Aim: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially life-threatening, iatrogenic complication of assisted reproduction and has been associated with poor in vitro fertilization outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate and outcome following severe OHSS, at a single center over a three-year period. Methods: The incidence of severe OHSS at the IVF Center, National University of Singapore, in Singapore, was 4% (48 cases over 1200 cycles) during the period of 1997-2000. The present retrospective study compared 48 cases of severe OHSS to 144 age-matched, contemporaneous controls without OHSS. Results: The total gonadotropin required for severe OHSS group was found to be lower than for that of controls (2664.06 ± 768.29 IU vs 3349.58 ± 2003.73 IU), although duration of stimulation was similar. The OHSS group was associated with a fivefold increase (OR 5.293, 95% CI: 2.116-13.238) in pregnancy rate compared to controls (87.5% vs 56.9%; P 0.05) and miscarriage rates (14% vs 7.3%; P > 0.05) between the groups. Conclusion: Severe OHSS at our center were mostly late onset. The pregnancy rate was significantly higher, but multiple pregnancy and miscarriage rates were not significantly increased when compared to the age-matched contemporaneous controls. (Reprod Med Biol 2005; 4: 207-211).
This experimental study was carried out to investigate the effect of eight types of commercial rice in Malaysia on blood glucose response and to determine their glycaemic index (GI) values. Ten healthy Malay volunteers (7 males, 3 females, BMI=23.6kgm-2, age=25.1years) participated in this study. The eight types of rice tested were three high fibre rice (HFR A, HFR B & HFR C), three white rice (WR D, WR E and WR F) and two fragrant rice (FR G and FR H). The subjects were required to go through the study protocol on eleven separate occasions (eight tests for the test rice samples and three repeated tests for the reference food) after an overnight fasting. Capillary blood samples were taken immediately before (0min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120min after consumption of the test foods. The blood glucose response was obtained by calculating the incremental area under the curve (iAUC). The GI was determined according to the standardised methodology. This study showed that out of eight types of rice tested, three (HFR B, WR E and WR F) could be categorised as having intermediate GI while the remaining five were considered high GI foods (HFR A, HFR C, WR D, FR G and FR H). The GI of HFR B (60 Â± 5.8) and WR E (61 Â± 5.8) were significantly lower than the reference food (glucose; GI=100) (p0.05). The GI value of the rice tested in descending order were HFR C, 87 Â± 9.0 followed by HFR A (81 Â± 6.7), FR G (80 Â± 5.5), FR H (79 Â± 7.6), WR D (72 Â± 8.5), WR F (69 Â± 8.3), WR E (61 Â± 5.8) and HFR B (60 Â± 5.8). There was no relationship between the dietary fibre content of the rice with the iAUC (r= -0.05, p=0.63) and GI values (r= -0.08, p=0.46). This shows that the GI values of the test rice were independent of the dietary fibre content of the rice. Other factors that may influence the GI value of rice include amylose content, gelatinisation process and botanical sources. The results of this study will provide useful information for dietitians and nutritionists in selecting the appropriate type of rice for the daily diet of diabetics.
Traditionally, Chinese women adhere to special dietary practices during the month following childbirth. This paper discusses the dietary practices and food taboos practised by Chinese women in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 134 Chinese mothers of children below one year were recruited from three Maternal and Child Health Clinics and Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to obtain information on socioeconomic background, dietary practices, food taboos and cooking methods during the confinement period. Food intake was assessed by multiple 24-hour dietary recall among 34 mothers during their confinement month (zuo yuezi). Body weight and height were measured, and body mass index calculated. Majority of the respondents had secondary school education (77.6%), household income between RM1001 and RM3000 (64%), and were homemakers (48.5%). The women were aged 18-39 years, and 68% were of normal weight. Most women (82%) practised 30 days of confinement, during which they adhered to special dietary practices. The diet was directed at attaining yin-yang (cold-hot) balance, whereby â€œhotâ€ foods were most commonly used and â€œcoldâ€ foods were avoided. Ginger, rice wine and sesame seed oil, considered â€œhotâ€ foods, were used in large amounts in the cooking. Rice, chicken and pork were also consumed in large amounts. Most vegetables and fruits were considered â€œcoldâ€ and were prohibited during confinement. Most mothers drank specially-prepared teas boiled from Chinese herbs. Mean energy intake was 19% below RNI, while mean protein intake was 93% above RNI (NCCFN, 2005). Mean intakes of thiamin, riboflavin and niacin were above 75% of RNI, while vitamins A and C were at half of RNI or less. Mean iron and calcium intakes were at 222% and 67% of RNI, respectively. It is concluded that most Chinese women in Kuala Lumpur do conform to special dietary practices during zuo yuezi.
MeSH terms: Child Health; Adult; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Body Weight; Calcium; Energy Intake; Child; China/ethnology; Cooking; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diet; Female; Food Habits; Fruit; Hospitals, Maternity; Humans; Iron; Malaysia; Maternal-Child Health Centers; Meat; Mothers; Niacin; Pregnancy; Surveys and Questionnaires; Riboflavin; Taboo; Thiamine; Vegetables; Vitamins; Wine; Body Mass Index; Ginger; Parturition
Health promotion, a discipline fast growing, deals with the prevention of illness and injury at the workplace. This article review defines health promotion and suggests the means for planning an effective, organized and well-structured program. A properly executed program will benefit both employer and employee in managing workplace absenteeism, reducing staff turnover, improving morale and productivity and keeping health care costs at an acceptable level.
MeSH terms: Absenteeism; Efficiency; Health Promotion; Morale; Personnel Turnover; Health Care Costs; Workplace
The construction industry is an important industry in the Malaysian’s economy. Much has been said about the quality of the product as well as the image of the industry due to the small percentage of local workers on site. The industry’s welfare and safety record is not at all encouraging. To stop the rot, the government has taken important and significant steps by the establishment of the Malaysian Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). These efforts have shown some significant positive improvement in the perception and action of those involved in the industry but we are still far from the standard shown in other developed countries in terms of site safety. This paper is to discuss the roles and responsibilities of the key players in the industry be it the clients, consultants or contractors. The focus is on the ‘upstream’ activities i.e. the pre-construction stage, rather than the ‘downstream’ i.e. the construction phase of a project.
MeSH terms: Consultants; Government; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.); Play and Playthings; Safety; United States; Occupational Health; Developed Countries; Construction Industry
Emergency in a major hazard installation may cause extensive damage to property and serious disruption both inside and outside the installation. The overall objectives of an emergency plan are: to localise the emergency and, if possible, eliminate it; and to minimise the effects of the accident on people and property. The off-site emergency plan is an integral part of any major hazard control system. In many countries the duty to prepare the off-site plan lies with the local authorities, including Malaysia. Thus, the preparations of written off-site emergency response planning is required to minimize the impact of major accident to the people , property and environment.
This study aimed to validate the Malay Version of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire for Malaysian use and application for assessing psychosocial work environment factors. Validity and Reliability were studied in 50 staff nurses of Hospital Selayang. The validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by calculating the percentage of sensitivity and specificity at the different score level. Both percentage of sensitivity against specificity were plotted to produce a ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) curve, and score 52 has the highest both sensitivity and specificity was used as an overall index that expresses the probability that measure the psychosocial problems. For reliability purposes, a descriptive of Test-Retest Mean Scores and Paired Sample T-Test and the coefficient-correlation test were calculated. The Test-Retest Mean Scores and Paired Sample T-Test for all 26 scales were calculated and showed statistically not significant. The reliability of the questionnaire and its 26 scales was assessed by using Pearson (r) (overall questionnaire r within a range of 0.00 to 1.00). The COPSOQ appears to be a reliable and responsive measure of workers for Malaysian use and can be applied for assessing psychosocial work environment factors.
MeSH terms: Probability; Surveys and Questionnaires; ROC Curve; Sensitivity and Specificity; Reproducibility of Results; Workplace
The objectives of this study is to evaluate subjective symptoms and neurobehavioral performances among workers exposed to lead and its relation with blood lead levels. The methodology of this study was restricted to 141 Malaysian battery manufacturing factories male workers with mean (SD) age of 35.2 (9.6) years, years of employment 9.1 (7.1), current blood lead concentration 40.5 (16.8) μg/dl were given WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Results showed that highly exposed group blood lead level (high ≥ 40 μg/dl) performed less well in 4 of 13 responses reported higher subjective symptoms of weakness of lower limbs and anorexia. Significant correlation was found between blood lead and Digit Symbol, Digit Forward, Digit Backward, Aiming Pursuit Test and Trail B. Regression analysis showed reduction in cognitive, memory and concentration functions at ≤ 30 μg/dl blood lead levels with maximum lead effect at Digit symbol’s score at 40 μg/dl. In conclusion, this study is consistent with the larger body of neurobehavioral tests in lead exposure and has proven the ability of these tests in detecting low level of lead toxicity.
The paper relates a study on the development of an analysis procedure for measuring the gold coating thickness using EDXRF technique. Gold coating thickness was measured by relating the counts under the Au Lα peak its thickness value. In order to get a reasonably accurate result, a calibration graph was plotted using five gold-coated reference standards of different thicknesses. The calibration graph shows a straight line for thin coating measurement until 0.9μm. Beyond this the relationship was not linear and this may be resulted from the selfabsorption effect. Quantitative analysis was also performed on two different samples of goldcoated jewelry and a phone connector. Result from the phone connector analysis seems to agree with the manufacturer’s gold coating value. From the analysis of gold-coated jewelry it had been able to differentiate the two articles as gold wash and gold electroplated.
Gamma Spectrometry Counting System requires similar counting geometries for the calibration source, reference material and samples. The objectives of this study were to find out the effects of the sample density on 137 Cs activities measurement and propose reasonable corrections. Studies found that the activity of the samples is decreasing when the density of samples increased. Therefore, in order to have a more accurate estimation of samples activities; density corrections should be done either by performs mathematical corrections using equation or by increasing the expanded uncertainty when sample densities deviated from calibration source.
Analyses activities of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were conducted at ten stations of Pulau Redang, Malaysia. Dissolved radium isotopes such as 226 Ra and 228 Ra had shown enrichment at coastal area stations. Meanwhile, activities of both nuclides in the suspended particle matters were slightly in equilibrium with the activity ratio ranging from 0.88 – 1.86. The calculated distribution coefficient values (Kd) of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were in the range of 0.78 x 10 5 L g -1 to 5.56 x 10 5 L g -1 and 0.21 x 10 5 L g -1 to 1.86 x 10 5 L g -1 , respectively, indicate that most of the radium nuclides in the study area are strongly absorbed into the particulate phases. Therefore, low concentrations of suspended particles matter in the water column (< 10 mg L -1 ) have insignificant effects on the Kd values.
MeSH terms: Environmental Monitoring; Isotopes; Malaysia; Radium; Water
The purpose of this study was to determine the adsorption coefficient (Koc) of chlorpyrifos in clay soil by measuring the Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kads(f)) and desorption coefficient (1/n value) of chlorpyrifos. It was found that the Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kads(f)) and the linear regression (r 2 ) of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm for chlorpyrifos in the clay soil were 52.6 L/kg and 0.5344, respectively. Adsoprtion equilibrium time was achieved within 24 hours for clay soil. This adsoprtion equilibrium time was used to determine the effect of concentration on adsorption. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) of clay soil was found to be 2783 L/kg with an initial concentration solution of 1 µg/g, soil-solution ratio (1:5) at 30 o C when the equilibrium between the soil matrix and solution was 24 hours. The Kdes decreased over four repetitions of the desorption process. The chlorpyrifos residues may be strongly adsorbed onto the surface of clay.
The effect of sample density in the determination of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry was studied using two multinuclide standard sources of different densities. The self absorption corrections due to differences in sample matrix densities were estimated. The corrections were used in the analysis food and soil samples having packing densities between 0.2 – 1.6g/ml.
The multi-racial, multi-lingual, multi-religious, and multi-cultural Malaysia is situated at the crossroads of Southeast Asia. It has a total population of about 23 million, comprising of more than fifty ethnic groups: Malays, Chinese, Indian, and the minorities of Orang Asli in Peninsular; Iban, Bidayuh, Melanau, Kenyah Kayan, Ukit, Penan, Sekapan, Lahanan, Lun Bawang, Kelabit, Berawan, Punan Bah etc. in Sarawak; and Kadazan, Bajau, Murut, Paitan, Suluk Bonggi, Illanun, Bengkahak Tidung etc. in Sabah. The origin of the multi-ethnic character of this country traces back to decades of human migration from various regions of Southeast Asia. With her rich human biodiversity, a study of the human population genetics is imperative, either for forensic database purposes, or as the stepping stone for medical applications.
Basal stem rot (BSR) caused by species Ganoderma, is one of the most serious disease of oil palm in Malaysia. As far as the disease problem to oil palm in Malaysia is concerned, BSR is the only disease requiring urgent solution. The BSR is not new to Malaysia, it has been known to attack oil palm since the early years when the crop was introduced into this country. There is an indication that there are differences in susceptibility to basal stem rot between germplasm materials from different genetic origin . This provides hope in generating oil palm varieties with reduced level of susceptibility using existing genetic materials. There is also interest in developing diagnostic tools such as using PCR primers for detection of the pathogen in oil palms . Altered expression of several classes of genes was observed in plants in response to fungal infection. These include genes associated with cell maintenance and development, genes involved in biosynthesis of lignin and phenolics and genes implicated in oxidative burst, programmed cell death or hypersensitive response .
The Malaysian fish production is about 1.5 million metric tonnes and 86.9% of this comes from the marine sector and 13.1% from the inland sector. This included fish production by capture and culture. (DOF, 2002). Fisheries genetic resources need to have a value in terms of economic, ecological and social uses and they need to characterized. This is the mandate to FAO and it is also necessary for fisheries management and aquaculture development. The vast aquatic diversity that exists in Malaysia consist of numerous taxa of marine and freshwater fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, plants and animals. These figures could be an underestimate to the actual figure. The levels of genetic diversity includes ecosystems, communities, population, genotypes and individual genes. A knowledge of the genetic background of a species and its population structure is essential for its management, breeding and conservation programmes in fisheries. Problems like how to choose the right candidates for breeding, identifiying and monitoring lines, families and individuals, monitoring and control of inbreeding, inheritance of simple traits and genetic improvement through selection for favourable gene and gene combinations can potentially be answered through the use of molecular markers in the management of fisheries genetic resources.
The need to detect genetic variation has fueled the development of novel marker systems in fisheries biology. In this study, a simple, fast and cost effective method was used to differentiate between species of freshwater fishes focusing on Malaysian freshwater fishes by employing
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) analysis of a 470-bp cytochrome b mtDNA segment. RFLP analysis using six restriction enzymes (AluI, BamHI, BsuRI, Csp61, HpaII and SalI) found variations in the digestion profile among most of the fish samples analyzed. Diagnostic digestion profiles were observed among the Hampala fishes, especially between H. macrolepidota and the other Hampala species/forms (using BsuRI and Csp61). Diagnostic digestion profiles were also detected between H.
bimaculata Type A and Type B (using AluI, BamHI, BsuRI and SalI), supporting their status as distinct species. Additionally, unique digestion profiles were observed in other species such as Leptobarbus hosii (Csp61), Osteocheilus hasseltii (Csp61), Osteocheilus sp. (Csp61), Puntioplites bulu (Csp61), Puntius bramoides (AluI), P. sealei (AluI) and Helostoma temmincki (AluI and Csp61), which can be used as genetic markers for discriminating these species. Overall, the RFLP analysis of the cytochrome
b mtDNA segment has proven to be a considerably effective, fast and non-expensive technique to discriminate among several freshwater fish species in Malaysia.
MeSH terms: Animals; Cyprinidae; DNA Restriction Enzymes; DNA, Mitochondrial; Fisheries; Fresh Water; Genetic Markers; Malaysia; Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length; Cytochromes b
Two isolates of brown root disease fungi were obtained from diseased roots of sentang (Azadirachta excelsa). Morphological characters from macroscopic and microscopic studies suggested that both isolates were from the same genus namely Phellinus noxius and Phellinus sp. Cloning and sequencing of ITS region were conducted to investigate further the variation between the two species at
molecular level. PCR-amplified ITS regions were cloned in pCR2.1 and sequenced. DNA sequences sized 723bp and 710bp were obtained for Phellinus noxius and Phellinus sp respectively. Comparison between the two sequences showed 98% similarity where three nucleotide substitutions and three insertion/deletion regions were found sized 8bp, 2bp and 3bp respectively.
Animal species identification is one of the important fields in forensic science. Unlike human forensics which makes use of DNA fingerprinting techniques to identify individuals of the same species - humans, animal forensic species identification is much more complicated as it involves the ability to identify and distinguish between hundreds to thousands of species when the material evidence is only a trace of animal tissue without the presence of any visual physical morphology. It is even more difficult when the specimen is an unknown and no reference material is available. Animal species identification is not only important for the prevention of wildlife crimes for the purpose of wildlife protection and conservation but it is also becoming more and more significant in food safety issues especially for the meat industry. Owing to the demand and the necessity of providing such services for regulation and enforcement in the context of environmental protection, food safety and biosafety, the Department of Chemistry (DOC)
Malaysia has initiated the use of DNA techniques employing the most widely used genetic markers as part of its scientific solution for animal species identification.