Browse publications by year: 1996

  1. Kingma DW, Weiss WB, Jaffe ES, Kumar S, Frekko K, Raffeld M
    Blood, 1996 Jul 01;88(1):242-51.
    PMID: 8704180
    LMP-1, an Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) latency protein, is considered a viral oncogene because of its ability to transform rodent fibroblasts in vivo and render them tumorigenic in nude mice. In human B cells, EBV LMP-1 induces DNA synthesis and abrogates apoptosis. LMP-1 is expressed in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a subset of Hodgkin's disease (HD), and in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-LPDs). Recently, focused deletions near the 3' end of the LMP-1 gene (del-LMP-1, amino acids 346-355), in a region functionally related to the half-life to the LMP-1 protein, have been reported frequently in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated HD (100%) and EBV+ Malaysian and Danish peripheral T-cell lymphomas (100%, 61% respectively), but less frequently in cases of HD not associated with HIV (28%, 33%) and infectious mononucleosis (33%). To further investigate the potential relationship of del-LMP-1 to EBV-LPDs associated with immunosuppression or immunodeficiency, we studied 39 EBV-associated lymphoproliferations (10 benign, 29 malignant) from four distinct clinical settings: posttransplant (4 malignant, 1 reactive); HIV+ (18 malignant, 2 reactive); nonimmunodeficiency malignant lymphoma (ML) (7 cases); and sporadic EBV infection with lymphoid hyperplasia (7 cases). The presence of EBV within lymphoid cells was confirmed by EBV EBER1 RNA in situ hybridization or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. EBV strain type and LMP-1 deletion status were determined by PCR. EBV strain types segregated into two distinct distributions: HIV+ (9 A; 11 B) and non-HIV (19 A, 0 B), consistent with previous reports. Overall, del-LMP-1 were found in 1 of 5 (20%) Burkitt lymphomas (BL); 17 of 24 (71%) aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (agg-NHL), and 2 of 10 (20%) reactive lymphoid proliferations. Of the agg-NHLs, del-LMP-1 were present in 4 of 4 PT-ML (100%); 10 of 15 HIV+ ML (67%); and 3 of 5 nonimmunodeficiency malignant lymphoma (ML, 60%). A total of 2 of 7 (28%) sporadic EBV-associated lymphoid hyperplasias contained a del-LMP-1. All del-LMP-1 were identical by DNA sequence analysis. No correlation was identified between the presence of del-LMP-1 and the EBV strain type observed. The high incidence of del-LMP-1 observed in agg-NHLs (71%), in contrast to the relatively low incidence observed in reactive lymphoid proliferations (28%), suggests that the deleted form may be preferentially selected in lymphomatous processes. All posttransplant agg-NHLs contained a del-LMP-1, and a similar frequency of del-LMP-1 was observed in both HIV-associated ML (66%) and nonimmunodeficiency ML (60%), suggesting that impairment of immune function alone is not a requirement for the expansion of malignant cells infected by EBV stains containing the deleted LMP-1 gene.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Base Sequence; Burkitt Lymphoma/pathology; Burkitt Lymphoma/virology; Child; Child, Preschool; Herpesvirus 4, Human/classification; Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics; Herpesvirus 4, Human/pathogenicity*; Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology; Female; Genes, Viral*; Herpesviridae Infections/virology*; Humans; Infant; Infectious Mononucleosis/pathology; Infectious Mononucleosis/virology; Lymphoma/virology*; Lymphoproliferative Disorders/virology*; Male; Middle Aged; Molecular Sequence Data; Oncogenes*; RNA, Viral/analysis; Transplantation/adverse effects; Tumor Cells, Cultured; Tumor Virus Infections/virology*; Viral Matrix Proteins/deficiency*; Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics; Viral Matrix Proteins/physiology; Virulence/genetics; Virus Activation; Viral Structural Proteins/genetics*; Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/virology; Sequence Deletion*; Mice
  2. Trejaut J, Bhatia K, Greville WD, Hu KR, Duraisamy G, Nuchprayoon C, et al.
    Eur. J. Immunogenet., 1996 Dec;23(6):437-49.
    PMID: 8971541
    The polymorphism of the human leucocyte antigen HLA-DR2 and the heterogeneity of HLA-DR2 class II-related haplotypes (HLA-DRB1-DRB5-DQA1-DQB1) were investigated in four populations of east and south-east Asia (SEA) and five Melanesian populations using TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification-based techniques PCR-RFLP and sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) typing. The haplotype DRB1*1502-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0601 was common in Malaysians, Javanese, Thursday Islanders, Madang, Goroka and the Australian Aborigines, while DRB1*16021-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0502 was common in the Thai and Thursday Islanders. DRB1*1501-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 was present at a high frequency in Northern Chinese, Goroka, Watut and Australian Aborigines. The study describes four rare or unusual haplotypes: HLA-DRB1*1501-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0601, DRB1*1502-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0502, DRB1*1502-DRB5*0102-DQA1* 0102-DQB1*0502 and DRB1*1501-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0101/2-DQB1*0503; the latter two were confirmed by segregation in two Javanese families. A new DR2 allele, initially detected by PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing as DRB1*16022 (previously designated DRB1*16Madang), was seen in a Madang individual. A new HLA-DR2 TaqI RFLP subtype, locally designated as DR15U, is also described. This RFLP subtype segregated in a Javanese family and correlated with a typically SEA haplotype, DRB1*1502-DRB5*0102-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501. The allele HLA-DR16Thai, determined by TaqI DRB RFLP, was found by PCR-RFLP and SSO typing to correlate with a unique SEA haplotype, HLA-DRB1*16021-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0502, and was observed in the Thai, Malaysian, Thursday Islander, Javanese and Northern Chinese populations.
    MeSH terms: Alleles*; Asia, Southeastern; Australia; Base Sequence; China; DNA; Haplotypes; HLA-DQ Antigens/classification*; HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics; HLA-DR Antigens/classification*; HLA-DR Antigens/genetics; Humans; Molecular Sequence Data; Population; Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*; Genetic Variation; HLA-DR2 Antigen/classification*; HLA-DR2 Antigen/genetics; Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; HLA-DRB1 Chains; HLA-DRB5 Chains; HLA-DQ alpha-Chains; HLA-DQ beta-Chains
  3. Roberts AD, Brackley CA
    J Dent, 1996 Sep;24(5):339-43.
    PMID: 8916648
    OBJECTIVES: A survey of general dental practitioners and dental surgery assistants was carried out to ascertain their preferences and opinions on powder-free hydrogel-coated gloves compared with starch-powdered gloves. The aim was to relate the survey findings to laboratory measurements of the frictional characteristics of glove inner surfaces and their water absorptive capability.

    METHODS: The survey was carried out using a questionnaire given to local dental practitioners. Glove friction and water absorption measurements were made using specially designed equipment.

    RESULTS: The survey showed that a selected group of dentist and dental surgery assistants preferred hydrogel-coated gloves, particularly for damp donning, durability and long-term wear comfort. Laboratory measurements showed that the hydrogel coating gave a low friction coefficient against damp skin. The coating was durable, and absorbed water more readily than other treatments.

    CONCLUSION: A survey of dental practitioners and dental surgery assistants and laboratory measurements indicates that hydrogel-coated gloves have superior properties, and are preferred to other non-sterile glove types.

    MeSH terms: Absorption; Consumer Behavior; Dental Assistants/psychology; Dentists/psychology; Gels; Gloves, Surgical*; Humans; Organic Chemicals; Surveys and Questionnaires; Starch; Water; Friction
  4. Vilcek S, Stadejek T, Ballagi-Pordány A, Lowings JP, Paton DJ, Belák S
    Virus Res, 1996 Aug;43(2):137-47.
    PMID: 8864203
    The genetic variability of classical swine fever virus was studied by comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of 76 virus isolates, collected during a half century from three continents. Parts of the E2 (gp55) and the polymerase gene coding regions of the viral genome were amplified by RT-PCR and DNA fragments of 254 and 207 bp, respectively, were sequenced. The comparative sequence analysis of the E2 region revealed two main phylogenetic groups of CSFV, indicating that the virus apparently evolved from two ancestor nodes. Group I (represented by Brescia strain) consisted of old and recent American and Asian viruses, as well as old English isolates from the 1950s. This group was subdivided into three subgroups, termed I.A-I.C. Group II (represented by Alfort strain) consisted of relatively recent isolates from Europe, together with strain Osaka, which was isolated in Japan from a pig of European origin. Based on genetic distances the group was divided into subgroups II.A and II.B. Malaysian isolates were branched into both groups, indicating multiple origins for contemporaneous outbreaks in that country. All ten vaccine strains tested were branched in group I, implying a common ancestor. The Japanese Kanagawa strain, isolated in 1974, and the British Congenital Tremor strain from 1964 were the most distinct variants of CSFV in our collection. The comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the polymerase coding region of 32 European strains distinguished subgroups II.A and II.B which were similar to the corresponding subgroups of the E2 phylogenetic tree. Thus, the results revealed that the E2 region and the polymerase coding regions seem to be appropriate for the grouping of CSFV isolates from all over the world, distinguishing two major groups of the virus. The reliability of these regions for phylogenetic analysis is indicated by the similarity of the results obtained from the two separate parts of the CSFV genome.
    MeSH terms: Base Sequence; Cells, Cultured; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics*; DNA, Viral; Classical swine fever virus/classification; Classical swine fever virus/genetics*; Classical swine fever virus/isolation & purification; Molecular Sequence Data; Phylogeny; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid; Genetic Variation*; Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics*
  5. Hamilton RG, Adkinson NF
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1996 Nov;98(5 Pt 1):872-83.
    PMID: 8939150
    BACKGROUND: Nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts are the only sources of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) latex that have potential for use as skin testing reagents in the diagnosis of latex allergy. Their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as skin test reagents are unknown.

    OBJECTIVE: We conducted a phase 1/2 clinical study to examine the safety and diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts as skin test extracts to identify the most efficacious source material for future skin test reagent development.

    METHODS: Twenty-four adults not allergic to latex, 19 adults with hand dermatitis or pruritus, and 59 adults with a latex allergy were identified by clinical history. All provided blood and then received puncture skin tests and intradermal skin tests with nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts from Malaysian H. brasiliensis latex by use of sequential titration. A glove provocation test and IgE anti-latex RAST were used to clarify positive history-negative skin test response and negative history-positive skin test response mismatches.

    RESULTS: All three extracts were biologically safe and sterile. After normalization to 1 mg/ml of total protein, all three extracts produced equivalent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in puncture skin tests and intradermal skin tests at various extract concentrations. Optimal diagnostic accuracy was safely achieved at 100 micrograms/ml for intradermal skin tests (e.g., nonammoniated latex: puncture skin test sensitivity 96%, specificity 100%; intradermal skin test sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%). The presence of IgE antibody in skin was highly correlated with IgE anti-latex in serum (nonammoniated latex: r = 0.98, p < 0.001; ammoniated latex: r = 0.94, p < 0.001; rubber glove extract: r = 0.96, p < 0.001). All five available subjects with a positive history, negative skin test response, and absence of IgE antibody in serum had a negative glove provocation test response, indicating no clinical evidence of latex allergy. No systemic or large local allergic reactions were observed with puncture skin tests or intradermal skin tests.

    CONCLUSIONS: Equivalent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were observed with the nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extract skin test reagents after normalization for total protein; nonammoniated latex may be considered the reagent of choice on the basis of practical quality control and reproducibility considerations.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Ammonia; Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis*; Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology; Female; Humans; Immunoglobulin E/immunology; Indicators and Reagents; Latex/adverse effects; Latex/immunology*; Male; Plant Extracts; Quality Assurance, Health Care; Radioallergosorbent Test; ROC Curve; Rubber/adverse effects*; Safety; Sensitivity and Specificity; Skin Tests/standards*; Reproducibility of Results; Gloves, Protective*
  6. Hewson GS
    Health Phys, 1996 Aug;71(2):225-34.
    PMID: 8690608
    Processing of by-product heavy minerals (amang) from tin mining involves potential exposure to external and internal sources of radioactivity. The radioactivity arises through the presence of thorium and uranium series radionuclides in the various minerals. Monazite is the most radioactive mineral, containing 3% to 7% thorium by weight, while ilmenite is generally the least radioactive mineral containing typically less than 0.05% thorium. External exposure occurs when workers are in close proximity to accumulations or stockpiles of the radioactive minerals, whereas internal exposure occurs when workers are involved in dusty processes. This paper summarizes the nature of the amang industry in South East Asia and presents the results of preliminary measurements of external radiation and airborne radioactivity in twelve Malaysian and Thai plants. Although constrained by a paucity of exposure data, it is concluded that radiation doses to some amang plant workers may approach or exceed international standards and that appropriate control measures are required as a matter of priority, Radiation doses may approach or exceed 100 mSv in situations where workers are exposed to excessive levels of ambient dust and no protective measures are used. Observations and recommendations are made relating to monitoring and surveillance, instruction and training, and engineering and administrative protection measures.
    MeSH terms: Air Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis; Asia, Southeastern; Environmental Exposure; Humans; Metals; Mining*; Radiation Monitoring; Thorium/analysis; Tin*; United Nations; Uranium/analysis; Occupational Exposure*
  7. Tan YM, Goh KL
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:29-32.
    MeSH terms: Gastrostomy; Malaysia
  8. Shahrudin MD, Noori SM
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:49-52.
    MeSH terms: London; Malaysia; Neoplasms; Colorectal Neoplasms; Review
  9. Shahrudin MD
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:41-43.
    Compression of the common bile duct by a stone impacted in the cystic duct is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We present a case study and review of the literature pertaining to the presentation, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of Mirizzi syndrome.
    MeSH terms: Bile; Common Bile Duct; Cystic Duct; Diagnosis; Jaundice; Malaysia; Review
  10. Riley PA
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:17-19.
    The conventional use of aminoglycoside antibiotics has several disadvantages including the need for regular pre- and post-dose assaying and the risks of toxicity. Achieving a therapeutic and non-toxic serum concentration may be difficult in many patients especially those with severe sepsis. Correct timing of doses and assays is essential, but this is often difficult to achieve. Many of these difficulties may be remedied by the use of once daily dosing. This dosing schedule appears to be equally effective as the conventional method and i s also less toxic. There are many other advantages including the need for less assays and venepuncture resulting in reduced costs. KEYWORDS: Aminoglycosides, antibiotic therapy, toxicity, therapeutic monitoring
    MeSH terms: Aminoglycosides; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Malaysia; Microbiology; Risk; Sepsis; Serum
  11. Prasad U
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:23-27.
    MeSH terms: Carcinoma; Malaysia; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms; Review
  12. Pathmanathan R, Anuar Zaini MZ
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:3-4.
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Telemedicine
  13. Pathmanathan R
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:4-6.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Malaysia; Microbiology; Editorial
  14. Ngeow YF, Loh CL, Wang CW
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:25-28.
    Preliminary work was carried out f o r the development of a rapid method for the detection and enumeration of enterococcal phages in natural water. Eight enterococcal phages were isolated after amplification from water obtained from 2 local ponds. These were plaque-purified and used to test the phage susceptibility of 34 strains of enterococci isolated from pristine and polluted waters. Eight strains with the widest phage susceptibility were used as hosts in a double agar layer (DAL) and a single agar layer (SAL) assay for phage enumeration without pre-assay amplification. N o phages were obtained with the DAL method with all 8 hosts. Usingthe SALmethod, 2 phages were obtained with 1 of the 2 hosts used. Phage isolation was not improved by incubation at 44.5°C. For rapid quantitative testing, the sensitivity of the assays has to be increased to enable phage isolation without the need for prior amplification. KEYWORDS: Enterococci, phage, enumeration
    MeSH terms: Agar; Malaysia; Water; Work
  15. Nadesan K
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:37-39.
    MeSH terms: Kidney; Malaysia; Pathology
  16. Lim SP
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:9-16.
    Research into ischaemia and reperfusion injury especially in liver transplantation has been aimed primarily at preventing deterioration of organ function before harvest and at improving organ preservation techniques. Recent studies however, suggest that postischaemic organ function and viability can be improved not only through improved organ protection before ischaemia, but also with therapy aimed at ameliorating the organ reperfusion injury. In order to develop successful therapeutic interventions against ischaemia-reperfusion induced liver injury, it is necessary to consider the primary site of injury as well as to explore the mechanism(s) and possible factors which may contribute to the injury during ischaemia and reperfusion. Studies on hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury have focused mainly at hepatocellular level. Until recently, more attention has been drawn t o the important role of hepatic microcirculation on the pathophysiology of the above injury. The argument that hepatic microvasculature is the primary site of ischaemia-reperfusion injury and possible factors which cause this injury are among the issues reviewed in this article. KEYWORDS: ischaemia, reperfusion, liver, microvasculature, oxygen radicals
    MeSH terms: Liver; Malaysia; Microcirculation; Oxygen; Physiology; Transplantation; Reperfusion; Reperfusion Injury; Liver Transplantation
  17. Kim KH, Muhamad MA, Cheah SH, Rahman A
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:33-38.
    MeSH terms: Neurons; Physiology
  18. Judson JP
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:17-21.
    MeSH terms: Anatomy; Malaysia; Telemedicine
  19. Judson JP
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:5-8.
    MeSH terms: Anatomy; Malaysia; Telemedicine
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