Bok choy (Brassica chinensis L.) is a temperate vegetable grown in the cool highland areas of Malaysia. In June 2010, vegetable growing areas of the Cameron Highlands, located in Pahang State, Malaysia, were surveyed for the prevalence of anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species. Diseased samples were randomly collected from 12 infested fields. Anthracnose incidence on bok choy varied from 8 to 36% in different nursery fields. Disease symptoms initially appeared as small water-soaked spots scattered on the leaf petioles of young plants. As these spots increased in size, they developed irregular round spots that turned to sunken grayish brown lesions surrounded by brownish borders. When the lesions were numerous, leaves collapsed. Pale buff to salmon conidial mass and acervuli were observed on well-developed lesions. The acervuli diameter varied in size from 198 to 486 μm, averaging 278.5 μm. Morphological and cultural characteristics of the fungus were examined on potato dextrose agar incubated for 7 days at 25 ± 2°C under constant fluorescent light. Vegetative mycelia were hyaline, septate, branched, and 2 to 7 μm in diameter. The color of the fungal colonies was grayish brown. Conidia were hyaline, aseptate, falcate, apices acute, and 21.8 to 28.5 × 2.6 to 3.4 mm. Setae were pale brown to dark brown, 75 to 155 μm long, base cylindrical, and tapering towards the acute tip. Appressoria were solitary or in dense groups, light to dark brown, entire edge to lobed, roundish to clavate, 6.5 to 14 × 5.8 to 8.6 μm, averaging 9.2 × 6.8 μm, and had a L/W ratio of 1.35. Based on the keys outlined by Mordue 1971 (2) and Sutton 1980 (3), the characteristics of this fungus corresponded to Colletotrichum capsici. Sequence analysis of the ITS-rDNA obtained from the Malaysian strain CCM3 (GenBank Accession No. JQ685746) using primers ITS5 and ITS4 (1) when aligned with deposited sequences from GenBank revealed 99 to 100% sequence identity with C. capsici strains (DQ286158, JQ685754, DQ286156, GQ936210, and GQ369594). A representative strain CCM3 was used for pathogenicity testing. Four non-infected detached leaves of 2-week-old B. chinensis were surface-sterilized and inoculated by placing 10 μl of conidial suspension (106 conidia ml-1) using either the wound/drop or non-wound/drop method, and distilled water was used as a control (1). Leaves were incubated at 25°C, 98% RH. The experiment was repeated twice. Five days after inoculation, typical anthracnose symptoms with acervuli formation appeared on the surface of tissues inoculated with the spore suspension, but not on the water controls. A fungus with the characteristics of C. capsici was recovered from the lesions on the inoculated leaves. Anthracnose caused by C. capsici has been reported on different vegetable crops, but not on bok choy (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. capsici causing anthracnose on bok choy in Malaysia. References: (1) R. Ford et al. Aust. Plant Pathol. 33:559, 2004. (2) J. E. M. Mordue. CMI Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. Commonwealth Mycol. Inst., Kew, UK. 1971. (3) B. C. Sutton. The Genus Glomerella and its anamorph Colletotrichum. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. (4) P. P. Than et al. Plant Pathol. 57:562, 2008.
In June 2011, lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants cultivated in major lettuce growing areas in Malaysia, including the Pahang and Johor states, had extensive leaf spots. In severe cases, disease incidence was recorded more than 80%. Symptoms on 50 observed plants initially were as water soaked spots (1 to 2 mm in diameter) on leaves, and then became circular spots spreading over much of the leaves. In this research, main lettuce growing areas infected by the pathogen in the mentioned states were investigated and the pathogen was isolated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). Colonies observed were greyish green to light brown. Single conidia were formed at the terminal end of conidiophores that were 28.8 to 40.8 μm long and 11.0 to 19.2 μm wide, and 2 to 7 transverse and 1 to 4 longitudinal septa. To produce conidia, the fungus was grown on potato carrot agar (PCA) and V8 juice agar media under 8-h/16-h light/dark photoperiod. Fourteen isolates were identified Stemphylium solani based on morphological criteria described by Kim et al. (1). To confirm morphological characterization, DNA of the fungus was extracted from mycelium and PCR was done using universal primers ITS5 (5'-GGAAGTAAAAGTCGTAACAAGG-3') and ITS4 (5'-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3'), which amplified the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA (2). The sequencing result was subjected to BLAST analysis which was 99% identical to the other published sequences in the GenBank database (GenBank Accession Nos. AF203451 and HQ840713). The nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank under Accession No. JQ736022. Pathogenicity testing of representative isolate was done using 20 μl of conidial suspension with a concentration of 1 × 105/ml in droplets (three drops on each leaf) on four detached 45-day-old lettuce leaves cv. BBS012 (3). Fully expended leaves were placed on moist filter paper in petri dishes and were incubated in humid chambers at 25°C. The leaves inoculated with sterile water served as control. After 7 days, disease symptoms were observed, which were similar to those symptoms collected in infected fields and the fungus was reisolated and confirmed as S. solani based on morphological criteria (1) and molecular characterization (2). Control leaves remained healthy. Pathogenicity testing was completed twice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. solani on lettuce in Malaysia and it may become a serious problem because of its broad host range, variability in pathogenic isolates, and prolonged active phase of the disease cycle. Previous research has shown that S. solani is a causal agent of gray leaf spot on lettuce in China (4). References: (1) B. S. Kim et al. Plant Pathol. J. 20:85, 2004. (2) Y. R. Mehta et al. Current Microbiol. 44:323, 2002. (3) B. M. Pryor and T. J. Michailides. Phytopathology 92:406, 2002. (4) F. L. Tai. Sylloge Fungorum Sinicorum, Sci. Press, Acad. Sin., Peking, 1979.
In 2011, a severe gray leaf spot was observed on eggplant (Solanum melongena) in major eggplant growing areas in Malaysia, including the Pahang, Johor, and Selangor states. Disease incidence was >70% in severely infected areas of about 150 ha of eggplant greenhouses and fields examined. Symptoms initially appeared as small (1 to 5 mm diameter), brownish-black specks with concentric circles on the lower leaves. The specks then coalesced and developed into greyish-brown, necrotic lesions, which also appeared on the upper leaves. Eventually, the leaves senesced and were shed. Tissue cut from the edges of leaf spots were surface-sterilized in 1% NaOCl for 2 min, rinsed in sterilized water, dried, and incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Fungal colonies were greyish green to light brown, and produced a yellow pigment. Single, muriform, brown, oblong conidia formed at the terminal end of each conidiophore, were each 21.6 to 45.6 μm long and 11.5 to 21.6 μm wide, and contained 2 to 7 transverse and 1 to 4 longitudinal septa. The conidiophores were tan to light brown and ≤220 μm long. Based on these morphological criteria, 25 isolates of the fungus were identified as Stemphylium solani (1). To produce conidia in culture, 7-day-old single-conidial cultures were established on potato carrot agar (PCA) and V8 juice agar media under an 8-h/16-h light/dark photoperiod at 25°C (4). Further confirmation of the identification was obtained by molecular characterization in which fungal DNA was extracted and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA amplified using primers ITS5 and ITS4 (2), followed by direct sequencing. A BLAST search in the NCBI database revealed that the sequence was 99% identical with published ITS sequences for two isolates of S. solani (Accession Nos. AF203451 and HQ840713). The amplified ITS region was deposited in GenBank (JQ736023). Pathogenicity testing of a representative isolate was performed on detached, 45-day-old eggplant leaves of the cv. 125066-X under laboratory conditions. Four fully expanded leaves (one wounded and two non-wounded leaflets/leaf) were placed on moist filter paper in petri dishes, and each leaflet inoculated with a 20-μl drop of a conidial suspension containing 1 × 105 conidia/ml in sterilized, distilled water (3). The leaves were wounded by applying pressure to leaf blades with the serrated edge of forceps. Four control leaves were inoculated similarly with sterilized, distilled water. Inoculated leaves were incubated in humid chambers at 25°C with 95% RH and a 12-h photoperiod. After 7 days, symptoms similar to those observed in the original fields developed on both wounded and non-wounded inoculated leaves, but not on control leaves, and S. solani was reisolated consistently from the symptoms using the same method as the original isolations. Control leaves remained asymptomatic and the fungus was not isolated from these leaves. The pathogenicity testing was repeated with similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. solani on eggplant in Malaysia. References: (1) B. S. Kim et al. Plant Pathol. J. 20:85, 2004. (2) Y. R. Mehta et al. Curr. Microbiol. 44:323, 2002. (3) B. M. Pryor and T. J. Michailides. Phytopathology 92:406, 2002. (4) E. G. Simmons. CBS Biodiv. Series 6:775, 2007.
In August 2011, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and eggplant (S. melongena) crops from major growing areas of the Cameron highlands and Johor state in Malaysia were affected by a soft rot disease. Disease incidence exceeded 80, 75, and 65% in severely infected fields and greenhouses of sweet potato, tomato, and eggplant, respectively. The disease was characterized by dark and small water-soaked lesions or soft rot symptoms on sweet potato tubers, tomato stems, and eggplant fruits. In addition, extensive discoloration of vascular tissues, stem hollowness, and water-soaked, soft, dark green lesions that turned brown with age were observed on the stem of tomato and eggplant. A survey was performed in these growing areas and 22 isolates of the pathogen were obtained from sweet potato (12 isolates), tomato (6 isolates), and eggplant (4 isolates) on nutrient agar (NA) and eosin methylene blue (EMB) (4). The cultures were incubated at 27°C for 2 days and colonies that were emerald green on EMB or white to gray on NA were selected for further studies. All bacterial cultures isolated from the survey exhibited pectolytic ability on potato slices. These bacterial isolates were gram negative; rod shaped; N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase, gelatin liquefaction, and OPNG positive; and were also positive for acid production from D-galactose, lactosemelibiose, raffinose, citrate, and trehalose. They were negative for indol production, phosphatase activity, reducing substances from sucrose, and negative for acid production from maltose, sorbitol, inositol, inolin, melezitose, α-mathyl-D-glocoside, and D-arabitol. The bacteria did not grow on NA at 37°C. Based on these biochemical and morphological assays, the pathogen was identified as Pectobacterium wasabiae (2). In addition, DNA was extracted and PCR assay with two primers (16SF1 and 16SR1) was performed (4). Partial sequences of 16S rRNA (GenBank Accession Nos. JQ665714, JX494234, and JX513960) of sweet potato, tomato, and eggplant, respectively, exhibited a 99% identity with P. wasabiae strain SR91 (NR_026047 and NR_026047.1). A pathogenicity assay was carried out on sweet potato tubers (cv. Oren), tomato stems (cv. 152177-A), and eggplant fruits (cv. 125066x) with 4 randomly representative isolates obtained from each crop. Sweet potato tubers, tomato stems, and eggplant fruits (4 replications) were sanitized in 70% ethyl alcohol for 30 s, washed and rinsed in sterile distilled water, and needle punctured with a bacterial suspension at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml. Inoculated tubers, stems, and fruits were incubated in a moist chamber at 90 to 100% RH for 72 h at 25°C when lesions were measured. All inoculated tubers, stems, and fruits exhibited soft rot symptoms after 72 h similar to those observed in the fields and greenhouses and the same bacteria were consistently reisolated. Symptoms were not observed on controls. The pathogenicty test was repeated with similar results. P. wasabiae have been previously reported to cause soft rot on Japanese horseradish (3), and aerial stem rot on potato in New Zealand (4), the U.S. (2), and Iran (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of sweet potato, tomato, and eggplant soft rot caused by P. wasabiae in Malaysia. References: (1) S. Baghaee-Ravari et al. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 129:413, 2011. (2) S. De Boer and A. Kelman. Page 56 in: Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, 3rd ed. N. Schaad et al., eds. APS Press, St. Paul, 2001. (3) M. Goto et al. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37:130, 1987. (4) A. R. Pitman et al. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 126:423, 2010.
In April and June 2010, coconut seedlings with symptoms of very slow growth, yellowing of leaves, and general abnormal leaf growth were observed in germination beds in Teluk Intan, Perak, Malaysia. The roots were soft, rotten, and brown, extending upward and downward from these lesions. Rhizomorphs and basidiocarps were produced on coconut seeds near the germination eye and identified as Marasmiellus palmivorus according description by Turner (2). Three isolates were obtained by plating surface sterilized symptomatic roots and basidiocarp on malt extract agar (MEA) amended with 85% lactic acid (1 ml added to 11 of the medium). To confirm the identity of the fungus, genomic DNA was extracted from mycelia and basidiocarps of isolates and the large subunit (LSU) region was amplified and sequenced using LR0R/LR7 primers (3). All isolates had identical LSU sequences (GenBank Accession No. JQ654233 to JQ654235). Sequences were identical to each other and 99% similar to a M. palmivorus sequence deposited in the NCBI database (Accession No. AY639434).To confirm pathogenicity, three isolates of M. palmivorus that were obtained from symptomatic plant tissue was inoculated onto seeds of Malaysian Red Dwarf variety. Each isolate was grown in 100 ml of malt extract broth in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks and incubated at 27 ± 2°C for 5 days on an orbital shaker (125 rpm). The resulting culture was passed through two layers of sterile cloth. Mycelial suspension was obtained by blending mycelia in 100 ml of sterile water. Seeds were sterilized by soaking in 10% v/v sodium hypochlorite in distilled water for 3 min. The seeds were then rinsed three times over running tap water. The calyx portion of the seed was removed and five holes were made around the germination eye. The seeds were inoculated by injecting 2 ml of suspension into each hole. The control seeds were inoculated with sterile distilled water only. The seeds were transferred to 40-cm diameter plastic pots containing a mixture of sand, soil, and peat in the ratio of 3:2:1, respectively, and steam treated at 100°C for 1.5 h. Pots were placed in the glasshouse with normal exposures to day-night cycles, temperatures of 29 ± 4°C, and high relative humidity (85 to 95%) achieved by spraying water twice daily. After 2 months, 75% of the inoculated seeds failed to germinate. It was speculated that the artificial inoculum was higher than under germination bed conditions. Rhizomorphs and basidiocarps were produced on husk seeds near the germination eye. Seedlings that emerged successfully developed symptoms similar to those observed in the germination bed. No symptoms developed in the noninoculated seeds and seedlings. At 80 days post inoculation, basidiocarps were observed emerging from three diseased seedlings near the germination eye. Three reisolations were made on MEA from root lesions surface sterilized. Pathogenicity tests and LSU sequence analyses indicated that M. palmivorus is the causal agent of the symptoms observed on coconut seedlings. M. palmivorus was first recorded on coconuts and oil palm in the 1920s (1) and attacks the fruit and the petiole on oil palm (2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. palmivorus causing post-emergence damping off on coconut seedlings. References: (1) K. G. Singh. A check-list of host and diseases in Malaysia. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Malaysia, 1973. (2) P. D. Turner. Oil palm diseases and disorders. Oxford University Press. 1981. (3) R. Vilgalys et al. J. Bacteriol. 172:4238, 1990.
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces one of the most prized tropical fruits, commonly known as the "Queen of the Fruits.″ Mangosteen has the potential to occupy a rapidly expanding niche market in Hawaii. In October 2009, a disease was observed that produced brown leaf spots and blotches surrounded by bright yellow halos at a mangosteen orchard located in Hakalau, Hawaii (19° 53' 49″ N, 155° 7' 35″ W). Recently transplanted 10+ year old trees were 95 to 100% infected. Pieces of infected leaves and stems were surface-sterilized, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated at 24°C ± 1°C for 21 days. The fungus growing on PDA was pale buff with sparse aerial mycelium and acervuli containing black, slimy spore masses. Single spore isolates were used for the morphological characteristics and molecular analysis. Conidia were 5-celled. Apical and basal cells were hyaline; the three median cells were umber to olivaceous. Conidia (n = 50) were 24.3 ± 0.2 × 7.5 ± 0.1 μm, with apical appendages, typically three, averaging 24.3 ± 0.4 μm long, and a basal appendage averaging 6.7 ± 0.2 μm long. DNA sequences were obtained from the β-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8S regions of the rDNA to confirm the identification. The morphological descriptions and measurements were similar to P. virgatula (Kleb.) Steyaert (1). Although sequence data of the ITS region (GenBank Accession No. JN542546) supports the identity of the fungus as P. virgatula, the taxonomy of this genus remains confused since there are only a few type cultures, so it is impossible to use sequences in GenBank to reliably clarify species names (2). To confirm pathogenicity, six leaves of two 3-year-old seedlings were inoculated. Seven-day-old cultures grown on 10% V8 agar at 24°C under continuous fluorescent lighting were used for inoculations. The inoculum consisted of spore suspensions in sterile distilled water adjusted to 6 × 105 conidia/ml. Using a fine haired paint brush, the inoculum was brushed onto the youngest leaves, while sterile distilled water was used as the control. The plants were incubated in a clear plastic bag placed on the laboratory bench at 24°C for 48 hours, then placed on a greenhouse bench and observed weekly for symptoms. After 14 days, leaf spots ranging in size from pinpoint to 5.4 mm in diameter with a distinctive yellow halo were present. Within 35 days, the leaf spots enlarged to leaf blotches ranging in size from 11.5 × 13.3 mm up to 28.3 × 34.6 mm with brown centers and a distinctive yellow halo identical to the field symptoms. A Pestalotiopsis sp. identical to that used to inoculate the seedlings was recovered from the leaf spots and blotches, confirming Koch's postulates. The experiment was repeated twice. Pestalotiopsis leaf blight has been reported in other countries growing mangosteen, including Thailand, Malaysia, and North Queensland, Australia (3). However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of a Pestalotiopsis sp. causing a disease on mangosteen in Hawaii. Although this disease is considered a minor problem in the literature (3), effective management practices should be established to avoid potential production losses. References: (1) E. F. Guba. Monograph of Pestalotia and Monochaetia. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 1961. (2) S. S. N. Maharachchikumbura et al. Fungal Div. 50:167, 2011. (3) R. C. Ploetz. Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops. CABI Publishing. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2003.
In July 2011, a severe outbreak of pod and stem blight was observed on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) plants grown in the Cameron Highlands, located in Pahang State, Malaysia. Disease incidence varied from 33 to 75% in different fields. Pods and stems exhibited withered, light brown to reddish brown necrotic areas. Sub-circular and brown lesions were produced on the leaves. These lesions varied in size, often reaching a diameter of 1 to 2 cm. After tissue death, numerous pycnidia were observed on the surface of the pod or stem. The pycnidia diameter varied from 155 to 495 μm, averaging 265.45 μm, and on the surface of the pod or stem, pycnidia were often arranged concentrically or linearly, respectively. Pycnidiospores were hyaline, 1-celled, usually straight, and rarely, slightly curved. The α-spores varied from 5.5 to 9.0 × 2.5 to 4.0 μm; averaging 7.3 × 3.5 μm. The β-spores found either alone or with pycnidiospores in pycnidia were slender, hyaline, nonseptate, and straight or curved. Size varied from 15.8 to 38.0 × 1.3 to 2.1 μm; averaging 25.86 × 1.8 μm. The colony characteristics were recorded from pure cultures grown on potato dextrose agar plates, and incubated in darkness for 7 days at 25 °C, then exposed to 16/8 h light and dark periods at 25°C for a further 14 to 21 days. Morphological characteristics of the colonies and spores on PDA matched those described for P. phaseolorum var. sojae (2). Colonies were white, compact, with wavy mycelium and stromata with pycnidia that contained abundant β-spores. Sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer obtained from the Malaysian isolate FM1 (GenBank Accession No. JQ514150) using primers ITS5 and ITS4 (1) aligned with deposited sequences from GenBank confirmed identity and revealed 99% to 100% DNA similarity with P. phaseolorum strains (AY577815, AF001020, HM012819, JQ936148). The isolate FM1 was used for pathogenicity testing. Five non-infected detached leaves and pods of 4-week-old lima bean were surface sterilized and inoculated by placing 10 μl of conidial suspension (106 conidia ml-1) on the surface of leaves and pods using either the wound/drop or non-wound/drop method and distilled water used as control (3). The inoculated leaves and pods were incubated at 25 °C and 98% RH, and the experiment was performed twice. Disease reactions and symptoms were evaluated after inoculation. After one week, typical symptoms of pod and stem blight appeared with formation of pycnidia on the surface of the tissues, but not on non-inoculated controls. P. phaseolorum var. sojae was consistently reisolated from symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. phaseolorum var. sojae causing pod and stem blight of lima bean in Malaysia. References: (1) R. Ford et al. Aust. Plant Pathol. 33:559, 2004. (2) G. L. Hartman et al. Compendium of Soybean Diseases. 4th ed. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, 1999. (3) P. P. Than et al. Plant Pathol. 57:562, 2008.
Symptoms of water-soaked lesions and soft rot were first observed in June 2011 on bell pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum cv. Annuum) in the two main regions of pepper production in Malaysia (Cameron Highlands and Johor State). Economic losses exceeded 40% in severely infected fields and greenhouses with the estimated disease incidence of 70%. In pepper fruits damaged by insects, sunscald, or other factors, symptoms initially appeared in the peduncle and calyx tissues and entire fruits were turned into watery masses within 2 to 6 days. Fruits infected in the field tended to collapse and hang on the plant. When the contents leaked out, the outer skin of the fruit dried and remained attached to the plant. Field-grown transplants and infected soil were identified as probable sources of inocula. A total of 50 attached fruits were collected from 10 pepper fields and greenhouses located in the two growing regions. Tissue from the margins of water-soaked lesions was surface-sterilized in 1% NaOCl for 2 min, rinsed in sterile water, dried, and plated onto nutrient agar (NA) and eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) media (3). A similar bacterium was isolated from all samples. After 2 days, white to creamy bacterial colonies on NA and emerald green colonies on EMB developed. Five independent strains were subjected to further biochemical, molecular, and pathogenicity tests. Bacterial strains were gram-negative, motile rods, grew at 37°C, were facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative, phosphatase-negative, and catalase-positive. They degraded pectate, were sensitive to erythromycin, did not utilize Keto-methyl glucoside, were indole production-negative, and reduced sugars from sucrose (3). Acid production was negative from sorbitol and arabitol, but positive from melibiose and citrate. PCR amplification of the pel gene by Y1 and Y2 primers produced a 434-bp fragment (2). Amplification of the intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region by G1 and L1 primers (4) gave two amplicons ca. 550 and 580 bp long. The expected amplicon was not produced with any of the strains using primers Br1f/L1r and Eca1f/Eca2r (1), whereas a 550-bp PCR product, typical of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, was obtained with primers EXPCCF and EXPCCR (1). Based on biochemical and molecular characteristics, and analysis of PCR-RFLP of 16S-ITS-23R rRNA genes using Rsa I enzyme (4), all five bacterial strains were identified as P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. BLAST analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence (GenBank Accession No KC189032) showed 100% identity to the 16S rRNA of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PPC192. For pathogenicity tests, four mature pepper fruits of cv. Annuum were inoculated by injecting 10 μl of a bacterial suspension (108 CFU/ml) into pericarps and the fruits were incubated in a moist chamber at 80 to 90% relative humidity and 30°C. After 72 h, water-soaked lesions similar to those observed in the fields and greenhouses were observed and bacteria with the same characteristics were consistently reisolated, thereby fulfilling Koch's postulates. Symptoms were not observed on water-inoculated controls. References: (1) S. Baghaee-Ravari et al. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 129:413, 2001. (2) A. Darraas et al. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1437, 1994. (3) N. W Schaad et al. Laboratory Guide for the Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. 3rd ed. The American Phytopathological Society Press, St Paul, MN, 2001. (4) I. K. Toth et al. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:4070, 2001.
Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is among the tropical fruit grown in Malaysia and the demand for export rose in 2011. A fruit rot was observed between August and December 2011 from several areas in the states of Pulau Pinang and Perak, Malaysia. The symptoms initially appeared as light brown, water-soaked lesions that developed first in the pericarp and pulp, later enlarging and becoming dark brown. Greyish brown mycelia were observed on infected areas that turned yellowish at later stages of infection. Gliocephalotrichum bacillisporum was isolated from infected fruit by surface sterilization techniques. Conidia were mass-transferred onto potato dexstrose agar (PDA) plates and incubated at 27 ± 1°C. Tissue pieces (5 × 5 mm) excised from the margins between infected and healthy areas were then surface sterilized in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 to 5 min before being rinsed with distilled water, plated on PDA, and incubated at 27 ± 1°C for 7 days. Ten isolates of G. bacillisporum were obtained. Colonies on PDA were initially white before turning yellow with a feathery appearance. Microscopic characteristics on carnation leaf agar (CLA) consisted of hyaline conidia that were slightly ellipsoid to bacilliform with rounded apex ranging from 6.0 to 8.5 μm long and 2.0 to 2.5 μm wide. Conidiophores (70 to 130 μm long) were mostly single arising from large hypha approximately 13 to 16 μm. The conidiogenous structures were mostly quadriverticillate with dense, short, penicillate branches. The phialides were cylindrical and finger-like. Chlamydospores were present singly, in groups of 2 to 4, or in occasionally branched short chains and were brown in color with thick walls ranging from 11 to 13 μm. The cultural and morphological characteristics of G. bacillisporum isolates in the present study were very similar to previously published descriptions (1) except the conidiophores formed without sterile stipe extensions. All the G. bacillisporum isolates were deposited in culture collection at the Plant Pathology Lab, University Sains Malaysia, Penang. Molecular identification was accomplished from the ITS regions using ITS1 and ITS2 primers, and the β-tubulin gene using Bt2a and Bt2b primers (2). BLAST results from the ITS regions showed a 98 to 99% similarity with sequences of G. bacillisporum isolates reported in GenBank. Accession numbers of G. bacillisporum ITS regions: JX484850, JX484852, JX484853, JX484856, JX484858, JX484860, JX484862, JX484866, JX484867, and JX484868. The identity of G. bacillisporum isolates infecting rambutan was further confirmed by β-tubulin sequences (KC683909, KC683911, KC683912, KC683916, KC683919, KC683920, KC683923, KC683926, and KC683927), which showed 92 to 95% similarity with sequences of G. bacillisporum. Pathogenicity tests were also performed using mycelial plug (5 mm) and sprayed conidial suspensions (20 μl suspension of 106 conidia/ml) prepared from 7-day-old cultures. Inoculated fruits were incubated at 27 ± 1°C and after 10 days, similar rotting symptoms appeared on the fruit surface. The pathogen was reisolated from fruit rot lesions, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates, and tests were repeated twice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of G. bacillisporum causing fruit rot of rambutan (N. lappaceum L.) in Malaysia. References: (1) C. Decock et al. Mycologia 98:488, 2006. (2) N. L. Glass and G. C. Donaldson. Appl. Environ Microbiol. 61:1323, 1995.
Soft rot of cabbage (Brassica rapa) occurs sporadically in Malaysia, causing economic damage under the hot and wet Malaysian weather conditions that are suitable for disease development. In June 2011, 27 soft rotting bacteria were isolated from cabbage plants growing in the Cameron Highlands and Johor State in Malaysia where the economic losses exceeded 50% in severely infected fields and greenhouses. Five independent strains were initially identified as Pectobacterium wasabiae based on their inability to grow at 37°C, and elicit hypersensitive reaction (HR) on Nicotiana tabaccum and their ability to utilize raffinose and lactose. These bacterial strains were gram-negative, rod-shaped, N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase, gelatin liquefaction, and OPNG-positive and positive for acid production from D-galactose, lactosemelibiose, raffinose, citrate, and trehalose. All strains were negative for indole production, phosphatase activity, reducing sucrose, and negative for acid production from maltose, sorbitol, inositol, inolin, melezitose, α-methyl-D-glucoside, and D-arabitol. All the strains exhibited pectolytic activity on potato slices. PCR assays were conducted to distinguish P. wasabiae from P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis, P. atrosepticum, and other Pectobacterium species using primers Br1f/L1r (2), Eca1f/Eca2r (1), and EXPCCF/EXPCCR, respectively. DNA from strains did not yield the expected amplicon with the Br1f/L1r and Eca1f/Eca2r, whereas a 550-bp amplicon typical of DNA from P. wasabiae was produced with primers EXPCCF/EXPCCR. ITS-RFLP using the restriction enzyme, Rsa I, produced similar patterns for the Malaysian strains and the P. wasabiae type strain (SCRI488), but differentiated it from P. carotovora subsp. carotovora, P. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis, and Dickeya chrysanthemi type strains. BLAST analysis of the 16S rRNA DNA sequence (GenBank Accession No. KC445633) showed 99% identity to the 16S rRNA of Pw WPP163. Phylogenetic reconstruction using concatenated DNA sequences of mdh and gapA from P. wasabiae Cc6 (KC484657) and other related taxa (4) clustered Malaysian P. wasabiae strains with P. wasabiae SCRI488, readily distinguishing it from other closely related species of Pectobacterium. Pathogenicity assays were conducted on leaves and stems of four mature cabbage plants for each strain (var. oleifera) by injecting 10 μl of a bacterial suspension (108 CFU/ml) into either stems or leaves, and incubating them in a moist chamber at 80 to 90% relative humidity at 30°C. Water-soaked lesions similar to those observed in the fields and greenhouses were observed 72 h after injection and bacteria with similar characteristics were consistently reisolated. Symptoms were not observed on water-inoculated controls. The pathogenicity test was repeated with similar results. P. wasabiae was previously reported to cause soft rot of horseradish in Japan (3). However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of P. wasabiae infecting cabbage in Malaysia. References: (1) S. H. De Boer and L. J. Ward. Phytopathology 85:854, 1995. (2) V. Duarte et al. J. Appl. Microbiol. 96:535, 2004. (3) M. Goto and K. Matsumoto. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37:130, 1987. (4) B. Ma et al. Phytopathology 97:1150, 2007.
In January 2011, branch samples were collected from langsat (Lansium domesticum Corr.), a fruit from Southeast Asia with an expanding niche market in Hawaii, exhibiting corky bark symptoms similar to that found on rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and litchi (Litchi chinensis) (3). The orchard, located along the Hamakua Coast of Hawaii Island, had 5- to 10-year-old trees, all with corky bark symptoms. As the trees matured, the cankers increased in size and covered the branches and racemes, often resulting in little to no fruit production. Scattered along the infected bark tissue were elongated, black ascomata present in the cracks. Ascomata were removed from the cracks using a scalpel blade, placed at the edge of a water agar petri dish and gently rolled along the agar surface to remove bark tissue and other debris. Individual ascomata were placed in 10-μl drops of 10% sodium hypochlorite on fresh water agar for 20 s, removed, and placed on potato dextrose agar petri dishes amended with 25 μg/ml streptomycin. The isolates were kept at 24°C under continuous fluorescent lighting. After 9 days, black pycnidia were present, which produced smooth, hyaline, linear to curved, filiform conidia, 4 to 6 septate (mostly 6), 31.8 to 70.1 × 2.0 to 2.8 μm. The morphological descriptions and measurements were similar to those reported for Dolabra nepheliae (3). The nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 intergenic spacers was determined for strain P11-1-1and a BLAST analysis of the sequence (GenBank Accession No. JX566449) revealed 99% similarity (586/587 bp) with the sequence of D. nepheliae strain BPI 882442 on N. lappaceum from Honduras. Based on morphology and ITS sequencing, the fungus associated with the cankers was identified as the same causal agent reported on rambutan and pulasan (N. mutabile) from Malaysia (1), and later reported on rambutan and litchi in Hawaii and Puerto Rico (3). Upon closer observations of the diseased samples, sections of corky bark contained at least two larval insects. The beetles were identified as Corticeus sp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Araecerus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) by the USDA-ARS Systematic Entomology Laboratory (Beltsville, MD). A corky bark disease on the trunk and larger limbs of mature langsat trees in Florida was thought to be caused by Cephalosporium sp. with larvae (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) feeding on the diseased tissue (2). It is not known the extent to which either of the beetle species is associated with L. domesticum in Hawaii or if they play a role in the bark disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Dolabra nepheliae being found on langsat in Hawaii. Effective management practices should be established to avoid potential production losses or spreading the disease to alternative hosts. References: (1) C. Booth and W. P. Ting. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 47:235, 1964. (2) J. Morton. Langsat. In: Fruits of Warm Climates, p. 201-203. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL, 1987. (3) A. Y. Rossman et al. Plant Dis. 91:1685, 2007.
Banana is the second largest cultivated fruit crop in Malaysia, and is cultivated for both the domestic market and also for export. Anthranose is a well-known postharvest disease of banana and with high potential for damaging market value, as infection commonly occurs during storage. Anthracnose symptoms were observed on several varieties of banana such as mas, berangan, awak, nangka, and rastali in the states of Perak and Penang between August and October 2011. Approximately 80% of the fruits became infected with initial symptoms characterized as brown to black spots that later became sunken lesions with orange or salmon-colored conidial masses. Infected tissues (5 × 5 mm) were surface sterilized by dipping in 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 3 to 5 min, rinsed with sterile distilled water, and plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). Direct isolation was done by transferring the conidia from conidial masses using an inoculation loop and plating onto PDA. For both methods, the PDA plates were incubated at 27 ± 1°C with cycles of 12 h light and 12 h darkness. Visible growth of mycelium was observed after 4 to 5 days of incubation. Twenty isolates with conidial masses were recovered after 7 days of incubation. The isolates produced grayish white to grayish green and grey to moss dark green colony on PDA, pale orange conidial masses, and fusiform to cylindrical and hyaline conidia with an average size of 15 to 19 × 5 to 6 μm. Appresoria were ovate to obovate, dark brown, and 9 to 15 × 7 to 12 μm and setae were present, slightly swollen at the base, with a tapered apex, and brown. The cultural and morphological characteristics of the isolates were similar to those described for C. gleosporioides (1,2,3). All the C. gloeosporioides isolates were deposited in culture collection at Plant Pathology Lab, University Sains Malaysia. For confirmation of the identity of the isolates, ITS regions were sequenced using ITS4 and ITS5 primers. The isolates were deposited in GenBank with accessions JX163228, JX163231, JX163201, JX163230, JX163215, JX163223, JX163219, JX163202, JX163225, JX163222, JX163206, JX163218, JX163208, JX163209, JX163210, JX431560, JX163212, JX163213, JX431540, and JX431562. The resulting sequences showed 99% to 100% similarity with multiple C. gloeosporioides isolates in GenBank. Pathogenicity tests were conducted using mas, berangan, awak, nangka, and rastali bananas. Fruit surfaces were sterilized with 70% ethanol and wounded using a sterile scalpel. Two inoculation techniques were performed separately: mycelia plug and conidial suspension. Mycelial disc (5 mm) and a drop of 20 μl spore suspension (106 conidia/ml) were prepared from 7-day-old culture and placed on the fruit surface. The inoculated fruits were incubated at 27 ± 1°C for 10 days at 96.1% humidity. After 3 to 4 days of inoculation, brown to black spotted lesions were observed and coalesced to become black sunken lesions. Similar anthracnose symptoms were observed on all banana varieties tested. C. gloeosporioides was reisolated from the anthracnose lesions of all the inoculated fruit in which the cultural and morphological characteristics were the same as the original isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of Musa spp. in Malaysia. References: (1) P. F. Cannon et al. Mycotaxon 104:189, 2008. (2) J. E. M. Mordue. Glomerella cingulata. CMI Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 315. CAB International,1971. (3) H. Prihastuti et al. Fungal Diversity 39:89, 2009.
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most economically important crops in the world, and anthracnose is known to infect soybean in most countries. Colletotrichum truncatum is the common pathogen causing anthracnose of soybean. However, at least five species of Colletotrichum have been reported on soybean worldwide (2). In July 2010, anthracnose symptoms were observed on soybean in the experimental fields of the agriculture station in Ladang Dua, University Putra Malaysia located in Selangor state of Malaysia. Symptoms were initially observed on a few plants randomly within one field, but after 4 weeks, the disease was found in two additional fields scattered across an area of 1 km2. Pinkish-brown lesions were observed on the pods, and the formation of dark lesions on the leaves and stems was sometimes followed by stem girdling, dieback, and distorted growth. At later stages, numerous epidermal acervuli developed in the lesions, and mucilaginous conidial masses appeared during periods of high relative humidity. Conidia produced in acervuli were straight, cylindric, hyaline, and aseptate, with both ends rounded. Conidia measured (mean ± SD) 14.2 ± 0.6 × 3.6 ± 0.7 μm, and the L/W ratio was 3.95 μm. Six isolates of the fungus were obtained and identified as C. gloeosporioides on the basis of morphological characterization (3). The isolates were deposited in the University Putra of Malaysia Culture Collection (UPMCC). PDA cultures were white at first and subsequently became grayish to pink to reddish-brown. Amplification and sequence analysis of coding and none-coding regions of the ITS-rDNA (GenBank JX669450), actin (JX827430), β-tubulin (JX827454), histone (JX827448), chitin synthase (JX827436), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (JX827442) obtained from the representative isolate, CGM50, aligned with deposited sequences from GenBank and revealed 99 to 100% sequence identity with C. gloeosporioides strains (JX258757, JX009790, GQ849434, HM575301, JQ005413, and JX00948 from GenBank). One representative isolate, CGM50, was used for pathogenicity testing. Four non-infected detached leaves and pods of 24-day-old G. max var. Palmetto were surface-sterilized and inoculated by placing 10 μl of a conidial suspension (106 conidia ml-1) using either the wound/drop or non-wound/drop method (4), with 10 μl distilled water as a negative control. Leaves and pods were incubated at 25°C, 98% RH. The experiment was repeated twice. Five days after inoculation, the development of typical field symptoms, including acervuli formation, occurred on the leaves and pods of inoculated plants, but not on the negative controls. A fungus with the same colony and conidial morphology as CGM50 was recovered from the lesions on the inoculated leaves and pods. Anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides on soybean plants has been reported previously in different countries, but not in Malaysia (3). Geographically, the climate of Malaysia is highly conducive to maintain and cause outbreaks of anthracnose all year round; thus, the development of management recommendations will be inevitable for anthracnose control. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. gloeosporioides causing anthracnose on soybean in Malaysia. References: (1) U. Damm et al. Fungal Diversity 39:45, 2009. (2) S. L. Chen et al. J. Phytopathol. 154:654, 2006. (3) B. C. Sutton. The Genus Glomerella and its Anamorph Colletotrichum. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. (4) P. P. Than et al. Plant Pathol. 57:562, 2008. ERRATUM: A correction was made to this Disease Note on May 19, 2014. The author N. Soleimani was added.
We report a case of a 59-year-old gentleman with complete left brachial plexus injury. He presented with
chronic pain over the dorsum of his left hand since the injury eight years ago. Medical treatment had been
optimised but the pain still persist. End-to-side nerve transfer was done involving superficial sensory radial
nerve and median nerve to alleviate the pain. The surgery was considered successful as the patient claimed
that the pain score had reduced a few weeks postoperatively. However, there was no sensory recovery and
functionally no improvement was observed.
At least nine Colletotrichum species, particularly Colletotrichum truncatum, have been recorded on legumes worldwide (1). In June 2010, samples of chickpea leaflets showing leaf spot disease symptoms were collected from experimental farms in Ladang Dua, Selangor state of Malaysia. Tan lesions with darker brown borders were observed on leaflets and were associated with premature leaf drop. Stem lesions initially appeared on the lower parts of stems and later progressed higher in the plant. Lesions often girdled the stem and caused severe dieback. Abundant acervuli developed in the lesions visible as black dots. Foliar lesions were removed, surface sterilized in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min, rinsed twice with distilled water, dried on sterilized tissue paper, plated on PDA plates, and incubated at 25°C (3). Three isolates of the fungus were obtained and identified as C. truncatum on the basis of morphological characteristics (2). The isolates were deposited in the University Putra of Malaysia Culture Collection (UPMCC). Colony characteristics on PDA varied from greyish white to dark in color and exhibited mycelial growth with sparse acervuli. The isolates produced both sclerotia and setae in culture. Conidia (mean ± SD = 22 ± 0.83 × 3.6 ± 0.08 μm, L/W ratio = 6.1) produced in acervuli were falcate, hyaline, and aseptate, with tapering towards the acute and greatly curved apex. The conidial mass color varied from pale buff to saffron. Isolates produced simple to slightly lobed, mainly short clavate appressoria (mean ± SD = 9.60 ± 0.36 × 6.67 ± 0.29 μm, L/W ratio = 1.45). Amplification and sequence analysis of coding and none-coding regions of the ITS-rDNA (GenBank Accession JX971160), actin (JX975392), β-tubulin (KC109495), histone (KC109535), chitin synthase (KC109575), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (KC109615) obtained from the representative isolate, CTM37, aligned with deposited sequences from GenBank and revealed 99 to 100% sequence identity with C. truncatum strains (AJ301945, KC110827, GQ849442, GU228081, GU228359, and HM131501 from GenBank). Isolate CTM37 was used to test pathogenicity in the greenhouse. Five chickpea seeds of cultivar ILC-1929 were sown per pot in four replications. Ten days after seedling emergence, plants were inoculated with a spore suspension (concentration = 106 conidia ml-1) and check pots were sprayed with distilled water. After inoculation, the plants were covered with plastic bags for 48 h and kept at 28 to 33°C and >90% RH. After incubation, the plastic bags were removed and the plants were placed on greenhouse benches and monitored daily for symptom development (3). One week after inoculation, typical anthracnose symptoms developed on the leaves and stems of inoculated plants including acervuli formation, but not on the checks. A fungus with the same colony and conidial morphology as CTM37 was recovered from the lesions on the inoculated plants. The experiment was repeated twice. The ability to accurately diagnose Colletotrichum species is vital for the implementation of effective disease control and quarantine measures. We believe this is the first report of C. truncatum causing anthracnose on chickpea in Malaysia. References: (1) B. D. Gossen et al. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 31:65, 2009. (2) B. C. Sutton. The Genus Glomerella and its anamorph Colletotrichum. CAB International, Wallingford. UK. 1992. (3) P. P. Than et al. Plant Pathol. 57:562, 2008. ERRATUM: A correction was made to this Disease Note on May 19, 2014. The author N. Soleimani was added.
The foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata), an Australian native species, is an adaptable and fast-growing landscape tree. The foxtail palm is most commonly used in landscaping in Malaysia. Coconut yellow decline (CYD) is the major disease of coconut associated with 16SrXIV phytoplasma group in Malaysia (1). Symptoms consistent with CYD, such as severe chlorosis, stunting, general decline, and death were observed in foxtail palms from the state of Selangor in Malaysia, indicating putative phytoplasma infection. Symptomatic trees loses their green and vivid appearance as a decorative and landscape ornament. To determine the presence of phytoplasma, samples were collected from the fronds of 12 symptomatic and four asymptomatic palms in September 2012, and total DNA was extracted using the CTAB method (3). Phytoplasma DNA was detected in eight symptomatic palms using nested PCR with universal phytoplasma 16S rDNA primer pairs, P1/P7 followed by R16F2n/R16R2 (2). Amplicons (1.2 kb in length) were generated from symptomatic foxtail palms but not from symptomless plants. Phytoplasma 16S rDNAs were cloned using a TOPO TA cloning kit (Invitrogen). Several white colonies from rDNA PCR products amplified from one sample with R16F2n/R16R2 were sequenced. Phytoplasma 16S rDNA gene sequences from single symptomatic foxtail palms showed 99% homology with a phytoplasma that causes Bermuda grass white leaf (AF248961) and coconut yellow decline (EU636906), which are both members of the 16SrXIV 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' group. The sequences also showed 99% sequence identity with the onion yellows phytoplasma, OY-M strain, (NR074811), from the 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' 16SrI-B subgroup. Sequences were deposited in the NCBI GenBank database (Accession Nos. KC751560 and KC751561). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was done on nested PCR products produced with the primer pair R16F2n/R16R2. Amplified products were digested separately with AluI, HhaI, RsaI, and EcoRI restriction enzymes based on manufacturer's specifications. RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from symptomatic plants revealed two distinct profiles belonging to groups 16SrXIV and 16SrI with majority of the 16SrXIV group. RFLP results independently corroborated the findings from DNA sequencing. Additional virtual patterns were obtained by iPhyclassifier software (4). Actual and virtual patterns yielded identical profiles, similar to the reference patterns for the 16SrXIV-A and 16SrI-B subgroups. Both the sequence and RFLP results indicated that symptoms in infected foxtail palms were associated with two distinct phytoplasma species in Malaysia. These phytoplasmas, which are members of two different taxonomic groups, were found in symptomatic palms. Our results revealed that popular evergreen foxtail palms are susceptible to and severely affected by phytoplasma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mixed infection of a single host, Wodyetia bifurcata, by two different phytoplasma species, Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis and Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris, in Malaysia. References: (1) N. Nejat et al. Plant Pathol. 58:1152, 2009. (2) N. Nejat et al. Plant Pathol. J. 9:101, 2010. (3) Y. P. Zhang et al. J. Virol. Meth. 71:45, 1998. (4) Y. Zhao et al. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:2582, 2009.
The expression of 70 kDa protein zeta-associated protein (ZAP-70) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been used to detect those patients with more aggressive disease. The aim of this study was to determine the proliferative activity of ZAP-70(+) leukemic cells by immunocytochemical methods. The study was undertaken on native blood marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) smears from 65 patients with CLL. ZAP-70 was expressed in leukemic cells of 35 patients (54%). We demonstrated that ZAP-70 immunoreactivity correlated with Rai 0-IV (p = 0.002) and Binet A-C stages (p < 0.001), total tumor mass (TTM score) (p < 0.001), β2-microglobulin (p = 0.006), atypical lymphocytes (p < 0.001) and proliferative activity in bone marrow and peripheral blood (p = 0.014, p = 0.002, respectively) using χ(2) test and Mann-Whitney test. ZAP-70 protein expression is in direct correlation with the poorer prognostic parameters, which additionally confirms the successful method of detection of ZAP-70 expression. Higher Ki-67 expression in BM and PB smears of patients with ZAP-70(+) disease indicates higher proliferating compartments, which may contribute to poorer prognosis.
A hot water burn is a thermal injury that results in cell death. Thermal eye injury triggers inflammatory processes, including inflammatory cell influx and/or the activation of various inflammatory cells, which result in the rapid accumulation of extravascular fluid in the ocular tissue. The ocular effect depends on the temperature of the water, and the final visual outcome depends on the severity of the damage to the intraocular structures. We report a 23-year-old woman who experienced a facial hot water burn that resulted in blindness. The patient presented late to the hospital after the unsuccessful use of traditional medication. Facial burns are a known cause of blindness. Public health education on prompt hospital presentation, and resistance to the use of potentially harmful traditional medicine in facial burns is suggested.
A 59-year-old male smoker presented with persistent wheezing and occasional coughing that had been ongoing for two years and had been unsuccessfully treated with an inhalational β2 agonist, an anticholinergic and an inhalational steroid in the last year. On clinical examination, a left-sided wheeze was detected. The initial chest X-ray was normal. A computed tomography (CT) scan of thorax demonstrated a mass lesion in the left main bronchus. On subsequent bronchoscopy, an endobronchial polypoid mass was detected in the left main bronchus, completely occluding the bronchial lumen. A biopsy taken from the mass revealed features of bronchial carcinoid. Bronchial carcinoid can present uncommonly with wheezes, resulting in misdiagnosis as bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). If an asthma or COPD patient does not respond to conventional therapy, a CT scan and subsequent bronchoscopy is warranted.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) need to be revisited in light of rapid economic growth and industrial development. Questions have been raised about the validity of existing population-specific norms for predicting PFTs, and therefore, the present study aimed to determine the applicability of existing norms for PFTs in young healthy non-smoking male university students of Kolkata.
METHODS: PFTs were carried out for 87 non-smoking male university students who were randomly sampled from the University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India.
RESULTS: The PFTs data obtained in this study did not show a significant variation with that obtained in a previous study. Significant (P < 0.001) differences in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) between the two studies may be attributed to differences in the age and body height, which exhibited significant correlations with the vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, FEV1%, and PEFR. Regression equations have been computed to predict PFTs parameters from age and body height.
CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function in the university students of Kolkata was found to have remained mostly unchanged in the last 24 years. The equations computed in this study are considered preferable owing to their substantially smaller standard error of estimate (SEE) than those proposed in the previous study.
MeSH terms: Industrial Development; Body Height; Forced Expiratory Volume; Humans; India; Lung; Male; Peak Expiratory Flow Rate; Respiratory Function Tests; Students; Tidal Volume; Universities; Vital Capacity; Economic Development