Browse publications by year: 1996

  1. Merican Z
    J. Food Prot., 1996 Oct;59(10):1133-1137.
    PMID: 31195465 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X-59.10.1133
    We have a competitive world economy and cannot exist in isolation. Migration, overseas education, and travel have resulted in tremendous demands for foods from other parts of the world. With advances in communication systems, products can be moved rapidly throughout the world at competitive prices. There is a two-way concern regarding safety and quality in importing and exporting countries: the microbiological risks from products and/or ingredients from countries which have varying microbiological standards and the dumping of substandard products in countries with insufficient monitoring systems. HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) programs based on hazards and risks specific to a particular product are being increasingly recommended as a quality assurance tool to meet the current and future safety demands of the world's food supply. The scope of these developments implies an urgent need for a thorough understanding of the dynamics of food production, including the available infrastructure, trained human resources, and cultural factors, as well as food needs and wants. Quality assurance activities should not only depend on government's regulatory machinery, but also on self-regulation by industry groups, exporters, and importers. Enough has been said on these principles. It is left to countries and industries to exercise adherence to ensure safety and quality. Assistance from the developed world and international organizations to train resources in developing countries on the standard safety procedures is urgently needed. Government-industry partnership and mutual recognition (of certification bodies) based on HACCP plans and designed after ISO (International Standards Association) guidelines are some of the means by which importing countries can monitor and address the expanding global food supply. A network of these certification bodies world-wide should be considered. The basic provisions of the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures signed on 15 April 1994, when fully implemented, should be able to address these concerns.
    MeSH terms: Certification; Commerce; Developing Countries; Economic Competition; Food; Food Supply; Government; Humans; Industry; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
  2. Abu Bakar Salleh, Razak C.N.A., Samad M.Y.A., Ampon K., Yunus W.M.Z.W., Basri M.
    Lipase from a newly isolated strain of Rhizopus rhizopodifonnis was partially purified and characterized. By acetone fractionation, the enzyme was purified to about 2.8 fold, with 62.5% recovery and with specific activity of 3.2 U/mg. By gel filtration through Sephadex G-100, the enzyme was further purified to 9.7 fold and had a specific activity of 11.1 U/mg. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, five protein bands were observed after acetone fractionation, white two protein bands were observed after the preparation was passed through Sephadex G-100. It has a pH optimum at 6.0 and a temperature optimum at 45°C. The enzyme is most stable at pH 7.0 and temperature of 50°C. The enzyme has a preference for short chain triglycerides and can also hydrolyse some methyl esters. The lipase is specific for 1,3 positions.
    Lipase daripada satu stren Rhizopus rhizopodifonnis yang baru dipencilkan telah diseparatulen dan diciri. Melalui fraksi asiton, enzim telah ditulen lebih kurang 2.8 ganda, dengan pengutipan 62.5% dan aktiviti spesifik 3.2 U/mg. Dengan penurasan gel melalui Sephadex G-l00, enzim ditulenkan lagi hingga 9.7 ganda dengan aktiviti spesifik mencapai 11.1 U/mg. Dengan elektroforesis gel poliakritamida, 5 jalur protein didapati selepas fraksi asetone, sementara 2 jalur protein dilihati selepas penurasan gel Sephadex G-10. Enzim ini mempunyai pH optimum pada pH 6.0 dan suhu optimumnya ialah 45°C Enzim ini paling stabit pada pH 7.0 dan suhu 50°C Enzim mempunyai kepilihan pada trigliserida rantai pendek dan dapat menghidrolisiskan beberapa ester metit. Lipase ini spesifik pada posisi 1,3.
  3. Fasihuddin B.A., Laily B. Din, Zuriati Zakaria
    Three compounds were isolated and characterized from the roots of Goniothalamus woodii. Based on their spectroscopic data, the compounds were identified as goniothalamin, 5-acetoxygoniothalamin and goniotriol.
    Tiga sebatian telah dipisahkan dan dicamkan daripada akar Goniothalamus woodii. Berdasarkan dari data spektroskopi, sebatian telah dikenalpasti sebagai goniotalamin, 5-asetoksigoniotalamin dan goniotriol.
    MeSH terms: Pyrones; Spectrum Analysis; Plant Roots; Goniothalamus
  4. Nor Azah Mohamad Ali, Ibrahim Jantan, Sri Nurestri Abd. Malek, Zuriati Zakaria
    The chemical compositions of the leaf and bark oils of Xylopia caudata were examined by co-chromatography with authentic samples on a polar capillary column (PEG 20M) and a non polar capillary column (SE-30), GC/MS and further comparison with Kovats Retention Index. The essential oils were mainly made up of monoterpenoids. The major components in both oils were β-pinene, α-pinene, limonene and a-terpineol which collectively represented 90% and 69% of the leaf and bark oils respectively.
    Kandungan kimia minyak pati daun dan kulit kayu Xylopia caudata telah dikaji secara ko-kromatografi dengan sampel tulen di atas turus rerambut polar (PEG 20M) dan turus rerambut kurang polar (SE-30), KG/SJ dan perbandingan dengan Indeks Penahanan Kovats. Sebahagian besar minyak pati tersebut terdiri daripada sebatian monoterpenoid. Komponen utama yang terdapat dalam kedua-dua minyak pati tersebut adalah β-pinena, α-pinena, limonena dan a-terpineol yang mewakili 90% dan 69% daripada minyak pati daun dan kulit kayu masing-masing.
  5. Amran B. Ab. Majid, Mohd Zahari Abdullah, Zaharuddin Ahmad
    The determination technique for U (238U, 235U, 234U) and Th (232Th, 230Th, 228Th) isotopes using alpha spectrometry was developed. The developed technique involved digestion, dissolution, coprecipitation, solvent extraction and electrodeposition methods. The NBS River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil Standard Reference Materials were analysed to determine the accuracy of the technique. A good accuracy and high percentage recovery of the carrier (70 - 90%) indicated that the developed technique was suitable for U and Th isotopes determination. The technique was used to determine the U and Th concentration in monazite, xenotime and zircon samples. The results showed that the U and Th total concentrations were in the range of 21.03 to 171.25 Bq/g and 27.48 to 242.87 Bq/g respectively.
    Kaedah penguraian, pemelarutan, pemendakan bersama, ekstraksi pelarut dan pemendapan elektrik telah dikaji dan digunakan untuk mendapatkan suatu teknik yang terbaik dalam penentuan isotop uranium 234U, 235U & 238U) dan torium 228Th, 230Th & 232Th) menggunakan sistem spektrometri alfa. Kepekatan isotop U dan Th dalam bahan rujukan piawai River Sediment dan Rocky Flats Soil (NBS) telah dianalisis untuk menentukan kejituan teknik yang dibangunkan. Kajian ini mendapati kepekatan isotop yang diperolehi adalah menghampiri nilai teraku (sijil) dan peratus perolehan semula pembawa yang besar (70-90%). Ini menunjukkan teknik yang dibangunkan sesuai digunakan untuk penentuan isotop uranium dan torium. Seterusnya teknik yang dibangunkan telah digunakan untuk menentukan kandungan uranium dan torium dalam sampel monazit, xenotim dan zirkon tempatan. Kepekatan jumlah isotop uranium yang diperolehi didapati berada dalam julat 21.03 - 171.25 Bq/g manakala kepekatan jumlah isotop torium pula terletak antara 27.48 - 242.87 Bq/g.
    MeSH terms: Electroplating; Metals, Rare Earth; Soil; Solubility; Solvents; Spectrum Analysis; Uranium; Zirconium; Silicates; Rivers
  6. Ahmad Nazlin Yusoff, Mustaffa Hj. Abdullah, Sahrin Hj. Ahmab, Ng L
    Sampels of Mnx-zMgzZn1-xFe2O4 ferrites, with x = 0.5, 0 < z < 0.5; x = 0.6, 0 < z 0.6 and x = 0.7, 0 < z < 0.7, were prepared by solid state reaction. For all samples, magnetization as a function of applied magnetic field was measured at room temperature (TR) and several temperatures above TR but below the Neel temperature (TN); while magnetic hysteresis was obtained at TR and 373 K using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Electrical resistivity at TR was measured by a two terminal method. The three series of Mn-Mg-Zn ferrite indicate a maximum ,agnetization at certain substitution of Mg. TN increased with the increase of Mg content while resistivity varied in the opposite manner. The variation of magnetization is interpreted as due to Mg started to replace the Mn at the tetrahedral sites (A) so that the resultant magnetic moment increased. However further substitution occurred at the octahedral sites (B), thus lowering the magnetic moment. A small coercivity indicates that the samples are soft ferrites with a small energy loss. A reduction in the electrical resistivity with Mg content probably due to an increase in the mobility of charge hopping between the Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions and also between Mn2+ and Mn3+ ions.
    Sampel ferit Mnx-zMgzZn1-xFe2O4 dengan x = 0.5, 0 < z < 0.5; x = 0.6, 0 < z 0.6 dan x = 0.7, 0 < z < 0.7, disediakan dengan tindak balas keadaan pepejal. Pengukuran pemagnetan sebagai fungsi medan magnet dilakukan pada suhu bilik (TR) dan suhu-suhu yang lebih tinggi tetapi di bawah suhu Neel bilik (TR) dan suhu-suhu yang lebih tinggi tetapi di bawah suhu Neel (TN) serta histerisis magnet pada suhu bilik dan 373 K diperolehi untuk semua sampel menggunakan magnetometer sampel bergetar (VSM). Kerintangan elektrik pada suhu bilik diperolehi dengan kaedah dua terminal. Ketiga-tiga siri ferit Mn-Mg-Zn itu masing-masing menunjukkan suatu pemagnetan maksimum pada suatu kadar penggantian Mn oleh Mg. TN meningkat dengan kandungan Mg tetapi kerintangan elektrik berubah sebaliknya. Perubahan pemagnetan seperti yang tersebut disebabkan Mg mula menggantikan Mn pada tapak tetrahedron (A) menyebabkan momen magnet paduan meningkat. Penambahan Mg seterusnya menyebabkan Mn pada tapak oktahedron pula diganti, sehingga momen magnet paduan mengurang. Koersiviti yang kecil menunjukkan sampel bersifat magnet lembut dengan kehilangan tenaga yang sangat kecil. Pengurangan kerintangan dengan penambahan Mg mungkin disebabkan oleh peningkatan kelincahan pembawa cas yang melompat di antara ion-ion Fe2+ dan Fe3+ dan juga di antara Mn2+ dan Mn3+.
    MeSH terms: Electricity; Ferric Compounds; Ions; Temperature; Zinc; Magnets; Magnetic Fields
  7. Sahibin Abdul Rahim
    A preliminary study on the concentration and distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) was carried out for the whole of Ranau District. Topsoil samples (0-15 cm depth) were collected randomly in accordance with the distribution of soil associations in the area. It was found that only three of the heavy metals (Ni, Cr, and Cu) were present above the threshold of toxicity level, whilst the others were below this level. These higher levels of heavy metal concentration were most likely associated with the mining activities in the headwater of the study area and also to the occurrence of serpentinite parent material. The area affected is confined only to the northern part of the study area.
    Kajian awal bagi menentukan taburan dan kepekatan logam-logam berat (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb dan Zn) telah dijalankan bagi seluruh daerah Ranau. Sample tanah atas (kedalaman 0-15 cm) telah dikutip secara rawak bergantung kepada taburan asosiasi tanah di kawasan tersebut. Didapati bahawa hanya tiga daripada logam berat ini (Ni, Cr dan Cu) melebihi had keracunan, sementara yang lain berada di bawah paras keracunan. Kepekatan logam berat yang tinggi di dalam sampel kajian' dapat dikaitkan dengan aktiviti pelombongan tembaga di kawasan punca air dan juga dengan batuan serpentinit yang menjadi bahan induk tanah. Kawasan yang terlibat terhad di bahagian utara kawasan kajian sahaja.
    MeSH terms: Lead; Soil; Soil Pollutants; Zinc; Metals, Heavy
  8. Che Aziz Ali, Kamal Roslan Mohamed
    The Kodiang Formation which outcrops in Kodiang and Alor Setar areas has been well studied and documented. Various geological aspects of the limestone formation have been reported in detail including its stratigraphy, sequence startigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology. Diagenetic aspect of this rock formation, however, had not been specifically discussed before. The Kodiang limestone has undergone a complicated diagenetic history which started immediately after the sediments were laid down on the sea bed. Various diagenetic products have been identified including, early marine cement, meteoric cement, and deeper subsurface cement. The diagenetic features identified are as follows; Fibrous calcite cement, sparry and poikilotopic calcites, calcite overgrowth, dolomite, silica cements and evaporites. Close examination at outcrops shows that dolomite occurs at several levels in the sequence. Their systematic occurrences can be correlated across the area. Petrographic studies show that dolomite occurs in several modes as stratified dolomite and as non-stratified dolomite. The two dolomite groups are attributed to two phases of dolomitizations. The stratified dolomites are interpreted to have been formed early in the limestone diagenetic history. The non-stratified dolomite type is, however, attributed to dolomitization during deep burial under the control of deeper subsurface physico-chemical conditions.
    Batu Kapur Kodiang yang tersingkap di Kodiang dan Alor Setar telah banyak dikaji dan didokumentasikan. Berbagai aspek geologi formasi batu kapur ini telah dilaporkan termasuk stratigrafi, startigrafi jujukan, sedimentologi dan paleontologi. Walau bagaimanapun aspek diagenesis formasi batuan ini tidak pernah dibincangkan secara khusus. Batu kapur Kodiang ini telah melalui sejarah diagenesis yang rumit yang bermula sebaik saja sedimen dimendapkan di atas permukaan dasar laut. Berbagai hasil diagenesis telah dikenal pasti termasuk penyimenan samudera awal, penyimenan meterorik dan penyimenan di bawah permukaan yang lebih dalam. Secara asas fitur-fitur yang dikenalpasti adalah seperti berikut; simen kalsit berserat, kalsit spar dan poikilotopik, tumbuhlampau kalsit, dolomit, simen silika dan evaporit. Pemeriksaan rapi pada singkapan menunjukkan dolomit hadir pada beberapa aras di dalam jujukan. Kehadirannya secara bersistematik boleh dikorelasikan pada setiap singkapan. Kajian petrografi menunjukkan dolomit wujud dalam berbagai mod yang boleh diklaskan sebagai dolomit berstrata dan dolomit tidak berstrata. Dua klas ini boleh dikaitkan dengan dua fasa pendolomitan. Dolomit berstrata ditafsirkan telah terbentuk awal di dalam sejarah diagenesis batu kapur. Dolomit tidak berstrata pula dikaitkan dengan pendolomitan semasa timbusan dalam di bawah keadaan fiziko-kimia bawah permukaan.
    MeSH terms: Ataxia; Burial; Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium; Intellectual Disability; Paleontology; Paraplegia; Silicon Dioxide
  9. Zaiton Harun
    The Alur Lebey fault zone, which is paralled to part of Sungai Lebey, is exposed along the East-West Highway at km 221.5 to Kota Bharu. The outcrop is about 155 m wide on the east and 105 m wide on the west side of the road. Fault morphology can be recognised from the faceted hill spurs along the valley. The fault zone has been interpreted as a lithological contact between metavolcanic in the west and metaclastic in the east. The northern extension of the fault was interpreted as the contact between silicous pelite in the west, and chert and siliceous pelite in the east. Even though left lateral motion is exhibited within the zone, evidences of right lateral motion were also observed. On Landsat 3 image, a lineament in the direction of 355° representing the Alur Lebey fault zone could be traced for some 55 km from the East-West Highway to the middle of east Pattani River in Thailand. The outcrop at the East-West Highway comprises medium indurated mylonite containing lenses of quartz and tuff. Other than asymmetric lenses, quartz also occurs in the form of a comma, and pinch-and-swell structures. These forms of clasts are used to determine the sense of movements along the fault. In general, steeply to vertically dipping mylonite strikes towards the north. Fault planes with horizontal senses of motion cut the foliotion at an acute angle. Some of these fault planes are parallel to the foliation. There are also reverse fault planes with medium to gentle dips to the west. General motions of the fault were tOwards the east southeast. The mylonite foliation which strikes north contains evidences of both left and right lateral motions, whereas the northwest striking foliation exhibits left lateral motion. Several fault-associated folds plunging towards the north northwest, south southwest and east were observed in the fault zone. The combination of field observations and structural analysis are used to arrive at the interpretation on the history of the fault zone. Four systems of compressions (maximum principal stresses) can be deduced from the study. these are the north-northeast, east-southeast, east-southeast, and the youngest north-northeast directions. The oldest deformation is characterised by dextral movement along the mylonite zone. the zone contains asymmetric lenses of tuff and quartz striking 355° to 05°. The sinistral movement along mylonite fooliation striking 354° and 326° is the evidence of the east-southest compressive stress system. Both deformation episodes could represent aseismic faultings under fairly high confining pressure. However the recurrance of the east-southest stress system could have caused the sinistral movement along the northwest and north striking fault planes, the reverse faulting on south to southwest planes and the resulting drag folds. The dextral movement along the north and northwest planes is the youngest deformation episode. The final two episodes could represent brittle deformation resulting from the shallow position of the rock body at least along that particular fault segment.
    Zon sesar Alur Lebey yang selari dengan sebahagian Sungai Lebey, tersingkap di km 221.5 dari Kota Bharu di lebuhraya Timur-Barat. Panjang singkapan keratan di timur jalan di sekitar 155m, manakala di barat jalan pula 105m. Morfologi sesar ditunjukkan oleh barisan susuh bukit beifaset di sepanjang lembah. Di lapangan dan di peta geologi, sesar ini ditafsirkan sebagai sempadan di antara metavolkano di baratnya dan metaklas di timurnya. Lanjutannya ke utara ditafsirkan bahawa sesar tersebut memotong sepanjang sempadan di antara pelit bersilika di barat dan rijang serta pelit bersilika di timur. Sungguhpun gerakan mendatar ke kiri terpamer dalam milonit, namun pergerakan mendatar ke kanan boleh dicerap dalam zon tersebut. Dalam area Lansat 3 bertarikh 10 Januari 1979 lineamen berjurus 355° yang mewakili zon sesar Alur Lebey dapat dikesan sepanjang 55 Ian dari Lebuhraya Timur-Barat hingga ke pertengahan bahagian timur Sungai Pattani di Thailand. Singkapan sesar tersebut terdiri daripada milonit separuh terluluhawa yang mengandungi kekanta kuarza dan tuf. Selain berbentuk kekanta, kuarza juga berbentuk koma, dan ramping-dan-ampul. Klas yang berbentuk tersebut digunakan untuk menentukan hala pergerakan dalam zon sesar. Umumnya milonit menjurus ke utara dengan kemiringannya euram hingga tegak. Satah-satah sesar mendatar memo tong foliasi milonit pada sudut tirus atauJdan ada pula yang selari dengannya. Selain sesar mendatar terdapat pula sesar songsang yang kemiringannya landai hingga sederhana ke barat. Gerakan umumnya menyongsang ke timur-tenggara. Foliasi milonit yang menjurus ke utara mengandungi tanda-tanda pergerakan ke kiri dan ke kanan, manakala foliasi yang menjurus ke baratlaut mengandungi hanya pergerakan mendatar ke kiri. Sebilangan lipatan yang berkait-rapat dengan sesar menunjam ke utara-baratlaut, selatan-baratdaya dan ke arah timur dieerap di dalam zon sesar tersebut. Gabungan eerapan lapangan dan analisis struktur akhirnya sampai kepada pentafsiran sejarah canggaan yang berlaku di dalam zon sesar tersebut. Empat sistem tegasan boleh disimpulkan. Sistem tegasan maksimum (mampatan) tersebut ialah .utara-timurlaut, timur­tenggara, dan yang termuda utara-timurlaut. Canggaan tertua dicirikan oleh pergerakan dekstral di sepanjang zon milonit yang mengandungi kekanta tuf dan kuarza yang asimetri berjurus 355° hingga 05°. Pergerakan sinistral di sepanjang milonit yang berjurus 354° dan 326° merupakan bukti daripada sistem tegasan timur-tenggara. kedua-dua episod canggaan mungkin mewakili penyesaran aseismos yang berlaku dalam sekitaran tekanan mengepung yang tinggi. Namun demikian perulangan tindakan sistem tegasan timur-tenggara menyebabkan pergerakan sinistral di sepanjang satah sesar berjurus baratlaut dan utara, penyesaran songsang di atas satah berjurus selatan hingga baratdaya dan lipatan seret. Pergerakan dekstral di sepanjang satah berjurus utara dan baratdaya merupakan episod canggaan yang termuda. Dua episod yang terakhir mungkin mewakili canggan rapuh akibat daripada kedudukan cetek jasad batuan sekurang-kurangnya di sepanjang segmen sesar tersebut.
  10. Wan Norsiah Mohamed
    This paper examines the influence of maternal education on the acceptance of tetanus toxoid vaccine, using data from two villages in rural Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Maternal education results in increased tetanus toxoid uptake. Irrespective of the level of formal education, correct knowledge of the function of tetanus toxoid is positively associated with the probability of using the vaccine. It is therefore recommended that health education campaign be run to provide correct information on the importance of tetanus toxoid. This study can be used as a model for health programmes in other population with low levels of women education.
    Key words: Neonatal tetanus, maternal education, tetanus toxoid, binomial logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression.
    Kertas ini mengkaji pengaruh pendidikan ibu ke atas penerimaan vaksin tetanus toxoid, dengan menggunakan data daripada dua buah kampung di pendalaman Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Kajian ini mendapati pendidikan ibu dapat meningkatkan kadar pengambilan tetanus toxiod. Pengetahuan yang tepat tentang kepentingan vaksin tersebut didapati mempunyai hubungan yang positif dengan pengambilannya, tanpa mengira tahap pendidikan wanita. Dengan itu dicadangkan agar kempen pendidikan kesihatan dijalankan untuk menyebarkan maklumat yang jelas ten tang kepentingan tetanus toxoid. Kajian ini boleh dijadikan model bagi program kesihatan untuk populasi lain yang mempunyai tahap pendidikan wanita yang rendah.
    Kata kunci: Tetanus neonatal, pendidikan ibu, tetanus toxoid, regresi logistik binomial, regresi logistik multinomial.
    MeSH terms: Agar; Female; Health Promotion; Humans; Indonesia; Probability; Rural Population; Tetanus; Tetanus Toxoid; Logistic Models
  11. Kamarulzaman bin Ibrahim
    An integral art of the Bayesian approach which is not present in the classical approach is the prior distribution. Different researchers may have different level of prior knowledge regarding the parameter of interest before seeing the data. Sometimes different prior distributions can result in different decisions, as such investigations have to be careful in making the choice of the prior distribution. In this paper, we compare results from the Bayesian analyses based on three possible choices of the prior distributions, which are uniform prior, lognormal prior and an improper prior, in the evaluation of the effectiveness of mini-roundabouts. Data from five before and after studies into the effect of mini-roundabouts when replacing priority junctions are used. The effects of the different prior distributions are distinguishable from the analysis of an anamolous 'desk-drawer' study. The uniform and improper prior pull the estimated treatment effect away from one more than the lognormal prior. The results based on lognormal prior depict a less worst scenario of the ineffectiveness of mini-roundabouts and this may correspond to the deficiency in engineering design at only a few sites. Consequently, it is more appropriate to use the lognormal prior in the analysis of mini-roundabouts as a road safety measure.
    Satu ciri yang penting dalam kaedah Bayesian yang tidak ada dalam kaedah klasik ialah taburan prior. Sebelum melihat data, mungkin setiap penyelidik mempunyai tahap pengetahuan prior yang berbeza berkenaan sesuatu parameter yang ingin dikaji. Kadang-kala taburan prior yang berlainan boleh menghasilkan keputusan yang berlainan. Oleh itu, pengkaji perlu berhati-hati dalam memilih taburan prior. Dalam kertas-kerja ini, kami bandingkan keputusan dari analisis Bayesian berdasarkan tiga pilihan taburan prior yang menasabah iaitu prior seragam, prior lognormal dan prior tak wajar untuk menilai keberkesanan bulatan mini. Data dari kajian-kajian sebelum dan selepas terhadap kesan mengantikan persimpangan dengan bulatan mini digunakan. Kesan taburan prior yang berlainan dapat dibezakan berasaskan keputusan analisis terhadap satu kajian 'laci-meja' yang ganjil. Prior seragam dan prior fak wajar felah menyebabkan anggaran nilai kesan rawatan melebihi satu lebih dari prior lognormal. Keputusan berasaskan prior lognormal ini menunjukkan senario yang kurang teruk tentang kurang berkesannya bulatan mini dan mungkin ini boleh dikaitkan dengan rekabentuk kejuruteraan yang tidak baik di beberapa tempat sahaja. Dengan itu, prior lognormal adalah lebih sesuai digunakan untuk menilai bulatan mini sebagai langkah keselamatan jalanraya.
    MeSH terms: Bayes Theorem; Clothing; Engineering; Paper; Knowledge
  12. Mohd Idris Jayes
    The discretization of the second-order linear self-adjoint ellliptic partial differential equation problem subject to periodic boundary conditions results in a system of linear equations of the form Mu = s, where M is a block cyclic tridiagonal square matric. In this paper, the relationship between the spectral radius and overrelaxation factor for the problem is derived.
    Pendiskretan masalah persamaan pembeza separa (PPS) eliptik swadampingan linear peringkat kedua menghasilkan satu sistem persamaan linear bentuk Mu = s, dengan M merupakan satu matriks segiempatsama tiga pepenjuru berkitar blok. Dalam kertas ini, hubungan di antara jejari spektrum dan faktor pengenduran berlebihan untuk masalah itu akan dirumuskan.
    MeSH terms: Algorithms; Paper; Familial Mediterranean Fever; Radius
  13. Abdul Razak Daud, Azleen Mohd. Zain, Azali Muhamad
    A single wall single image x-ray radiographic technique was adopted to investigate thickness variation of steel specimens caused by uniform corrosion. The ability of the 100 kV-160 kV x-rays to produce a meaningful film density for steel was also investigated. The thickness contour maps of corroded steel plates were found matching with the x-ray film density contour maps of the plates. The results confirm that x-ray radiography can be used to detect the thickness reduction of steel caused by uniform corrosion.
    Bagi mengesan perubahan ketebalan keluli akibat kakisan seragam maka radiografi sinar-x teknik imej tunggal dinding tunggal telah digunakan. Kemampuan sinar-x 100 kV-160 kV menghasilkan ketumpatan filem yang sesuai untuk keluli telah juga dikaji. Peta kontur ketebalan bagi spesimen kepingan keluli yang telah mengalami kakisan seragam didapati sepadan dengan peta kontur ketumpatan filem radiografi sinar-x bagi spesimen tersebut. Kajian ini menunjukkan radiografi sinar-x boleh digunakan bagi mengesan penipisan keluli akibat kakisan seragam.
    MeSH terms: Acrylates; Corrosion; Propylene Glycols; Radiography; Steel; X-Ray Film; X-Rays
  14. Syed Sheikh Almashoor
    The Bok Bak fault is a northwest-directed sinistral fault in northwest Peninsular Malaysia whose location was, by late 1980's, quite established. A postulated extension of 450 kilometres to the north-northwest has never been substantiated, but instead, speculated upon. The postulated extension in north Kedah, if there was any, had escaped detection of several mapping exercises, including modern approaches. The weak topography of the area and thick unconsolidated superficial deposits, apparently, are responsible for clouding the sensitivities of the modern methods. However, the conventional approach adopted in this study led to a successful discovery and definition of 82 kilometres of the Bok Bak fault in north Kedah and Perlis up to the Perlis (Malaysia)/Thailand boundary. It is in a dextral six-kilometre offset position with the established counterpart to its south. One significant fault­signature identified is a set of strike ridges which exhibit a left-lateral drag arrangement. Other fault-signatures include, fault planes and breccia, a sharp formational boundary, a spring locality, a lake, two linear rivers, a distorted river's course and a bent watershed line. One fault signature indicates that it is a wrench fault. With a zone of width 800 metres approximately and a total length of 215 kilometres, it is now established that the Bok Bak fault is a major fault in Peninsular Malaysia. Two pairs of correlatable rock units on opposite sides of the fault provide the first ever reliable displacement amount of about 10 km. It is discovered that the limestone hills (mogotes) running from north to central Perlis are not entirely of Chuping Formation. The last hill at the southernmost end (Bukit Ngulang) belongs to Setul Limestone Formation. The formational boundary between these hills, as implied by superficial fault-related features, is a fault contact; and is interpreted as a reliable signature of the Bok Bak fault. Based on similarities in hill-orientation, lithology and fossil contents, the Kodiang limestone mogotes in north Kedah are believed to be the continuation of the Chuping Limestone of central Perlis, but are now dispositioned by the Bok Bak fault.
    Sesar Bok Bak ialah sesar ke kiri mengarah ke baratlaut yang terletak di baratlaut Semenanjung Malaysia. Pada akhir tahun lapan puluhan lokasinya sudah termaklum. Unjurannya yang sejauh 450 km ke arah utara-baratdaya hanyalah satu spekulasi dan tidak pernah dibuktikan. Unjurannya yang diandaikan di utara Kedah tidak dapat dikesan walau pun beberapa pemetaan telah dibuat, termasuk yang menggunakan pendekatan moden. Topografi kawasan yang lemah dan permukaan bumi yang diselimuti oleh bahan tak terkonsolidasi yang tebal dipercayai telah melemahkan kepekaan kaedah moden. Walau bagaimanapun pendekatan konvensional yang diguna dalam kajian ini berjaya mengesan sepanjang 82 km sesar Bok Bak di utara Kedah dan Perlis hingga ke sempadan Perlis/Thailand. Sesar yang baru dikesan ini terganjak ke kanan sejauh 6 km daripada bahagian sesar yang sudah termaklum di selatan. Satu tanda sesar yang penting yang dikenal pasti adalah satu set permatang jurus yang mempamerkan susunan seret ke kiri. Tanda-tanda sesar lain termasuk satah-satah sesar dan breksia, sempadan formasi yang tajam, satu lokaliti mata air, satu tasik, sungai-sungai lurus, sebahagian sungai yang tererot, dan garis legeh yang bengkok. Satu tanda sesar menunjukkan sesar ini adalah jenis mendatar. Dengan zon berkelebaran 800 meter dan kepanjangan sejauh 215 km, terbuktilah bahawa sesar Bok Bak adalah satu sesar major di Semenanjung Malaysia. Dua pasang unit batuan yang boleh dikorelasi dan yang terletak di sisi timur dan barat sesar, pertama kali membenarkan nilai alihan ke atas sesar dianggarkan, iaitu sebanyak 10 km. Kajian juga mendapati bahawa bukit-bukit batu kapur (mogot) yang berbaris daripada utara ke tengah Perlis bukan kesemuanya batuan Formasi Chuping. Bukit yang terselatan sekali (Bukit Ngulang) ternyata komponen Formasi Setul. Fitur-fitur di permukaan membayangkan bahawa sempadan formasi antara bukit-bukit tersebut ialah sempadan sesar; dan sempadan ini dianggap sebagai tanda sesar Bok Bak yang menyakinkan. Berdasarkan kesamaan pada orientasi bukit-bukit, litologi dan kandungan fosil, mogot-mogot Batu Kapur Kodiang di utara Kedah dipercayai adalah sambungan kepada Batu Kapur Chuping di tengah Perlis, tetapi sekarang telah teralih oleh sesar Bok Bak.
  15. Kamal Roslan Mohamed
    The Semantan Formation which is Middle to Upper Triassic age, comprises a rapidly alternating sequence of carbonaceous shale, siltstone and rhyolite tuff with a few lenses of chert, conglomerate and recrystallised limestone. The shale and tuff make up the bulk of the sequence. Jaafar Ahmad (1976) was introduced the formation name of the rock sequence in Karak-Temerloh area, but the similar sequence (in term of lithology, paleontology and structural pattern) found in the other areas were given different names. After an extensive study, the following formations or part of them, may be include in the Semantan Formation; Raub Series (Scrivenor 1911); Calcareous Formation (Richardson 1939); Calcareous Series (Richardson 1947); Younger arenaceous Series (Alexander 1956); Raub Group (Alexander 1959); Jengka Pass Formation (Ichikawa et al. 1966); Kerdau Formation (Burton 1973a); part of Jelai Formation (Burton 1973a); Gemas Formation (Lum 1977); Jurong Formation (Burton 1973a); Pahang Volcanic Series (Hutchison 1973c).
    Formasi Semantan merupakan jujukan batuan sedimen yang berusia Trias Tengah - Akhir di Jalur Tengah Semenanjung Malaysia. Jujukan ini terdiri daripada selang lapis batuan syal berkarbon, batu lodak, dan batu pasir yang kebanyakannya bertuf, serta terdapat kekanta konglomerat, batu kapur dan rijang dalam selang lapis ini. Syal adalah unit yang paling dominan dalam formasi ini. Jaafar Ahmad (1976) menamakan jujukan ini untuk kawasan Karak - Temerloh, tetapi jujukan yang serupa (dari segi litologi, paleontologi dan gaya struktur) juga ditemui di kawasan lain, tetapi dipanggil dengan nama lain. Dari hasil kajian menyeluruh yang telah dijalankan, didapati nama-nama unit batuan berikut atau sebahagian daripadanya mungkin merupakan penamaan yang serupa untuk Formasi Semantan, iaitu Siri Raub (Scrivenor 1911), Formasi Berkapur (Richardson 1939), Siri Berkapur (Richardson 1947), Siri Arenit Muda (Alexander 1958), sebahagian Kumpulan Raub (Alexander 1959), Formasi Jengka Pass (Ichikawa et al. 1966), Formasi Kerdau (Burton 1973a), sebahagian Formasi Jelai (Burton 1973a), Formasi Gemas (Lum 1977), Formasi Jurong (Burton 1973a) dan Siri Volkano Pahang (Hutchison 1973).
    MeSH terms: Benzaldehydes; Calcium Carbonate; Lenses; Malaysia; Names; Paleontology
  16. Kamal Roslan Mohamed, Che Aziz Ali
    This study is based on a LANDSAT imagery of 1989, topographic maps and aerial photographs. Several stages of the delta's development have been identified based on the shape and the position of the former delta lobes and channels. The older delta complex shows a cuspate shape and a series of beach ridges in the south marks the position of the former shore lines. There is a clear distinction between the former delta complex and the present day complex. The former lobe shows a characteristic of a wave dominated delta system whilst the present complex is more of a fluvival-dominated type. The change in the delta type is believed to have been caused by the change of physiographic processes in the delta area as well as in the inland area. In the inland area, the Kelantan River has changed its course several times that were followed by delta-lobe switching. At the same time the river mouths migrate progressively towards the northwest. The Kemasin River mouth is the oldest river mouth detected from satellite's imagery and aerial photographs. The rivermouth then migrated to the north and forms the present day Kuala Pak Amat before it migrated further northwest to Pengkalan Datu. The migration of river mouth has led to the change of the deltaic processes. Earlier when the river mouth and the delta complex were located in the south they were subjected to direct wave action. At present most of the delta complex is subjected to the northwesterly longshore currents which have produced a series of sand spits. The presence of the sandspits which are sheltering the river mouth from wave action has led to more current and stream domination on the delta. Some older river channels which form dried­ up channels and dying streams can be clearly observed in the satellite imagery. There are also some remnant river channels which form elongated lakes and ox-bow lakes. Shapes and locations of the older river systems reveal that the main stream has changed its behavior from a meandering stream to a straight channel river system several times in its history. In the coastal areas, we have traced several older shorelines which had prograded progressively towards the sea. The progradation of shorelines is marked by a series of beach ridges which are parallel to the present day shoreline. The beach ridge can be traced up to 10 km inland from the present day beach line. Several topographic highs (Gunung Panchor and Bukit Marak) are believed to represent small hills or near shore islands during the beginning of the progradation.
    Kajian ini dilakukan berdasarkan imej LANDSAT TM tahun 1989, dan dibantu oleh peta topografi serta gambar udara. Beberapa peringkat pembentukan dan perkembangan Delta Kelantan ditafsirkan daripada bentuk dan kedudukan alur-alur dan permatang pantai kuno. Delta lebih tua berbentuk juring ("cuspate") dan beting-beting pasir di bahagian selatannya menandakan arah garis pantai terdahulu. Delta yang lebih tua ini lebih mencirikan delta kuasaan ombak, berbeza dengan delta yang sedang terbentuk sekarang. Perubahan daripada delta kuasaan ombak kepada delta kuasaan sungai terjadi akibat perubahan-perubahan di bahagian daratan dan pesisir pantai. Di bahagian daratan, imej LANDSAT TM menunjukkan Sungai Kelantan telah menukar arah aliran beberapa kali dan ini mengakibatkan perubahan kedudukan muara. Imej yang diperolehi juga menunjukkan terdapat banyak alur-alur sungai tua yang luas tetapi mempunyai aliran yang kecil, ataupun alur-alur yang kering. Selain itu terdapat juga beberapa tasik memanjang dan tasik ladam, hasil tinggalan sungai lampau. Daripada bentuk dan kedudukan alur-alur sungai tua ini, dapat ditafsirkan sungai utama telah berubah berbentuk dari berliku menjadi lurus beberapa kali. Di bahagian pantai pula telah dikesan garis pantai telah berkembang secara progressif ke arah laut (progradasi). Perkembangan garis pantai ditandai oleh permatang pantai yang berkedudukan hampir selari dengan garis pantai sekarang. Permatang pasir ini boleh dikesan hingga 10 km daripada garis pantai sekarang. Pada peringkat awal pembentukan Delta Kelantan, bukit Gunung Panchor (pekan Gunung) dan Bukit Marak merupakan sebuah pulau atau bukit di pesisir pantai sementara kedudukan bandar Kota Bharu masih terletak di laut. Pada masa yang sama muara sungai berhijrah secara berperingkat-peringkat ke arah baratlaut. Muara terawal yang dapat dikesan merupakan muara Sungai Kemasin dan kemudian menghijrah ke muara Pengkalan Datu. Sebelum berubah kepada kedudukan sekarang, muara Sungai Kelantan telah berhijrah daripada Pengkalan Datu ke Kuala Pak Amat. Perubahan kedudukan muara menyebabkan tindakan proses fizikal (rambatan ombak, angin dan arus pantai) berbeza daripada sebelumnya. Pada masa ini sebahagian besar daripada bahagian luar kompleks delta dipengaruhi oleh aliran pesisir pantai yang menghasilkan pembentukan anak tanjung pasir (sand spit) di bahagian pinggir delta. Kehadiran anak tanjung pasir secara langsung melindung kompleks delta daripada tindakan ombak dan menyebabkan pengaruh luahan sungai dan pasang surut lebih dominan di bahagian dalam kompleks.
  17. Musa Ahmad, Narayanaswamy R
    Optical fibre has been used in this study to guide a light from the light source to the probe. A disposable type probe developed in this study consist of a reagent Chrome Azurol S (CAS) immobilised on a polymeric support (XAD-2) which has been coupled to a fibre end using nylon mesh. This sensor was regenerable using fluoride solution with a limit of detection of 1.0 ´ 10-5 M, high reproducibility (relative error of < 5.0%) and can be used for Al(III) determination in water at concentration range of 1.3 ´ 10-5 M - 7.0 ´ 10-4 M. The results obtained using this sensor is comparable to the well established method such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry using graphite furnace. EDTA, phosphate, oxalate, tartrate, Cu(II), Fe(III), Be(II) and Ca(III) were found to interfere during Al(III) determination in water.
    Gentian optik telah digunakan di dalam kajilidikan ini sebagai pemandu cahaya daripada sumber cahaya kepada prob. Prob jenis bolehbuang yang dibina dalam kajian ini terdiri daripada reagen Chrome Azurol S (CAS) yang telah dipegunkan di atas penyokong polimer (XAD-2) dan dipegang olehjaring nilon. Penderia ini boleh dijanakan semula menggunakan larutan fluorida, mempunyai had pengesaran 1.0 ´ 10-5 M, kebolehulangan yang tinggi (ralat relatif < 5.0%) dan boleh digunakan untuk penentuan Al(III) dalam air pada julat kepekatan 1.3 ´ 10-5 M - 7.0 ´ 10-4 M. Keputusan analisis yang diperolehi menggunakan penderia ini adalah bolehbanding dengan kaedah yang telah diterima umum seperti spektrofotometri serapan atom mertggunakan relau grafit. EDTA, fosfat, oksalat, tartrat, Cu(II), Fe(III), Be(II) dan Ca(III) didapati menganggu semasa penentuan Al(III) di dalam air.
  18. Abdul Hamid Othman, Ibrahim Baba, Yang Farina Abdul Aziz, Norman Awang
    Several triphenylphosphinosilver (I) complexes, viz. bis [acetatotriphenylphosphineargentum (I)], I, lactatotris (triphenylphosphine) argentum (I), II, N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamatobis (triphenylphosphine) silver (I), III, and N­ethanol, N-methyldithiocarbamatobis (triphenylphosphine) silver (I), IV, have been prepared. Apart from characterization by spectroscopic methods, the structures of I-III, have been characterised by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods. I crystallized as a dimer with a 4-coordinate geometry around the silver atom, while the lactate complex is a monomer with a five-coordinate silver atom. In the four-coordinate complex III, the Ag - S bond distances are 2.6822 (13) and 2.5991 (12) Å indicating different modes of bonding to the dithiocarbamate ligands.
    Beberapa kompleks trifenilfosfinoargentum telah disintesis, iaitu bis [asetatotrifenilfosfinargentum (I)], I, laktatotris (trifenilfosfin) argentum (I), II dietanolditiokarbamatobis (trifenilfosfin) argentum (I), III dan metiletanolditiokarbamatobis (trifenilfosfin) argentum (I), IV. Selain daripada pencirian dengan kaedqh spektroskopi, struktur kompleks I-III telah ditentukan dengan kaedah pembelauan sinar-X hablur tunggal. Kompleks asetat terhablur sebagai dimer dengan argentum menunjukkan geomertri 4-koordinat, sementara kompleks laktat adalah monomer dengan argentum berkoordinatan lima. Dalam kompleks dietanolditiokarbamat argentum berkoordinatan empat dengan panjang ikatan Ag - S, 2.6822 (13) dan 2.5991 (12) Ã… menunjukkan dua mod pengikatan yang berbeza dengan ditiokarbamat.
    MeSH terms: Chemistry
  19. Mohamad Deraman
    This paper presents some properties of the sample of carbon pellets prepared from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches by a carbonization process up to the temperature of 1000°C. It is found that the samples have (i) microcracks and micropores (ii) about 70 percent weight lost and 20­-30 percent volume shrinkage (iii) the densities of 0.6gcm-3 and 0.9gcm-3 for the fast and slow heating rate respectively (iv) the X-ray diffraction spectrum which clearly indicates the disordered structure and (v) the experimental and predicted electrical resistivities of 7.75 ´ 10-2 Ω cm and 8.57 ´ 10-2 Ω cm respectively. Reasons that make these properties differ from that of the glassy carbon commercial have been identical and effort to overcome this is being carried out.
    Kertas kerja ini membincangkan beberapa sifat sampel karbon pelet yang disediakan daripada serabut tandan kelapa sawit melalui proses karbonisasi sehingga suhu 1000°C. Didapati bahawa sampel mempunyai (i) rekahan­ mikro dan liang mikro (ii) spektrum belauan sinar-X yang jelas memperlihatkan struktur taktertib (iii) kira-kira 70 peratus kehilangan berat dan 20-30 peratus susutan isipadu (iv) ketumpatan 0.6gcm-3 dan 0.9gcm-3 bagi masing­masing kadar pemanasan cepat dan perlahan dan (v) kerintangan elektrik eksperimen dan ramalan masing-masing 7.75 ´ 10-2 Ω cm dan 8.57 ´ 10-2 Ω cm. Alasan yang menyebabkan sifat-sifat ini berbeza daripada sifat-sifat karbon glasi komersial telah dikenalpasti dan usaha mengatasinya sedang dijalankan.
  20. Ibrahim Abugassa, Sukiman Sarmani, Supian Samat
    Two important parameters for utilizing Ko-standardization method namely, absolute peak efficiency at reference position and peak-to-total ratio at different geometrical positions using standard point sources and HPGe were experimentally determined. Coincidence correction factor, C, for reference position and certain nuclides were also calculated and all almost equal to one. The importance and implication of this work to the K0-standardization method are presented. Other essential nuclear parameters which have to be experimentally determined or obtained from literature are also presented.
    Dua parameter untuk kegunaan kaedah pemiawaian K0 iaitu kecekapan puncak absolut pada kedudukan rujukan dan nisbah jumlah-ke-puncak pada berbagai kedudukan geometri telah ditentukan secara eksperimen. Punca titik piawai dan HPGe digunakan. Faktor pembetulan koinsiden, C, yang digunakan untuk kedudukan piawai dan beberapa nuklid telah dihitung dan semuanya mempunyai nilai hampir sama dengan satu. Kepentingan dan implikasi kerja ini kepada kaedah pemiawaian K0 dikemukakan. Parameter nuklear lain yang ditentukan secara eksperimen atau yang diperolehi daripada pustaka juga dibentangkan.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Diabetic Neuropathies; Publications; Echinochloa; Gastropoda
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