Orabi M, R. Benlamri
    Int J Electron Healthc, 2008;4(1):24-42.
    PMID: 18583294
    Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis, podcasts/vodcasting, blogs and semantic portals could be quite effective tools in e-learning for health professionals. If effectively deployed, such tools can offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepens levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within medical learning environments. However, Web 2.0 requires simplicity of use as well as integration with modern web technologies. This article presents a Web 2.0 telemedical portal, which provides a social community-learning paradigm from the desk of the physician, the student, the hospital administrator, or the insurer. The presented portal utilises RESTful web services and techniques like content syndication, mushups and Asynchronous JavaScript API and XML (AJAX). The designed portal is based on the Apache Cocoon RESTful framework for sharing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) medical case studies. Central to this article is the integration between Cocoon and AJAX. The proposed AJAX-Cocoon portal utilises a JSP portlet architecture, which manages the interaction dynamics and overcomes the shortcomings of the JSR 168 and WSRP 1.0 standards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods
  17. Mohsin AH, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri AS, Albahri OS, Alsalem MA, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2018 Oct 16;42(12):238.
    PMID: 30327939 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-018-1104-5
    The development of wireless body area sensor networks is imperative for modern telemedicine. However, attackers and cybercriminals are gradually becoming aware in attacking telemedicine systems, and the black market value of protected health information has the highest price nowadays. Security remains a formidable challenge to be resolved. Intelligent home environments make up one of the major application areas of pervasive computing. Security and privacy are the two most important issues in the remote monitoring and control of intelligent home environments for clients and servers in telemedicine architecture. The personal authentication approach that uses the finger vein pattern is a newly investigated biometric technique. This type of biometric has many advantages over other types (explained in detail later on) and is suitable for different human categories and ages. This study aims to establish a secure verification method for real-time monitoring systems to be used for the authentication of patients and other members who are working in telemedicine systems. The process begins with the sensor based on Tiers 1 and 2 (client side) in the telemedicine architecture and ends with patient verification in Tier 3 (server side) via finger vein biometric technology to ensure patient security on both sides. Multilayer taxonomy is conducted in this research to attain the study's goal. In the first layer, real-time remote monitoring studies based on the sensor technology used in telemedicine applications are reviewed and analysed to provide researchers a clear vision of security and privacy based on sensors in telemedicine. An extensive search is conducted to identify articles that deal with security and privacy issues, related applications are reviewed comprehensively and a coherent taxonomy of these articles is established. ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases are checked for articles on mHealth in telemedicine based on sensors. A total of 3064 papers are collected from 2007 to 2017. The retrieved articles are filtered according to the security and privacy of telemedicine applications based on sensors. Nineteen articles are selected and classified into two categories. The first category, which accounts for 57.89% (n = 11/19), includes surveys on telemedicine articles and their applications. The second category, accounting for 42.1% (n = 8/19), includes articles on the three-tiered architecture of telemedicine. The collected studies reveal the essential need to construct another taxonomy layer and review studies on finger vein biometric verification systems. This map-matching for both taxonomies is developed for this study to go deeply into the sensor field and determine novel risks and benefits for patient security and privacy on client and server sides in telemedicine applications. In the second layer of our taxonomy, the literature on finger vein biometric verification systems is analysed and reviewed. In this layer, we obtain a final set of 65 articles classified into four categories. In the first category, 80% (n = 52/65) of the articles focus on development and design. In the second category, 12.30% (n = 8/65) includes evaluation and comparative articles. These articles are not intensively included in our literature analysis. In the third category, 4.61% (n = 3/65) includes articles about analytical studies. In the fourth category, 3.07% (n = 2/65) comprises reviews and surveys. This study aims to provide researchers with an up-to-date overview of studies that have been conducted on (user/patient) authentication to enhance the security level in telemedicine or any information system. In the current study, taxonomy is presented by explaining previous studies. Moreover, this review highlights the motivations, challenges and recommendations related to finger vein biometric verification systems and determines the gaps in this research direction (protection of finger vein templates in real time), which represent a new research direction in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  18. Albahri OS, Albahri AS, Mohammed KI, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Hashim M, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2018 Mar 22;42(5):80.
    PMID: 29564649 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-018-0943-4
    The new and ground-breaking real-time remote monitoring in triage and priority-based sensor technology used in telemedicine have significantly bounded and dispersed communication components. To examine these technologies and provide researchers with a clear vision of this area, we must first be aware of the utilised approaches and existing limitations in this line of research. To this end, an extensive search was conducted to find articles dealing with (a) telemedicine, (b) triage, (c) priority and (d) sensor; (e) comprehensively review related applications and establish the coherent taxonomy of these articles. ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases were checked for articles on triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine. The retrieved articles were filtered according to the type of telemedicine technology explored. A total of 150 articles were selected and classified into two categories. The first category includes reviews and surveys of triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine. The second category includes articles on the three-tiered architecture of telemedicine. Tier 1 represents the users. Sensors acquire the vital signs of the users and send them to Tier 2, which is the personal gateway that uses local area network protocols or wireless body area network. Medical data are sent from Tier 2 to Tier 3, which is the healthcare provider in medical institutes. Then, the motivation for using triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine, the issues related to the obstruction of its application and the development and utilisation of telemedicine are examined on the basis of the findings presented in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  19. Talal M, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri AS, Alamoodi AH, Albahri OS, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2019 Jan 15;43(3):42.
    PMID: 30648217 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1158-z
    The Internet of Things (IoT) has been identified in various applications across different domains, such as in the healthcare sector. IoT has also been recognised for its revolution in reshaping modern healthcare with aspiring wide range prospects, including economical, technological and social. This study aims to establish IoT-based smart home security solutions for real-time health monitoring technologies in telemedicine architecture. A multilayer taxonomy is driven and conducted in this study. In the first layer, a comprehensive analysis on telemedicine, which focuses on the client and server sides, shows that other studies associated with IoT-based smart home applications have several limitations that remain unaddressed. Particularly, remote patient monitoring in healthcare applications presents various facilities and benefits by adopting IoT-based smart home technologies without compromising the security requirements and potentially large number of risks. An extensive search is conducted to identify articles that handle these issues, related applications are comprehensively reviewed and a coherent taxonomy for these articles is established. A total number of (n = 3064) are gathered between 2007 and 2017 for most reliable databases, such as ScienceDirect, Web of Science and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineer Xplore databases. Then, the articles based on IoT studies that are associated with telemedicine applications are filtered. Nine articles are selected and classified into two categories. The first category, which accounts for 22.22% (n = 2/9), includes surveys on telemedicine articles and their applications. The second category, which accounts for 77.78% (n = 7/9), includes articles on the client and server sides of telemedicine architecture. The collected studies reveal the essential requirement in constructing another taxonomy layer and review IoT-based smart home security studies. Therefore, IoT-based smart home security features are introduced and analysed in the second layer. The security of smart home design based on IoT applications is an aspect that represents a crucial matter for general occupants of smart homes, in which studies are required to provide a better solution with patient security, privacy protection and security of users' entities from being stolen or compromised. Innovative technologies have dispersed limitations related to this matter. The existing gaps and trends in this area should be investigated to provide valuable visions for technical environments and researchers. Thus, 67 articles are obtained in the second layer of our taxonomy and are classified into six categories. In the first category, 25.37% (n = 17/67) of the articles focus on architecture design. In the second category, 17.91% (n = 12/67) includes security analysis articles that investigate the research status in the security area of IoT-based smart home applications. In the third category, 10.44% (n = 7/67) includes articles about security schemes. In the fourth category, 17.91% (n = 12/67) comprises security examination. In the fifth category, 13.43% (n = 9/67) analyses security protocols. In the final category, 14.92% (n = 10/67) analyses the security framework. Then, the identified basic characteristics of this emerging field are presented and provided in the following aspects. Open challenges experienced on the development of IoT-based smart home security are addressed to be adopted fully in telemedicine applications. Then, the requirements are provided to increase researcher's interest in this study area. On this basis, a number of recommendations for different parties are described to provide insights on the next steps that should be considered to enhance the security of smart homes based on IoT. A map matching for both taxonomies is developed in this study to determine the novel risks and benefits of IoT-based smart home security for real-time remote health monitoring within client and server sides in telemedicine applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
  20. Fornace KM, Surendra H, Abidin TR, Reyes R, Macalinao MLM, Stresman G, et al.
    Int J Health Geogr, 2018 06 18;17(1):21.
    PMID: 29914506 DOI: 10.1186/s12942-018-0141-0
    BACKGROUND: Identifying fine-scale spatial patterns of disease is essential for effective disease control and elimination programmes. In low resource areas without formal addresses, novel strategies are needed to locate residences of individuals attending health facilities in order to efficiently map disease patterns. We aimed to assess the use of Android tablet-based applications containing high resolution maps to geolocate individual residences, whilst comparing the functionality, usability and cost of three software packages designed to collect spatial information.

    RESULTS: Using Open Data Kit GeoODK, we designed and piloted an electronic questionnaire for rolling cross sectional surveys of health facility attendees as part of a malaria elimination campaign in two predominantly rural sites in the Rizal, Palawan, the Philippines and Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The majority of health workers were able to use the tablets effectively, including locating participant households on electronic maps. For all households sampled (n = 603), health facility workers were able to retrospectively find the participant household using the Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates and data collected by tablet computers. Median distance between actual house locations and points collected on the tablet was 116 m (IQR 42-368) in Rizal and 493 m (IQR 258-886) in Kulon Progo Regency. Accuracy varied between health facilities and decreased in less populated areas with fewer prominent landmarks.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate the utility of this approach to develop real-time high-resolution maps of disease in resource-poor environments. This method provides an attractive approach for quickly obtaining spatial information on individuals presenting at health facilities in resource poor areas where formal addresses are unavailable and internet connectivity is limited. Further research is needed on how to integrate these with other health data management systems and implement in a wider operational context.

    Matched MeSH terms: Telemedicine/methods*
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