Browse publications by year: 2013

  1. Šoljić V, Perak RB, Vukojević K, Saraga-Babić M, Bubalo P, Karan D, et al.
    Leuk. Lymphoma, 2013 Jun;54(6):1171-6.
    PMID: 23098292 DOI: 10.3109/10428194.2012.742527
    The expression of 70 kDa protein zeta-associated protein (ZAP-70) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been used to detect those patients with more aggressive disease. The aim of this study was to determine the proliferative activity of ZAP-70(+) leukemic cells by immunocytochemical methods. The study was undertaken on native blood marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) smears from 65 patients with CLL. ZAP-70 was expressed in leukemic cells of 35 patients (54%). We demonstrated that ZAP-70 immunoreactivity correlated with Rai 0-IV (p = 0.002) and Binet A-C stages (p < 0.001), total tumor mass (TTM score) (p < 0.001), β2-microglobulin (p = 0.006), atypical lymphocytes (p < 0.001) and proliferative activity in bone marrow and peripheral blood (p = 0.014, p = 0.002, respectively) using χ(2) test and Mann-Whitney test. ZAP-70 protein expression is in direct correlation with the poorer prognostic parameters, which additionally confirms the successful method of detection of ZAP-70 expression. Higher Ki-67 expression in BM and PB smears of patients with ZAP-70(+) disease indicates higher proliferating compartments, which may contribute to poorer prognosis.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism; Bone Marrow Cells/pathology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Neoplasm Staging; T-Lymphocytes/metabolism; T-Lymphocytes/pathology; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/genetics; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/metabolism*; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology; Gene Expression; Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism; Cell Proliferation; ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase/genetics; ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism*
  2. Ayanniyi AA, Fasasi MK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Jan;20(1):88-91.
    PMID: 23613660
    A hot water burn is a thermal injury that results in cell death. Thermal eye injury triggers inflammatory processes, including inflammatory cell influx and/or the activation of various inflammatory cells, which result in the rapid accumulation of extravascular fluid in the ocular tissue. The ocular effect depends on the temperature of the water, and the final visual outcome depends on the severity of the damage to the intraocular structures. We report a 23-year-old woman who experienced a facial hot water burn that resulted in blindness. The patient presented late to the hospital after the unsuccessful use of traditional medication. Facial burns are a known cause of blindness. Public health education on prompt hospital presentation, and resistance to the use of potentially harmful traditional medicine in facial burns is suggested.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Burns; Eye; Eye Injuries; Face; Facial Injuries; Female; Health Education; Humans; Medicine, Traditional; Temperature; Water; Cell Death; Young Adult
  3. Carlson PM, Schellinger JG, Pahang JA, Johnson RN, Pun SH
    Biomater Sci, 2013 Jul 01;1(7):736-744.
    PMID: 23750319
    Polyethylenimine (PEI), one of the most frequently used polycations for non-viral nucleic acid delivery, exhibits good transfection efficiency to cultured cells but generally has to be used in restricted concentration ranges due to high cytotoxicity. We recently reported a family of HPMA-co-oligolysine brush copolymers that show nucleic acid delivery efficiencies approaching that of PEI. Guanidine-containing polymers have been reported in some systems to be more effective at cellular delivery of cargo than their primary-amine analogs. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of guanidinylation on gene transfer ability of HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers. Several parameters were evaluated: arginine versus homoarginine monomers, oligopeptide length, and charge density within the peptide. Using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, a series of six copolymers were synthesized containing the cationic peptides K10, R10, K5, and (GK)5. Lysine-containing copolymers were functionalized with guanidine by reaction with O-methylisourea to generate an additional five homoarginine-based copolymers. All eleven copolymers readily condensed DNA into small, < 150 nm polyplexes and remained stable in physiological salt conditions. The best performing copolymers provided more efficient gene transfection with less associated cytotoxicity than PEI. Reducing the number of charge centers (from 10 to 5) further reduced toxicity while retaining comparable transfection efficiency to PEI.
    MeSH terms: Arginine; Cells, Cultured; DNA; Goals; Homoarginine; Lysine; Methacrylates; Methylurea Compounds; Nucleic Acids; Oligopeptides; Peptides; Polyamines; Polyethyleneimine; Polymers; Transfection; Guanidine; Polymerization
  4. Santra A, Dutta P, Pothal S, Manjhi R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 May;20(3):78-82.
    PMID: 23966830
    A 59-year-old male smoker presented with persistent wheezing and occasional coughing that had been ongoing for two years and had been unsuccessfully treated with an inhalational β2 agonist, an anticholinergic and an inhalational steroid in the last year. On clinical examination, a left-sided wheeze was detected. The initial chest X-ray was normal. A computed tomography (CT) scan of thorax demonstrated a mass lesion in the left main bronchus. On subsequent bronchoscopy, an endobronchial polypoid mass was detected in the left main bronchus, completely occluding the bronchial lumen. A biopsy taken from the mass revealed features of bronchial carcinoid. Bronchial carcinoid can present uncommonly with wheezes, resulting in misdiagnosis as bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). If an asthma or COPD patient does not respond to conventional therapy, a CT scan and subsequent bronchoscopy is warranted.
  5. Bandyopadhyay A, Bhattacharjee I, Dalui R, Pal S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Mar;20(2):17-24.
    PMID: 23983573
    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) need to be revisited in light of rapid economic growth and industrial development. Questions have been raised about the validity of existing population-specific norms for predicting PFTs, and therefore, the present study aimed to determine the applicability of existing norms for PFTs in young healthy non-smoking male university students of Kolkata.

    METHODS: PFTs were carried out for 87 non-smoking male university students who were randomly sampled from the University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India.

    RESULTS: The PFTs data obtained in this study did not show a significant variation with that obtained in a previous study. Significant (P < 0.001) differences in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) between the two studies may be attributed to differences in the age and body height, which exhibited significant correlations with the vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, FEV1%, and PEFR. Regression equations have been computed to predict PFTs parameters from age and body height.

    CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function in the university students of Kolkata was found to have remained mostly unchanged in the last 24 years. The equations computed in this study are considered preferable owing to their substantially smaller standard error of estimate (SEE) than those proposed in the previous study.

    MeSH terms: Industrial Development; Body Height; Forced Expiratory Volume; Humans; India; Lung; Male; Peak Expiratory Flow Rate; Respiratory Function Tests; Students; Tidal Volume; Universities; Vital Capacity; Economic Development
  6. Gupta V, Singla N, Bansal N, Kaistha N, Chander J
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Jul;20(4):71-5.
    PMID: 24043999
    BACKGROUND: The incidence of multidrug resistant enteric fever is increasing alarmingly. This study was planned to determine the rate of isolation of Salmonella spp. and to compare the isolates for their epidemiological parameters and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at our center.

    METHODS: The study was conducted over a span of three years with a total of 8142, 8134, and 8114 blood culture samples processed for the years 2008, 2009, and 2010 respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol was determined using an agar dilution method. The MIC for ciprofloxacin was also confirmed by Epsilon-test (E -test) strips.

    RESULTS: Of the total 302 Salmonella spp. isolated, 257 were Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (85.1%) and 45 (14.9%) were S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A. The majority of the isolates recovered were from the pediatric age group (54.6%) and males (60.6%). Complete susceptibility was observed to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin over the last two years (2009 and 2010), with an increase in resistance to nalidixic acid (100%) and ciprofloxacin (13.6%).

    CONCLUSION: In our study, we found augmentation of resistance to nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolones and complete sensitivity to ceftriaxone along with reemergence of chloramphenicol sensitivity for Salmonella isolates. This report emphasises the necessity of continuous surveillance of antibiograms of enteric fever isolates in an area.

    MeSH terms: Agar; Anti-Infective Agents; Cefotaxime; Ceftriaxone; Child; Chloramphenicol; Ciprofloxacin; Humans; Male; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Nalidixic Acid; Salmonella; Salmonella typhi; Typhoid Fever; Incidence; Azithromycin; Fluoroquinolones; Serogroup; Blood Culture
  7. Litwak L, Goh SY, Hussein Z, Malek R, Prusty V, Khamseh ME
    Diabetol Metab Syndr, 2013 Oct 24;5(1):57.
    PMID: 24228724 DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-5-57
    BACKGROUND: Current International Diabetes Federation guidelines recommend a target HbA1c <7.0%, but many people with diabetes worldwide find this difficult to achieve, increasing their risk of developing complications. This publication examines the prevalence of diabetes complications and its association with baseline characteristics in people with type 2 diabetes who participated in the A1chieve study.

    METHODS: A1chieve was a 24-week, multinational, open-label, observational study of 66,726 people with type 2 diabetes who had begun using biphasic insulin aspart 30, insulin aspart, or insulin detemir in routine clinical care. Participants were enrolled from 28 countries across four continents (Asia, Africa, Europe and South America). Baseline measurements of disease characteristics included: glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting (FPG) and post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (H- or LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and body mass index (BMI). Data on complications and use of vascular disease preventative drugs were collected.

    RESULTS: Complication rates were high (27.2% had macrovascular complications and 53.5% had microvascular complications), particularly in Russia, and use of vascular disease preventative drugs was lower than expected. Age, BMI, diabetes duration, LDL-C, and SBP were positively associated, and HDL-C negatively associated, with macro- and microvascular complications (all p 

  8. Kumar Y, Sharma A, Mani KR
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2013 Aug;24(1):45-54.
    PMID: 24575241
    Typhoid fever continues to remain a major health problem in the developing world, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains has further reduced therapeutic options for treatment of the disease. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre in Kasauli, India received 128 Salmonella Typhi isolates during 2008-2009. These were evaluated for antimicrobial resistance, prevalent resistotypes and the proportion of MDR strains, using standard methods for 11 antimicrobials. An abrupt decrease in the proportion of MDR strains was observed. Only 4.7% of the isolates were found to be MDR with resistotypes chloramphenicol-ampicillin-streptomycin-nalidixic acid-trimethoprim (C-AS-Na-Tr) and chloramphenicol-ampicillin-nalidixic acid-trimethoprim (C-A-Na-Tr), which is very low compared to other studies from India. Nalidixic acid resistance was found to be present in 93.8% of the isolates. Moreover, the difference in the mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin for nalidixic acid-resistant and nalidixic acid-sensitive strains was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001), which calls into question the further use of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of typhoid fever because of potential treatment failures. The low proportion of MDR strains increases the possibility of first-line drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever.
    MeSH terms: Ampicillin; Anti-Infective Agents; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Chloramphenicol; Ciprofloxacin; Escherichia; India; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Nalidixic Acid; Salmonella; Salmonella typhi; Streptomycin; Trimethoprim; Typhoid Fever; Treatment Failure; Salmonella enterica; Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  9. Khan TM, Emeka P, Khan AH
    Ther Innov Regul Sci, 2013 Mar;47(2):198-202.
    PMID: 30227531 DOI: 10.1177/2168479012462214
    Providing drug information has become one of the essential job functions of a community pharmacist. To ensure the availability of up-to-date information, pharmacists should have access to reliable drug information. The current study was an effort to explore the use of drug information resources at a community pharmacy in Penang Island, Malaysia. This study also explores nonprescription requests, with a special emphasis on pharmacists' agreement to dispense medicines without a prescription. A cross-sectional study was performed among the community pharmacists practicing in 3 populous areas of Penang Island. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a 24-item questionnaire. The response rate was 67.3%. Online drug information, compared with other resources, was preferred by a majority of pharmacists (n = 19, 51.4%). Of the pharmacists, 28 (75.7%) mentioned that patients often make a nonprescription drug request for anti-inflammatory agents, painkillers, and medicines for cough and flu. In about 59.5% of the cases, pharmacists dispensed the requested medicine without question. Most of the pharmacists stated they have dispensed painkillers, creams and ointments, antifungals, body tonics, and inhalers without prescription.
  10. Ng SC, Tang W, Ching JY, Wong M, Chow CM, Hui AJ, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2013 Jul;145(1):158-165.e2.
    PMID: 23583432 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.007
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are becoming more common in Asia, but epidemiologic data are lacking. The Asia-Pacific Crohn's and Colitis Epidemiology Study aimed to determine the incidence and phenotype of IBD in 8 countries across Asia and in Australia.

    METHODS: We performed a prospective, population-based study of IBD incidence in predefined catchment areas, collecting data for 1 year, starting on April 1, 2011. New cases were ascertained from multiple overlapping sources and entered into a Web-based database. Cases were confirmed using standard criteria. Local endoscopy, pathology, and pharmacy records were searched to ensure completeness of case capture.

    RESULTS: We identified 419 new cases of IBD (232 of ulcerative colitis [UC], 166 of Crohn's disease [CD], and 21 IBD-undetermined). The crude annual overall incidence values per 100,000 individuals were 1.37 for IBD in Asia (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51; 0.76 for UC, 0.54 for CD, and 0.07 for IBD-undetermined) and 23.67 in Australia (95% confidence interval: 18.46-29.85; 7.33 for UC, 14.00 for CD, and 2.33 for IBD-undetermined). China had the highest incidence of IBD in Asia (3.44 per 100,000 individuals). The ratios of UC to CD were 2.0 in Asia and 0.5 in Australia. Median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 5.5 months (interquartile range, 1.4-15 months). Complicated CD (stricturing, penetrating, or perianal disease) was more common in Asia than Australia (52% vs 24%; P = .001), and a family history of IBD was less common in Asia (3% vs 17%; P < .001).

    CONCLUSIONS: We performed a large-scale population-based study and found that although the incidence of IBD varies throughout Asia, it is still lower than in the West. IBD can be as severe or more severe in Asia than in the West. The emergence of IBD in Asia will result in the need for specific health care resources, and offers a unique opportunity to study etiologic factors in developing nations.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Asia/epidemiology; Australia/epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Phenotype; Prospective Studies; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology*; Incidence
  11. Ofori-Boateng C, Lee KT
    Food Sci Nutr, 2013 05;1(3):209-221.
    PMID: 29387349 DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.22
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds (OPF) are the most abundant oil palm solid wastes that are generated during oil palm agriculture and harvest. Palm oil and some other palm wastes have been reported to contain high concentrations of carotenoids with vital bioactive properties. However, the extraction and quantification of carotenoids from OPF have not been reported. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, HPLC-FLD for quantification, and response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of β-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin from OPF extracts were investigated. The effects of extraction temperature (X1: 30-70°C), extraction time (X2: 10-50 min), and solvent-sample ratio (X3: 10-50 mL/g) on the recovery of β-carotene (Y1), lutein (Y2), and zeaxanthin (Y3) were investigated using three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) experiment. At a desirability of 1, the optimum extraction conditions for β-carotene (30.14°C, 37.11 min, and 23.18 mL/g), lutein (30.00°C, 39.09 min, and 19.24 mL/g), and zeaxanthin (30.09°C, 36.76 min, and 22.38 mL/g) yielded carotenoid concentrations of 17.95 μg/g dry weight (DW), 261.99 μg/g DW, and 29.99 μg/g DW, respectively.
  12. Shafie AA, Hassali MA, Mohamad Yahaya AH
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2013 May;2(1):107-117.
    PMID: 29702838 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.02.005
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among nonprescription medicine customers in Malaysia and the factors that affect it.

    METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among pharmacy customers in 59 randomly selected community pharmacies in Malaysia. The self-administered questionnaire included the EuroQoL five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire, the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS), nonprescription medicines purchase, and demographic questions. Data were analyzed by using the multivariate analysis of variance and multiple logistic regressions.

    RESULTS: A total of 2729 customers enrolled in this study, with a mean EQ-5D questionnaire score of 0.92±0.15 and a mean EQ-VAS score of 69.92±24.80. Compared with the Malaysian adult population, nonprescription medicine customers have a lower mean EQ-5D questionnaire score (t =-4.49, P<0.01) and EQ-VAS score (t =-25.87, P<0.01). We found that pain/discomfort (25.6%) and anxiety/depression (13.7%) were the major HRQOL problems. Locality, age, ethnicity, household income per month, type of occupation, and type of nonprescription medicine purchased were associated with health status of nonprescription medicine customers (F22,5286 = 2.555; Wilks' lambda = 0.979; P< 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: The HRQOL of nonprescription medicine customers is lower than that of the general Malaysian population. Lower health status was independently associated with older age, living in rural areas, having low income and education level, and purchasing blood and blood-forming medicines from community pharmacy.

  13. Nasution A, Syed Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2013 May;2(1):43-47.
    PMID: 29702851 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.02.009
    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical and economic impacts of clinical pharmacy education (CPE) on infection management among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4 and 5 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Indonesia.

    METHODS: A quasi-experimental economic evaluation comparing CPE impact on 6-month CKD mortality was conducted on the basis of payer perspective. The experimental group (n = 63) received care by health care providers who were given CPE on drug-related problems and dose adjustment. The control group (n = 80) was based on the historical cohort of patients who received care before the CPE. Measure of clinical outcome applied in this study was number of lives saved/100 patients treated. Cost-effectiveness ratios for CKD stages 4 and 5 patients without CPE and with CPE and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for CKD stages 4 and 5 patients were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Lives saved (%) in the treatment of CKD without CPE: CKD stage 4, 78.57; CKD stage 5, 57.58. Lives saved (%) in the treatment of CKD with CPE: CKD stage 4, 88.89; CKD stage 5, 65.45. Cost-effectiveness ratios for stage 4 with and without CPEs were Rp3,348,733.27 and Rp3,519,931.009, respectively. Cost-effectiveness ratios for stage 5 with and without CPEs were Rp7,137,874.93 and Rp7,871,822.27, respectively. ICERs were Rp2,045,341.22 for CKD stage 4 and Rp1,767,585.60 for CKD stage 5.

    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of CKD stages 4 and 5 with CPE was more effective and cost-effective compared with treatment of CKD stages 4 and 5 without CPE. The ICERs indicated that extra costs were required to increase life saved in both stages.

    MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Cyclic N-Oxides; Education, Pharmacy; Health Personnel; Humans; Indonesia; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Control Groups; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
  14. Lee KKC, Chia Wu DB, Topachevskyi O, Delgleize E, DeAntonio R
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2013 May;2(1):64-74.
    PMID: 29702855 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.01.012
    BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal universal vaccination in Hong Kong was introduced in 2009.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the health and economic impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) compared with the current 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) recommended for Hong Kong in 2011, providing new elements to be considered by public health authorities in the future decision-making process for pneumococcal vaccines in this country.

    METHODS: An analytical model was used to estimate the annual economic and health outcomes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), community-acquired pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM), including nontypeable H. influenzae-related AOM, for a birth cohort in Hong Kong from the payer perspective with a 10-year horizon. Clinical impact including morbidity-mortality, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental costs, and cost-effectiveness comparing PCV-10 and PCV-13 were estimated. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses by using alternate scenarios were performed.

    RESULTS: Model projections indicate that PCV-13 and PCV-10 have approximately equivalent impact on the prevention of deaths caused by IPD and pneumonia. PCV-13 is projected to prevent 6 additional cases of IPD, whereas PCV-10 is projected to prevent 13,229 additional AOM cases and 101 additional QALYs. For the base case, PCV-10 vaccination is estimated to save 44.6 million Hong Kong dollars (34.1 million Hong Kong dollars discounted). Sensitivity analysis indicated that PCV-10 would generate more QALYs and save costs as compared with PCV-13.

    CONCLUSIONS: Universal infant vaccination with new available pneumococcal vaccines is expected to generate a significant additional impact on reducing the burden of pneumococcal diseases in Hong Kong. PCV-10 vaccination would be potentially a cost-saving strategy compared with PCV-13 vaccination, generating better cost offsets and higher QALY gains.

    MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Haemophilus influenzae; Hong Kong; Humans; Infant; Otitis Media; Pneumococcal Infections; Pneumonia; Public Health; Vaccination; Vaccines, Conjugate; Quality-Adjusted Life Years; Pneumococcal Vaccines
  15. Maimaiti N, Ahmed Z, Md Isa Z, Ghazi HF, Aljunid S
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2013 09 13;2(2):259-263.
    PMID: 29702874 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.07.003
    OBJECTIVE: To measure the clinical burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in selected developing countries.

    METHODS: This is an extensive literature review of published articles on IPD in selected developing countries from East Asia, South Asia, Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. We reviewed all the articles retrieved from the knowledge bases that were published between the years 2000 and 2010.

    RESULTS: After applying the inclusion, exclusion, and quality criteria, the comprehensive review of the literature yielded 10 articles with data for pneumococcal meningitis, septicemia/bacteremia, and pneumonia. These selected articles were from 10 developing countries from five different regions. Out of the 10 selected articles, 8 have a detailed discussion on IPD, one of them has s detailed discussion on bacteremia and meningitis, and another one has discussed pneumococcal bacteremia. Out of these 10 articles, only 5 articles discussed the case-fatality ratio (CFR). In our article review, the incidence of IPD ranged from less than 5/100,000 to 416/100,000 population and the CFR ranged from 12.2% to 80% in the developing countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The review demonstrated that the clinical burden of IPD was high in the developing countries. The incidence of IPD and CFR varies from region to region and from country to country. The IPD burden was highest in sub-Saharan African countries followed by South Asian countries. The CFR was low in high-income countries than in low-income countries.

    MeSH terms: Africa, Northern; Asia; Developing Countries; Far East; Income; Latin America; Meningitis, Pneumococcal; Middle East; Pneumonia; Poverty; Incidence; Bacteremia; Africa South of the Sahara; Developed Countries; Knowledge Bases
  16. Ma RC, Hu C, Tam CH, Zhang R, Kwan P, Leung TF, et al.
    Diabetologia, 2013 Jun;56(6):1291-305.
    PMID: 23532257 DOI: 10.1007/s00125-013-2874-4
    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Most genetic variants identified for type 2 diabetes have been discovered in European populations. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a Chinese population with the aim of identifying novel variants for type 2 diabetes in Asians.

    METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of three GWAS comprising 684 patients with type 2 diabetes and 955 controls of Southern Han Chinese descent. We followed up the top signals in two independent Southern Han Chinese cohorts (totalling 10,383 cases and 6,974 controls), and performed in silico replication in multiple populations.

    RESULTS: We identified CDKN2A/B and four novel type 2 diabetes association signals with p 

    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; China; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics*; Female; Genetic Markers; Genotype; Hong Kong; Humans; Japan; Male; Middle Aged; Singapore; Genetic Variation; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics*; Genetic Predisposition to Disease*; Asian Continental Ancestry Group; Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology; Paired Box Transcription Factors/genetics*; Genome-Wide Association Study*
  17. Leow MK, Griva K, Choo R, Wee HL, Thumboo J, Tai ES, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(6):e67138.
    PMID: 23826215 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067138
    BACKGROUND: HRQoL is an important outcome to guide and promote healthcare. Clinical and socioeconomic factors may influence HRQoL according to ethnicity.

    METHODOLOGY: A multiethnic cross-sectional national cohort (N = 7198) of the Singapore general population consisting of Chinese (N = 4873), Malay (N = 1167) and Indian (N = 1158) adults were evaluated using measures of HRQoL (SF-36 version 2), family functioning, health behaviours and clinical/laboratory assessments. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of physical and mental HRQoL in the overall population and their potential differential effects by ethnicity. No a priori hypotheses were formulated so all interaction effects were explored.

    PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HRQoL levels differed between ethnic groups. Chinese respondents had higher physical HRQoL (PCS) than Indian and Malay participants (p<0.001) whereas mental HRQoL (MCS) was higher in Malay relative to Chinese participants (p<0.001). Regressions models explained 17.1% and 14.6% of variance in PCS and MCS respectively with comorbid burden, income and employment being associated with lower HRQoL. Age and family were associated only with MCS. The effects of gender, stroke and musculoskeletal conditions on PCS varied by ethnicity, suggesting non-uniform patterns of association for Chinese, Malay and Indian individuals.

    CONCLUSIONS: Differences in HRQoL levels and determinants of HRQoL among ethnic groups underscore the need to better or differentially target population segments to promote well-being. More work is needed to explore HRQoL and wellness in relation to ethnicity.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; China/ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; India/ethnology; Malaysia/ethnology; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Quality of Life*; Regression Analysis; Singapore; Socioeconomic Factors; Health Behavior; Young Adult
  18. Al-Amiery AA, Kadhum AAH, Mohamad AB, Junaedi S
    Materials (Basel), 2013 Apr 02;6(4):1420-1431.
    PMID: 28809218 DOI: 10.3390/ma6041420
    2-(1-methyl-4-((E)-(2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-ylidene)-hydrazineecarbothioamide (HCB) was synthesized as a corrosion inhibitor from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine, thiosemicarbazide and 2-methylbenzaldehyde. The corrosion inhibitory effects of HCB on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that HCB inhibited mild steel corrosion in acidic solution and inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency was up to 96.5% at 5.0 mM. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested that HCB adsorbed on the surface of mild steel, leading to the formation of a protective film. The novel corrosion inhibitor synthesized in the present study was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data.
  19. Silakhori M, Naghavi MS, Metselaar HSC, Mahlia TMI, Fauzi H, Mehrali M
    Materials (Basel), 2013 Apr 29;6(5):1608-1620.
    PMID: 28809232 DOI: 10.3390/ma6051608
    Microencapsulated paraffin wax/polyaniline was prepared using a simple in situ polymerization technique, and its performance characteristics were investigated. Weight losses of samples were determined by Thermal Gravimetry Analysis (TGA). The microencapsulated samples with 23% and 49% paraffin showed less decomposition after 330 °C than with higher percentage of paraffin. These samples were then subjected to a thermal cycling test. Thermal properties of microencapsulated paraffin wax were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Structure stability and compatibility of core and coating materials were also tested by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), and the surface morphology of the samples are shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). It has been found that the microencapsulated paraffin waxes show little change in the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature after one thousand thermal recycles. Besides, the chemical characteristics and structural profile remained constant after one thousand thermal cycling tests. Therefore, microencapsulated paraffin wax/polyaniline is a stable material that can be used for thermal energy storage systems.
  20. Nazarpour F, Abdullah DK, Abdullah N, Zamiri R
    Materials (Basel), 2013 May 15;6(5):2059-2073.
    PMID: 28809260 DOI: 10.3390/ma6052059
    e effects of biological pretreatment on the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), was evaluated after cultivation of white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Trametes versicolor, and a mixed culture of C. subvermispora and T. versicolor. The analysis of chemical compositions indicated that C. subvermispora had greater selectivity for lignin degradation with the highest lignin and hemicellulose loss at 45.06% and 42.08%, respectively, and lowest cellulose loss (9.50%) after 90 days among the tested samples. X-ray analysis showed that pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than untreated samples. The sample pretreated by C. subvermispora presented the highest crystallinity of all the samples which might be caused by the selective degradation of amorphous components. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased during the biological pretreatment process. A study on hydrolysis of rubberwood treated with C. subvermispora, T. versicolor, and mixed culture for 90 days resulted in an increased sugar yield of about 27.67%, 16.23%, and 14.20%, respectively, as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%). The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood is a potential raw material for industrial applications and white rot fungus C. subevermispora provides an effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of rubberwood.
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