We conducted a survey of malaria diagnoses and treatments in remote areas of Myanmar. Blood specimens from more than 1,000 people were collected by the finger-prick method, and 121 (11%) of these people were found to be glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient. Of these 121, 50 consented to analysis of the G6PD genome. We read the G6PD sequences of these subjects and found 45 cases of G6PD Mahidol (487G>A), two of G6PD Coimbra (592C>T), two of G6PD Union (1360C>T), and one of G6PD Canton (1376G>T). Taken together with data from our previous report, 91.3% (73/80) of G6PD variants were G6PD Mahidol. This finding suggests that the Myanmar population is derived from homogeneous ancestries and are different from Thai, Malaysian, and Indonesian populations.
Background: Based on studies and some clinical practice pneumatic dilatation utilizing the widely available wire guided polyethylene pneumatic dilator system using a 30mm balloon inflated for 15 seconds upon loss of waist noted (during fluoroscopy) at 7 to 10psi obtains optimal disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter. We employed this technique till August 2001 without any complications (notably perforation) with good clinical outcome and durability.
Aims: To study the efficacy of pneumatic dilatation with the pneumatic balloon dilated only till loss of waist.
Materials and Methods: A total of 10 treatment naïve achalasia patients enrolled from August 2001 till July 2002 were dilated till loss of waist and the outcome and durability was compared with our historical controls.
Findings: A total of 10 patients with age 45±18 (range 22-67) years with 8 females: 2 males and 5 Malays: 5 Chinese with 3 patients with megaoesophagus underwent pneumatic dilatation using a 30 mm Rigiflex® pneumatic dilator till loss of waist was noted during fluoroscopy at 7psi and the balloon deflated immediately. All the patients reported symptomatic improvement in dysphagia, regurgitation and demonstrated a 3-12 month post procedural weight gain of 6±5 (range: 1-15) kg. One patient required a second dilatation only after 13 months. All the remaining patients remain well till today after the initial single dilatation. The durability of the dilatation was 27±7 months (range: 13-33) months. There were no complications noted. There were no complaints of excessive reflux. This data was compared with our historical control (patients before August 2001), i.e. the pneumatic dilator inflated for 15 seconds upon loss of waist, and there was no difference in clinical outcome, or the durability of dilatation or the duration of stay post procedure.
Conclusion: Forceful disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter utilizing the pneumatic dilator is effective but is associated with a 1-5% risk of perforation. We obtained identical results without loss of clinical improvement or durability utilizing our technique compared to the traditional method. Since August 2001 all our dilatations were performed in our unit utilizes this simplified method. We have yet to report a perforation after pneumatic dilatation.
MeSH terms: Esophageal Achalasia; Hospitals, General; Humans; Malaysia
Background: Achalasia cardia is an uncommon disease that is often detected late and is associated with significant morbidity. It is a primary esophageal motility disorder diagnosed based on a good history, barium swallow, upper endoscopy and a standard esophageal manometry.
Materials and Methods: We reviewed complete available records of treatment naïve patients with achalasia cardia from 1st January 2000 till April 2004.
Results: A total of 40 patients, with average presenting age at 44±16 (range 19-73) years with 14 males: 26 females with 20 Malays: 15 Chinese: 5 Indians, were suitable for further analysis. The classical symptom of dysphagia to liquids and solids were noted in all cases (100%). These patients learnt that water and sometimes-aerated drinks aid in flushing food down. Symptoms of regurgitation (36 patients-90%), heartburn (15 patients-37.5%), weight loss (10 patients–25%), nocturnal cough (16 patient-40%), retrosternal chest discomfort (2 patient-5%) and hemetemesis (2 patient-5%) was noted. One patient had aspiration pneumonia and another had concomitant active pulmonary tuberculosis and 8 had concomitant constipation (20%). In this series the duration of illness before diagnosis was 5±6 (range
0.3- 30) years and their presenting weight was 53±13 (range 33-82) kg. Barium swallow diagnosed achalasia in 27 patients (67.5%) and a dysmotility disorder in 7 cases (17.5%). There were 10 patients with mega-esophagus and two had epiphrenic diverticulum. There was no pseudoachalasia. Standard esophageal manometry, performed in 36 cases, demonstrated aperistalsis with one vigorous achalasia. The manometric assembly failed to pass through the sphincter in 14 cases and hence LOS assessment was not possible. Four cases demonstrated normal LOS pressure but demonstrated incomplete relaxation (normotensive achalasia). Pneumatic dilatation was performed in 38 newly cases without any complications with excellent symptomatic relief and a 3-12 month post procedural weight gain of 7±5 (range: 0-19) kg. Six patients required a second dilatation and another required two further dilatation. The durability of the total 45 pneumatic dilatations during this short study period was excellent at 24±12 (range 2-48) months.
Conclusion: A primary esophageal motility disorder must be excluded in any patients who present with dysphagia, with or without regurgitation and a "normal" upper endoscopy. Achalasia is not uncommon, often delayed in diagnosis and has a varied presentation. Although there is no cure for achalasia, but early detection and treatment certainly relieves symptoms and prevents complications. Pneumatic dilatation in our center has excellent durability without any complications.
Patients who are entering the last phase of their illness and for whom life expectancy is short, have health needs that require particular expertise and multidisciplinary care. A combination of a rapidly changing clinical situation and considerable psychosocial and spiritual demands pose challenges that can only be met with competence, commitment and human compassion. This article is concerned with the definition of suffering, recognition of the terminal phase and application of the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of care where family physicians play an important role in the community. Key words: biopsychosocial-spiritual care, dying, family medicine, good death, palliative care, suffering.
MeSH terms: Death; Humans; Life Expectancy; Malaysia; Palliative Care; Physicians; Physicians, Family; Primary Health Care
The Community Follow-up Project involves a scheme by which clinical students follow the progress of patients after discharge from hospital. The Community Follow-up Project begins with the student choosing a hospital in-ward patient during their first clinical ward based attachment and follows this patient's progress after discharge from the hospital. The students do a series of home visits and also accompany their patients for some of their follow-ups to the hospital or government clinics; to their general practitioners and even to the palliative care or social welfare centres. The students assess the physical, psychological and social impact of the illness on the patient, family and community. This project supplements students' knowledge of the natural history of disease and emphasizes the importance of communication and the use of community resources. By commitment to the patient for a duration of time, the students are able to take an active role in patients' care, understand in depth the problems faced by patients and in assessing a patient's progress, students find themselves in the role of a teacher and advisor to their patient as well. We outline the main components of this project, describe its outcome and consider areas that invite further developments.
Aims. To document the antibiotic prescribing rate for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in general practice and its associated factors. Methods. Data extracted from a morbidity survey of 150 general practice clinics in three urban areas in Malaysia. Participating general practitioners recorded demographic, morbidity and process of care data for 30 consecutive adult patients using a structured form. [year of study=1999] Results. URTI contributed 940 (27.0%) of the total of 3481 encounters recorded. Antibiotic was prescribed in 68.4% of encounters with URTI; a significant proportion of the antibiotic choice was inappropriate. Half the antibiotics prescribed in this study were due to URTI. [overall antibiotic prescribing rate for all encounters=33.4%] Conclusions. General practitioners need to re-examine their own prescribing for URTI and decide whether it is consistent with current guidelines. Rational prescribing is not just part of the professional role of doctors, but will go a long way to impede the emergence of antibiotic resistance.
MeSH terms: Adult; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Malaysia; Private Practice; Respiratory Tract Infections; Inappropriate Prescribing; General Practitioners; Physicians, Primary Care
Aim. Validation of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
Methods. A validation study was done involving 52 mothers who were at 4-12 weeks post-delivery. The women completed the Malay versions of EPDS and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). They were then assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS). Psychiatric diagnoses were made based on ICD-10 criteria. The validity of EPDS was tested against this clinical diagnosis and the concurrent validity against the Malay version of 30-item GHQ and HDRS scores was also evaluated.
Results. The best cut-off score of the Malay version of EPDS was 11.5 with the sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 92.6 %.
Conclusion. The Malay version of EPDS is a valid and reliable screening tool for PND.
MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Malaysia; Psychometrics; Sensitivity and Specificity; Reproducibility of Results; Prevalence; Depression, Postpartum
Aim: To evaluate the psychometric performance of the Malay version of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey among a sample of postpartum Malay women in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia.
Materials and methods: 354 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for the validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the Malay versions of the MOS Social Support Survey, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the 21-items Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). 30 of the participants, who were bilingual, were also given the original English version of the instrument. A week later, these women were again asked to complete the Malay version of MOS Social Support Survey.
Results: The median number for item 1 (the single item measure of structural support) was 3 (inter-quartile range = 2 - 4). Extraction method of the remaining 19 items (item 2 to item 20) using principle component analyses with direct oblimin rotation converged into 3 dimensions of functional social support (informational support, affectionate support / positive social interaction and instrumental support) with reliability coefficients of 0.93, 0.74 and 0.72 respectively. Overall the scale displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93), parallel form reliability (0.98) and test-retest reliability (0.97) (Spearman's rho; p<0.01). Its validity was confirmed by the negative correlations between the overall support index (total social support score) and all the three dimensions of functional support with the Malay versions of EPDS and BDI-II. The overall support index also displayed low but significant correlations with the single measure structural social support in the instrument (Spearman's rho = 0.14; p <0.01).
Conclusions: The MOS Social Support Survey demonstrated good psychometric properties in measuring social support among postpartum Malay women in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia and could potentially be used as a simple instrument in primary care settings.
MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Malaysia/ethnology; Primary Health Care; Social Support; Women; Depression, Postpartum
Aims: To assess the association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract-related hospitalizations and to evaluate inpatient healthcare resource utilization associated with these complications in Malaysia.
Methods: A retrospective case control study was performed using medical records of patients admitted to two Malaysian hospitals during 1999 and 2000. Cases were identified based on mode of presentation at hospital admission. One control was identified for each case, matched by age, sex and admission date. NSAID exposure was determined by drug use during one year prior to admission. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between NSAID use and upper GI complications, adjusting for predictors.
Results: The 273 cases were significantly more likely to have used NSAIDs in the year prior to hospitalization than controls (27.8% vs. 6.2% of patients; P < 0.0001). Conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for other predictors showed that the odds of being hospitalized for upper GI tract complications were 4.1 times higher among NSAID users than non-users (95% CI = 1.88-9.12). Other risk factors for GI-related hospitalizations were a history of upper GI tract complications (OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.28-26.53), use of gastroprotective agents (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.67-16.79), and use of antacids (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.10-11.91) in the previous year.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that NSAID exposure was significantly higher among patients hospitalized for GI-related complications than for other reasons, indicating that NSAID use is an independent risk factor for upper GI tract complications in this Malaysian sample.
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease of autoimmune nature. Genetic pre-disposition has been known to play a role. With a number of genes already named, the IL-RA is no exception. Polymorphism in the human cytokine gene, an uncommon allele of a variable repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of the IL1-RA gene has been found to be associated with SLE. Objective: The aim of this present study was to study the polymorphism of the IL-1RA gene in Malay and Chinese SLE patients and to investigate the possible contribution of the IL-RA gene polymorphism in disease susceptibility. Materials and Methods: We thus investigated the allele frequencies of the IL-RA gene polymorphism in 87 Malay and 100 Chinese SLE population at the Hospital of National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur by PCR and direct analysis by electrophoresis on agarose gel. Unrelated healthy ethnically-matched individuals were taken as controls. Results: Allelic frequencies of the IL1-RN*4 were most dominant in all groups (patients and controls) but there was no significant differences among them. We found an increased allelic frequency and carriage rate of the IL1-RN*2 repeat in both the Malay and Chinese SLE cases compared to controls. However they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Thus from this finding we postulate that the polymorphism of the IL-1RA gene (both alleles 2 and 4) does not influence susceptibility to SLE.
In the course of our chemotaxonomic study of the liverworts growing in Madagascar, mastigophoric acid methyl ester, along with eleven known compounds were isolated from Mastigophora diclados. Isolated metabolites showed that the Malagasy Mastigophora is more related to the samples from Borneo and Japan than to the Taiwanese or Malaysian ones. The biosynthesis of the herbertane type sesquiterpenoids from Mastigophora diclados is suggested to be similar to those found in the genus Herbertus. The herbertane-type sesquiterpenoids were screened for Staphylococcus aureus strain inhibition.
This research aims to fit discrete distributions on insurance claim count data. The fitting includes both single and finite mixture distributions. The data used is claim count data for life insurance products produced by one of the insurance companies in Malaysia. The claims were paid from January 2000 until December 2000, involving a period of 12 months. The method of moments and maximum likelihood procedure are used to estimate the parameters of both single and finite mixture distributions. The Pearson chiÂsquare test, likelihood ratio test, and Bayesian Schwartz criteria are used to test the models. The results showed that finite mixture distribution is superior to single distribution. Furthermore, the results also showed that two-Poisson finite mixture distribution is the best model for the data.
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menyuai taburan diskrit terhadap data bilangan tuntutan insurans. Penyuaian yang dilakukan melibatkan taburan tunggal dan campuran terhingga. Data yang diguna merupakan data bilangan tuntutan bagi produk insurans hayat yang dikeluarkan oleh salah sebuah syarikat insurans yang terdapat di Malaysia. Data ini bertempoh 12 bulan, bermula daripada Januari 2000 sehingga Disember 2000. Kaedah momen dan kebolehjadian maksimum diguna untuk menganggar parameter bagi kedua-dua taburan tunggal dan campuran terhingga. Kebagusan suaian model diuji dengan ujian khi-kuasa dua Pearson, ujian nisbah kebolehjadian dan kriteria Bayesian-Schwartz. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa model campuran terhingga memberikan penyuaian yang lebih baik berbanding dengan model tunggal. Selain itu, hasil kajian juga menunjukkan bahawa taburan campuran terhingga dua-Poisson adalah model yang terbaik bagi data.
This paper describes experiments to study on how well the whole range of topological indices-based non-binary similarity values represents the physicochemical similarities between compounds. Measured log P values have been compared with the log P values predicted from compounds at different range of similarities calculated based on various topological indices of the compounds. Analysis shows that the non-binary Cosine, Simpson and Pearson coefficients might give misleading results when certain compounds are compared. Similarity values involving 1% most similar compounds based on the non-binary Tanimoto or Euclidean coefficients has been found to be able to represent physicochemical similarities between the molecules compared. Therefore, for searches requiring around 1% most similar compounds, rational selection methods based on the non-binary Tanimoto or Euclidean coefficients are likely to produce better results than random selection. Similarity values involving 5% most dissimilar compounds based on the non-binary Tanimoto coefficients has also been found to be able to represent physicochemical dissimilarities between the molecules compared. Therefore, for diverse selection requiring less than 5% most dissimilar compounds, rational selection methods based on the non-binary Tanimoto coefficient is likely to produce better results than random selection. However, in both focused and diverse selection using the coefficients mentioned, as more and more compounds are selected, the selection becomes more and more like random selection in terms of physicochemical properties similarity and dissimilarity.
Kertas kerja ini membincangkan mengenai kajian untuk melihat sejauh mana nilai keserupaan bukan binari yang dihasilkan melalui perbandingan indeks topologi sebatian mampu mewakili perbezaan atau keserupaan ciri fizikal dan kimia sebatian yang dibandingkan. Di dalam kajian ini, nilai log P yang diperolehi daripada ujikaji makmal telah dibandingkan dengan nilai log P jangkaan yang diambil daripada purata log P sebatian yang mempunyai pelbagai julat nilai keserupaan tertinggi berdasarkan perbandingan indeks tolopologi kesemua sebatian di dalam pangkalan data dengan sebatian berkenaan. Analisa menunjukkan yang pengiraan keserupaan bukan binari menggunakan angkali Cosine, Simpson dan Pearson boleh memberikan nilai keserupaan yang mengelirukan apabila sesetengah jenis sebatian dibandingkan. Nilai keserupaan yang melibatkan 1% sebatian paling serupa berdasarkan angkali Tanimoto atau Euclidean didapati mampu menggambarkan keserupaan ciri fizikal dan kimia sebatian yang dibandingkan. Justeru, carian atau pemilihan berfokus bagi mendapatkan 1% sebatian paling serupa dengan sesuatu sebatian menggunakan angkali Tanimoto dan Euclidean ke atas perwakilan bukan binari sebatian dijangka berkecenderungan memberikan hasil yang lebih memuaskan berbanding dengan pemilihan rambang. Nilai keserupaan yang melibatkan 5% sebatian paling berbeza berdasarkan angkali Tanimoto juga didapati mampu menggambarkan perbezaan ciri fizikal dan kimia molekul yang dibandingkan. Ini menunjukkan yang pemilihan rasional berdasarkan angkali Tanimoto bagi memilih subset yang terdiri daripada 5% molekul paling rencam dari sebuah pangkalan data molekul yang mempunyai perwakilan bukan binari berkecenderungan untuk memberikan hasil yang lebih baik daripadapemilihan secara rambang. Walau bagaimanapun. di dalam kedua-dua pemilihan berfokus atau rencam menggunakan angkali yang dinyatakan, semakin banyak sebatian yang dipilih, hasil yang didapati semakin menyerupai pemilihan secara rawak dari segi keserupaan atau kerencaman ciri fizikal dan kimia.
Bottom sediment samples from 19 stations of Terengganu River estuary were analyzed for the concentration of Co, Cu, Zn and Pb. The average concentration of Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were 7.01 Â± 1.26 Âµg/g dry weight, 36.7 Â± 25.9 Âµg/g dry weight, 83.3 Â± 52.4 Âµg/g dry weight dan 122.5 Â± 25. 7 Âµg/g dry weight, respectively. Generally, the concentration of Co, Cu, Zn and Pb at present are not widespread enough as to have much influence on pollution of that area. The concentration of these metals increased with the decrease of mean size, suggesting their association with the fine fraction of the sediment.
Sampel sedimen dasar yang diperolehi daripada 19 stesen penyampelan di muara Sungai Terengganu telah dianalis is untuk mendapatkan taburan kepekatan Co, Cu, Zn dan Pb. Purata kepekatan bagi Co, Cu, Zn dan Pb adalah masing-masing 7.01 Â± 1.26 Âµg/g berat kering, 36.7 Â± 25.9 Âµg/g berat kering, 83.3 Â± 52.4 Âµglg berat kering dan 122.5 Â± 25.7 Âµg/g berat kering. Secara kesimpulannya, tahap pencemaran Co, Cu, Zn dan Pb adalah masih terkawal dan tidak menunjukkan tahap pencemaran logam berat yang serius. Kepekatan Logam didapati meningkat dengan pengurangan niLai min saiz partikel dan ini mengesyorkan hubungan logam yang baik terhadap sedimen yang lebih halus.
Concentration of Ra-226 and Ra-228 activities in water and sediment samples were measured using the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) and High Purity Germanium Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe). respectively. Concentrations of Ra-226 activity in sediment samples range from 18.93 Bg/ kg to 236.06 Bq/kg and for Ra-228 activity range from 12.59 Bg/kg to 410.60 Bq/kg. Meanwhile, concentrations of Ra-226 activity obtained in water samples range from 0.064 Bg/L to 0.199 Bq/L. These data indicate, that the distribution of Ra-228 and Ra-226 in the study area were varied from one sampling stations to another and is probably related to the contents of suspended particles.
Penentuan kepekatan aktiviti Ra-226 dan Ra-228 dalam sampel air dan sedimen dilakukan masing-masing dengan Pembilang Sintilasi Cecair (LSC) dan Spektrometri Gamma Germanium Lampau Tulen (HPGe). Kepekatan aktiviti Ra-226 dalam sampel sedimen adalah berjulat dari 18.93 Bg/kg hingga 236.06 Bq/kg dan kepekatan aktiviti Ra-228 berjulat dari 12.59 Bg/kg hingga 410.60 Bq/kg. Kepekatan aktiviti Ra-226 dalam sampel air yang diperolehi pula berjulat dari 0.064 Bg/L hingga 0.199 Bq/L. Ini menunjukkan taburan Ra-228 dan Ra-226 di kawasan kajian adalah berubah mengikut lokasi kajian dan berkemungkinan dipengaruhi oleh sifat kandungan bahan terampai.
A study of the major Arthropoda taxa of invertebrates recolonizing Saraca roots occurring on various substrates and under various water velocities was carried out in the upper reaches of the Gombak River. The sites for the recolonization experiments were selected in the fast and slow flowing sections of rocks and boulders, sand and gravel and mud and silt biotopes. The Hydropsychidae and the Nemouridae were the pioneer recolonizers of Saraea roots in the fast flowing sections of the stream whereas the Ptilodactylidae and the Caenidae were the pioneer recolonizers in the slow flowing sections of the stream.
Suatu kajian telah dijalankan bagi menentukan takson utama invertebrata Arthropoda yang mengkoloni semula akar Saraca yang didapati pada pelbagai substrat dan pada kelajuan air yang berbeza di bahagian hulu Sungai Gombak. Tapak-tapak untuk ujikaji pengkolonian-semula telah dipilih pada bahagian laju dan perlahan biotop batuan besar dan sederhana, pasir dan batuan kecil, dan lumpur dan kelodak. Hydropsychidae dan Nemouridae adalah pengkoloni perintis pada akar Saraca di bahagian aliran laju sungai sementara Ptilodactylidae dan Caeflidae adalah pengkoloni perintis di bahagian aliran perlahan sungai itu.
Eleven marine sediment samples from Sg. Tengi Estuary, Tanjung Karang were analysed for their major elements in the oxides form (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O, TiO2, P2O5 and MnO) and trace elements (Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr) contents. The muddy marine sediment was collected at the left and right side of the river mouth as far as one kilometre away and about 25-30 meters from the edge of existing growth. Some of the mud sample appears to have cockleshell flakes in them. The mean of major elemental content (oxides form) in the sediment in decreasing order were dominated by SiO2 (56.3%), followed by Al2O3, (15.5%), Fe2O3 (4.1%), Na2O (2.7%), CaO (2.6%), MgO (2.3%), K2O (1.8%), TiO2 (0.5%), P2O5 (0.14%) and MnO (0.06%). Volatile substances represented by loss on ignition (LOI) (13.9%) occupied substantial amounts of the sediment volume. The most abundant trace elements displayed as mean was Zr (222 mgkg-1), followed by Ba (200 mgkg-1), Sr (172 mgkg-1), Rb (131 mgkg-1), Zn (103 mgkg-1), V (l02mgkg-1), Cr (84 mgkg-1), Pb (40 mgkg-1), Ni (34 mgkg-1), Cu (31 mgkg-1) and Co (22 mgkg-1). Correlation analysis showed that Cr, Pb and Zn were positively related to the Fe203 and Al2O3 content whereas increase in pH immobilised Cr and Zn in the sediment. The mean of Cr (84 mgkg-1) and Zn (103 mgkg-1) content in sediment were higher than the lower limit of their respective threshold concentration.
Sebanyak 11 sampel sedimen marin daripada muara Sg. Tengi, Tanjung Karang telah dianalisis untuk menentukan kandungan unsur major dalam bentuk oksida (SiO2, Al2O3 Fe2O3, Na2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O, TiO2, P2O5 and MnO) dan unsur surih (Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr). Sedimen marin berlumpur dikutip daripada bahagian kiri dan kanan muara sungai dalam jarak sejauh kira-kira 1 km dan 25-30 meter ke arah laut daripada kawasan pertumbuhan yang sedia ada. Sebahagian daripada sampel lumpur tersebut mempunyai kandungan serpihan kulit kerang. Purata kandungan unsur major di dalam sedimen mengikut urutan menurun adalah didominasi oleh SiO2 (56.27%) diikuti oleh Al2O3 (15.5%), Fe2O3 (4.1 %), Na2O (2.7%), CaO. (2.6%), MgO (2.3%), K2O (1.8%), TiO2 (0.5%), P2O5 (0.14%)dan MnO. (0.06%). Sebatian mudah meruap diwakili oleh kehilangan menerusi pembakaran (LOI) (13.9%) mengisi isipadu yang agak besar di dalam komposisi sedimen. Purata kandungan unsur surih yang terbanyak ditunjukkan. oleh Zr (222 mgkg-1), diikuti oleh Ba (200 mgkg-1), Sr (172 mgkgÂ-1), Rb (131 mgkg-1), Zn (103 mgkg-1), V (l02 mgkg-1), Cr (84 mgkg-1), Pb (40 mgkg-1), Ni (34 mgkg-1), Cu (31 mgkg-1) dan Co (22 mgkg-1). Analisis korelasi menunjukkan Cr, Pb dan Zn mempunyai hubungan positij yang signijikan dengan Fe2O3 dan Al2O3, manakala peningkatan pH memegunkan Cr dan Zn dalam sedimen. Purata kandungan Cr (84 mgkg-1) dan Zn (103 mgkg-1) di dalam sedimen lebih tinggi daripada paras yang dikira berpotensi toksik di dalam sedimen.
Effect of Centella asiatica aqueous leaf extract was assessed on spermatogenesis and sperm quality in mice. The experiment was conducted by giving three different doses of C. asiatica extract orally; 25mg/kg, 50mg/ kg and 100mg/kg body weight daily for four weeks respectively. Control group was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl). Marked decreases in sperm count and motility were found in sperm collected from the cauda epididymis of treated mice. The treatment, however did not affect sperm mortality and morphology. Histologically, signs of inhibition of testicular cells appeared clearly at dose 100mg/kg, when the lumen of seminiferous tubules were only full with spermatocytes and spermatids. The present results show that the plant has antispermatogenic effect in mice. It is therefore, suggested that leaf extracts of C. asiatica possess antifertility activity in male mice.
Kesan ekstrak berakua daun Centella asiatica telah dikaji ke atas proses spermatogenesis dan kualiti sperma mencit. Kajian dijalankan dengan memberikan tiga dos C. asiatica secara oral masing-masing; 25mg/kg, 50mg/ kg and 100mg/kg berat tubuh mencit setiap hari selama empat minggu. Kumpulan kawalan diberikan larutan salin normal (0.9% NaCl). Pengurangan dalam bilangan dan motiliti sperma yang ketara telah diperhatikan pada semua kumpulan mencit yang diberikan ekstrak C. asiatica. Walau bagaimanapun pemberian ekstrak C. asiatica tidak mendatangkan kesan terhadap mortaliti dan morfologi sperma. Kajian histologi pula menunjukkan terdapat kesan perencatan sel-sel spermatogenik testis pada dos C. asiatica 100mg/kg di mana lumen pada tubul seminiferus hanya dipenuhi dengan sel-sel spermatosit dan spermatid. Hasil kajian menunjukkan tumbuhan ini mempunyai kesan antispermatogenik pada mencit. Oleh itu dicadangkan bahawa ekstrak daun C. asiatica mempunyai aktiviti antikesuburan pada mencit jantan.
The mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) plant is a well known medicinal plant. The fruits, leaves and roots of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous extract of the M. citrifolia fruits (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight given for a period of 30 days) on sperm quality and histology of testis in mice. Data from this study show that the epididymal sperm count, mortality, motility and sperm morphology in mice given the M. citrifolia fruit extract did not differ from that of the control group. Spermatogenesis was not affected by the treatment. The results obtained here suggest that the aqueous extract of the M. citrifolia fruit (up to 100 mg/kg) did not affect sperm quality and spermatogenesis in mice.
Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) adalah tumbuhan ubatan yang terkenal. Bahagian buah, daun dan akarnya digunakan secara meluas dalam perubatan tradisional. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan kesan pemberian ekstrak berakua buah M. citrifolia (dos 25mg/kg, 50 mg/kg dan 100 mg/kg berat tubuh mencit selama 30 hari) ke atas kuantiti sperma dan histologi testis mencit. Data daripada kajian ini menunjukkan bilangan sperma epididimis, mortaliti, motiliti dan morfologi sperma mencit kajian tidak berbeza berbanding kumpulan kawalan. Proses spermatogenesis juga tidak terjejas dengan pemberian M. citrifolia. Keputusan kajian ini mencadangkan ekstrak berakua M .citrifolia (sehingga 100 mg/kg) tidak mendatangkan kesan terhadap kualiti sperma dan spermatogenesis mencit.