Browse publications by year: 2013

  1. Matsubayashi M, Teramoto-Kimata I, Uni S, Lillehoj HS, Matsuda H, Furuya M, et al.
    J Biol Chem, 2013 Nov 22;288(47):34111-34120.
    PMID: 24085304 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.515544
    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises obligate intracellular parasites that infect vertebrates. All invasive forms of Apicomplexa possess an apical complex, a unique assembly of organelles localized to the anterior end of the cell and involved in host cell invasion. Previously, we generated a chicken monoclonal antibody (mAb), 6D-12-G10, with specificity for an antigen located in the apical cytoskeleton of Eimeria acervulina sporozoites. This antigen was highly conserved among Apicomplexan parasites, including other Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma, Neospora, and Cryptosporidium. In the present study, we identified the apical cytoskeletal antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) and further characterized this antigen in C. parvum to assess its potential as a target molecule against cryptosporidiosis. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that the reactivity of 6D-12-G10 with C. parvum sporozoites was similar to those of anti-β- and anti-γ-tubulins antibodies. Immunoelectron microscopy with the 6D-12-G10 mAb detected the antigen both on the sporozoite surface and underneath the inner membrane at the apical region of zoites. The 6D-12-G10 mAb significantly inhibited in vitro host cell invasion by C. parvum. MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides revealed that the mAb 6D-12-G10 target antigen was elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). These results indicate that C. parvum EF-1α plays an essential role in mediating host cell entry by the parasite and, as such, could be a candidate vaccine antigen against cryptosporidiosis.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology; Antigens, Protozoan/genetics; Antigens, Protozoan/immunology*; Antigens, Protozoan/metabolism; Cell Membrane/immunology; Cell Membrane/metabolism; Cryptosporidiosis/genetics; Cryptosporidiosis/immunology; Cryptosporidiosis/metabolism; Cryptosporidiosis/prevention & control; Male; Protozoan Proteins/genetics; Protozoan Proteins/immunology*; Protozoan Proteins/metabolism; Protozoan Vaccines/immunology; Mice, SCID; Cryptosporidium parvum/immunology*; Cryptosporidium parvum/metabolism; Cryptosporidium parvum/pathogenicity; Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics; Peptide Elongation Factor 1/immunology*; Peptide Elongation Factor 1/metabolism; Sporozoites/immunology*; Sporozoites/metabolism; Cell Line, Tumor; Mice
  2. Coggon D, Ntani G, Palmer KT, Felli VE, Harari R, Barrero LH, et al.
    Pain, 2013 Sep;154(9):1769-1777.
    PMID: 23727463 DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.05.039
    To explore definitions for multisite pain, and compare associations with risk factors for different patterns of musculoskeletal pain, we analysed cross-sectional data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study. The study sample comprised 12,410 adults aged 20-59 years from 47 occupational groups in 18 countries. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information about pain in the past month at each of 10 anatomical sites, and about potential risk factors. Associations with pain outcomes were assessed by Poisson regression, and characterised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Extensive pain, affecting 6-10 anatomical sites, was reported much more frequently than would be expected if the occurrence of pain at each site were independent (674 participants vs 41.9 expected). In comparison with pain involving only 1-3 sites, it showed much stronger associations (relative to no pain) with risk factors such as female sex (PRR 1.6 vs 1.1), older age (PRR 2.6 vs 1.1), somatising tendency (PRR 4.6 vs 1.3), and exposure to multiple physically stressing occupational activities (PRR 5.0 vs 1.4). After adjustment for number of sites with pain, these risk factors showed no additional association with a distribution of pain that was widespread according to the frequently used American College of Rheumatology criteria. Our analysis supports the classification of pain at multiple anatomical sites simply by the number of sites affected, and suggests that extensive pain differs importantly in its associations with risk factors from pain that is limited to only a small number of anatomical sites.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Age Factors; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Disabled Persons/psychology; Humans; International Cooperation; Male; Middle Aged; Occupational Diseases/epidemiology*; Occupational Diseases/pathology*; Surveys and Questionnaires; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Young Adult; Musculoskeletal Pain/epidemiology*; Musculoskeletal Pain/pathology*
  3. Prando C, Samarina A, Bustamante J, Boisson-Dupuis S, Cobat A, Picard C, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2013 Mar;92(2):109-122.
    PMID: 23429356 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0b013e31828a01f9
    Autosomal recessive interleukin (IL)-12 p40 (IL-12p40) deficiency is a rare genetic etiology of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the genetic, immunologic, and clinical features of 49 patients from 30 kindreds originating from 5 countries (India, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia). There are only 9 different mutant alleles of the IL12B gene: 2 small insertions, 3 small deletions, 2 splice site mutations, and 1 large deletion, each causing a frameshift and leading to a premature stop codon, and 1 nonsense mutation. Four of these 9 variants are recurrent, affecting 25 of the 30 reported kindreds, due to founder effects in specific countries. All patients are homozygous and display complete IL-12p40 deficiency. As a result, the patients lack detectable IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 and have low levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ). The clinical features are characterized by childhood onset of bacille Calmette-Guérin (attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain) (BCG) and Salmonella infections, with recurrences of salmonellosis (36.4%) more common than recurrences of mycobacterial disease (25%). BCG vaccination led to BCG disease in 40 of the 41 patients vaccinated (97.5%). Multiple mycobacterial infections were rare, observed in only 3 patients, whereas the association of salmonellosis and mycobacteriosis was observed in 9 patients. A few other infections were diagnosed, including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 3), nocardiosis (n = 2), and klebsiellosis (n = 1). IL-12p40 deficiency has a high but incomplete clinical penetrance, with 33.3% of genetically affected relatives of index cases showing no symptoms. However, the prognosis is poor, with mortality rates of up to 28.6%. Overall, the clinical phenotype of IL-12p40 deficiency closely resembles that of interleukin 12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) deficiency. In conclusion, IL-12p40 deficiency is more common than initially thought and should be considered worldwide in patients with MSMD and other intramacrophagic infectious diseases, salmonellosis in particular.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Asia, Western/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; DNA Mutational Analysis; Female; Humans; Infant; Male; Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/genetics*; Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/immunology; Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/mortality; Salmonella Infections/genetics*; Tunisia/epidemiology; Cohort Studies; Survival Analysis; Age of Onset; Founder Effect; Penetrance; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Interleukin-12 Subunit p40/deficiency*; Interleukin-12 Subunit p40/genetics*; Young Adult
  4. Afsah-Hejri L, Jinap S, Hajeb P, Radu S, Shakibazadeh S
    Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2013 Nov;12(6):629-651.
    PMID: 33412719 DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12029
     Fungi are distributed worldwide and can be found in various foods and feedstuffs from almost every part of the world. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some fungal species and may impose food safety risks to human health. Among all mycotoxins, aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol (DON and T-2 toxin), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisins (FMN) have received much attention due to high frequency and severe health effects in humans and animals. Malaysia has heavy rainfall throughout the year, high temperatures (28 to 31 °C), and high relative humidity (70% to 80% during wet seasons). Stored crops under such conditions can easily be contaminated by mycotoxin-producing fungi. The most important mycotoxins in Malaysian foods are AFs, OTA, DON, ZEN, and FMN that can be found in peanuts, cereal grains, cocoa beans, and spices. AFs have been reported to occur in several cereal grains, feeds, nuts, and nut products consumed in Malaysia. Spices, oilseeds, milk, eggs, and herbal medicines have been reported to be contaminated with AFs (lower than the Malaysian acceptable level of 35 ng/g for total AFs). OTA, a possible human carcinogen, was reported in cereal grains, nuts, and spices in Malaysian market. ZEN was detected in Malaysian rice, oat, barley, maize meal, and wheat at different levels. DON contamination, although at low levels, was reported in rice, maize, barley, oat, wheat, and wheat-based products in Malaysia. FMN was reported in feed and some cereal grains consumed in Malaysia. Since some food commodities are more susceptible than others to fungal growth and mycotoxin contamination, more stringent prevention and control methods are required.
    MeSH terms: Aflatoxins; Animals; Attention; Hordeum; Carcinogens; Edible Grain; Zea mays; Fungi; Humans; Humidity; Malaysia; Milk; Mycotoxins; Nuts; Arachis; Oryza; Seasons; T-2 Toxin; Temperature; Trichothecenes; Triticum; Zearalenone; Spices; Avena; Fumonisins; Food Safety
  5. Tan PC, Norazilah MJ, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2013 Apr;121(4):878.
    PMID: 23635697 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31828a7e62
    MeSH terms: Cesarean Section/psychology*; Female; Humans; Patient Discharge*; Pregnancy; Patient Satisfaction*
  6. Tan PC, Norazilah MJ, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2013 Jun;121(6):1360.
    PMID: 23812475 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31829395ef
    MeSH terms: Female; Fluid Therapy*; Glucose/therapeutic use*; Humans; Hyperemesis Gravidarum/therapy*; Pregnancy; Sodium Chloride/therapeutic use*
  7. Citation: Guideline for Anonymous and Voluntary HIV Screening. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2013
    MeSH terms: Humans; Malaysia; Mass Screening; Serologic Tests; HIV Infections; Practice Guidelines as Topic
  8. Wang Z, Huang S, Jia C, Liu J, Zhang J, Xu B, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2013 Sep;32(9):1373-80.
    PMID: 23652818 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-013-1449-7
    KEY MESSAGE: Three tau class MaGSTs responded to abiotic stress, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 responded to signaling molecules, they may play an important role in the growth of banana plantlet. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that participate in a variety of cellular processes, including stress responses. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of five GST genes (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2, MaGSTU3, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1) cloned from banana (Musa acuminate L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish) using a RACE-PCR-based strategy. The predicted molecular masses of these GSTs range from 23.4 to 27.7 kDa and their pIs are acidic. At the amino acid level, they share high sequence similarity with GSTs in the banana DH-Pahang (AA group) genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of MaGSTs also have high similarity to GSTs of other plant species. Expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues. In addition, their expression is regulated by various stress conditions, including exposure to signaling molecules, cold, salinity, drought and Fusarium oxysporum f specialis(f. Sp) cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) infection. The expression of the tau class MaGSTs (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2 and MaGSTU3) mainly responded to cold, salinity and drought while MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 expressions were upregulated by signaling molecules. Our findings suggest that MaGSTs play a key role in both development and abiotic stress responses.
    MeSH terms: Cloning, Molecular; Fusarium; Glutathione Transferase/classification; Glutathione Transferase/genetics; Glutathione Transferase/metabolism*; Phylogeny; Plant Proteins/classification; Plant Proteins/genetics; Plant Proteins/metabolism*; Stress, Physiological; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Musa/enzymology; Musa/genetics*; Musa/growth & development
  9. Wong JY, Chen YS, Chakravarthi S, Judson JP, L SR, Er HM
    Exp Ther Med, 2013 Nov;6(5):1247-1250.
    PMID: 24223653
    Euphorbia hirta is widely used in traditional remedies and has been used cross-culturally for generations against maladies such as asthma, skin ailments and hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that Euphorbia hirta has antibacterial activity, and have also indicated certain antimolluscidal, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties, the latter of which have been suggested to be more pronounced than those of the rheumatological drug, etanercept. To date, no studies have identified the anatomical effects of this herb on the organs of test animals. This study aimed to identify the effects of Euphorbia hirta on the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta. A total of 32 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; three groups were fed with aqueous extracts of Euphorbia hirta at doses of 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively, every alternate day for 50 days, while one group served as a control. The animals were later sacrificed and the liver, kidney and aorta harvested for examination by electron microscopy. The aorta showed no ultrastructural changes across the groups. Renal and hepatic tissue from the treated groups demonstrated dose-dependent injuries, which showed architectural damage beginning in the nuclei and spreading outwards. Taking into consideration the properties of Euphorbia hirta that have been described in previous studies, in addition to the results from the present study, it appears that the herb may exhibit similar effects to those of the quinolone group of antibiotics. Further in-depth investigations are required into the potential effects of Euphorbia hirta, deleterious and otherwise.
    MeSH terms: Etanercept; Animals; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antimalarials; Aorta; Asthma; Hypertension; Liver; Male; Microscopy, Electron; Rheumatic Diseases; Quinolones; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Euphorbia; Mice; Rats
  10. Raylu N, Loo J, Oei TPS
    J Cogn Psychother, 2013;27(3):297-322.
    PMID: 32759146 DOI: 10.1891/0889-8391.27.3.297
    Much research has been conducted in the treatment of gambling problems. However, very little is reported specifically on treating Asian problem gamblers. Thus, this article reviewed the general problem gambling treatment literature as well as the limited Asian problem gambling treatment literature to provide a discussion of interventions that can be used with Asian problem gamblers. The general literature showed that behavioral, cognitive, and combined cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) have the most treatment outcome literature and appear to be the most effective in treating gambling problems. Although, pharmacotherapy also looks promising, it may be more suitable for problem gamblers with comorbid mood problems or impulsivity. Research on other forms of treatments also exists (e.g., 12-step and psychodynamic treatment approaches) but are not as robust. Only three studies have reported on the effectiveness of treatment with Asian problem gamblers. The first study is case study. The second study presents data from a treatment program for Asian problem gambling and the last one presents preliminary findings of a telephone delivered treatment program with eight Asian American gamblers. These studies support the general treatment literature in showing that CBT and pharmacotherapy have a role to play in treating Asian problem gamblers. Based on the general and Asian problem gambling treatment literature, a discussion of treatment of Asian problem gamblers is provided including the use of CBT and other forms of treatment, issues to address in treatment, and variables that can assist treatment.
    MeSH terms: Asian Americans; Cognition; Gambling; Humans; Impulsive Behavior; Telephone; Treatment Outcome
  11. Dorasamy M, Raman M, Kaliannan M
    Technol Forecast Soc Change, 2013 Nov;80(9):1834-1853.
    PMID: 32287412 DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2012.12.008
    Humans are increasingly being challenged with numerous forms of man-made and natural emergency situations. Emergencies cannot be prevented, but they can be better managed. The successful management of emergency situations requires proper planning, guided response, and well-coordinated efforts across the emergency management life cycle. Literature suggests that emergency management efforts benefit from well-integrated knowledge-based emergency management information systems (EMIS). This study presents a systematic review of papers pertaining to the application of knowledge-driven systems in support of emergency management that have been published in the last two decades. Our review presents two major findings. First, only limited work has been done in three EMIS-knowledge management system (KMS) subdomains: (i) definition, (ii) use, and (iii) methods. Second, only limited research has been done in embedding roles in KM systems. We highlight role alignment to the 12 fundamental roles, as called for by Turoff et al. (2004), in the context of creating dynamic systems in aid of emergency management efforts. We believe that these two findings warrant the attention of the research community.
  12. Kumar P, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Mishra RK, Majeed ABA, et al.
    Monatsh. Chem., 2013;144(6):825-849.
    PMID: 32214480 DOI: 10.1007/s00706-012-0877-3
    Abstract: A variety of N'-[4-[(substituted imino)methyl]benzylidene]-substituted benzohydrazides have been synthesized and evaluated for antimicrobial and anticancer potential. Results from testing of antimicrobial activity indicated the most potent antimicrobial agents had pMICam = 1.51. The synthesized compounds were bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action. Results from evaluation of antiviral activity indicated that none of the synthesized hydrazide derivatives inhibited viral replication at sub-toxic concentrations. Results from anti-HIV screening against HIV-2 strain ROD indicated that one compound was more potent (IC50 ≥ 1 μg/cm3) than the standard drug nevirapine (IC50 ≥ 4 μg/cm3) and another was equipotent (IC50 ≥ 4 μg/cm3). The most effective anticancer agent against both HCT116 and MCF7 cancer cell lines had IC50 = 19 and 18 μg/cm3, respectively. QSAR analysis indicated the importance of Wiener index (W) and energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) in describing the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds.

    Graphical Abstract:

  13. Citation: Garis panduan perlaksanaan komuniti Sihat Perkasa Negara (KOSPEN). Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2013
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Patient Participation; Guidelines as Topic
  14. Ramesh MG, Sathian B, Sinu E, Kiranmai SR
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2013 Oct;7(10):2265-2267.
    PMID: 24298493 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/5889.3488
    OBJECTIVES: Psychological studies have shown that brief period of mindfulness meditation significantly improves critical cognitive skills. But, there are no studies which have assessed the effects of Brahma Kumaris Rajayoga Meditation (BKRM) practice on positive thinking and happiness in life. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis is BKRM enhances positive thinking and that essential to attain higher levels of self-satisfaction and happiness in life.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is a cross sectional comparative study which was done between Rajayoga meditators and non-meditators. This study was conducted at BKRM Centres at Manipal and Udupi in Karnataka, India. Fifty subjects were selected for this study, which included those practising BKRM in their normal routine life (n=25) and non-meditators (n=25) who were aged 42.95+/15.29 years. Self-reported Oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ) was administered to all subjects and their happiness scores and status were assessed and compared. Items related to self-satisfaction in life were selected from the OHQ and compared between meditators and non-meditators. Participants completed self-reported OHQ, from which data of happiness status and self-satisfaction in relation to meditation duration and frequency were analyzed by descriptive statistics and test of hypothesis.

    RESULTS: Mean happiness scores of BKRM were significantly higher (p<0.001) in meditators as compared to those in non-meditators. The number of meditators experiencing happiness status were significantly higher (p<0.05) in comparison with non-meditators. Additionally, meditators scored significantly higher on self-satisfaction items (p<0.001) as compared to non-meditators. There was no correlation between age and years of meditation practice with happiness score and self-satisfaction score.

    CONCLUSION: BKRM helps in significantly increasing self-satisfaction and happiness in life by enhancing positive thinking. Irrespective of age and years of short-term or long-term meditation practice, enhanced positive thinking increases self-satisfaction and happiness in life.

  15. Tan YM, Chan SG
    Caring behaviours presented by the nurses while providing care is the essence of nursing. However, operation theatre nurses must also adhere to the nursing value in social sciences and humanities to address the patient's needs. The concern of the nurses should not only be for the basic life sustaining needs but also for physiological, psychological, socio cultural and spiritual dimension ofpatient's human responses. The purposes of this study were to determine the perception regarding caring behaviours and the level of caring among the Operation theatre nurses in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. In addition, there were associations when the determination between demographic variables like genders and years of experience of the nurses in relation to their caring behaviours is necessary. It isa quantitative, descriptive survey design and 95 nurses participated in the study. The revised Wolfs Caring Behaviours Inventory was used to measure the dimensions of caring. "Professional knowledge and skill" was identified to be the highest among the five dimensions of caring that was being measured. Findings show that the nurses demonstrated a high level of caring behaviours during their course of work. However, none of the demographic factors studied were significantly associated to their caring behaviours.
    Keywords: Caring attitudes, Caring behaviours, Dimensions of caring
    MeSH terms: Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Empathy; Hospitals, University; Humans; Malaysia
  16. Purusothaman I, Lim PH
    Advanced nursing practice involves higher level of knowledge and skills of nurses to perform autonomous practice in clinical settings in order to meet the needs of individuals, families and communities. Advanced practice in nursing is also known as adjusting boundaries for future practice, pioneering and developing new roles of nurses in clinical practice, research and education. Advanced practice of nursing in the developed countries are recognized with different nomenclatures such as advanced nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, specialized nurse practitioner, nurse practitioner, certified nurse practitioner and advanced practice registered nurse. Malaysia is one of the pioneering Asian countries to introduce clinical nurse specialist in hospital settings, which is a stepping stone for the development of advanced nursing practice.
    Keywords: Nurses in Malaysia, Clinical Nurse Practitioner, Advanced Nurse Practice
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Advanced Practice Nursing
  17. Hashairi F, Fauzi CH, Chew KS, Nik Hisamuddin NAR
    Background: Standard Precaution (SP) is a very important health issue that has not been well-emphasized. The outcome of not following the SP is a serious problem that can lead to the blood-borne infection.
    Methods: A set of self-administered anonymous questionnaire were given to all healthcare personnel in 4 selected Emergency Department (ED), hospital in Kelantan to assess the knowledge and practice of standard precaution.
    Results: Almost half of the healthcare personnel were having a good knowledge 115 (57.8%) and good practice 156 (78.4%) towards SP. For those who did not comply with SP, complained oflackoftime as the main reason (38.5%) followed by interference with their work (29.2% ). There was no significant difference between presence of Emergency Physician or not in ED with the compliance towards SP.
    Conclusion: Though majority of the healthcare personnel in ED possessed a good level of knowledge and practice towards SP, the staff compliance should be revised regularly wherever necessary to improve the precautions.
    Keywords: Standard precaution, Emergency Department, Malaysian Nurse
    MeSH terms: Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Emergency Service, Hospital; Health Personnel; Hospitals, General; Hospitals, University; Humans; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Malaysia
  18. Mustapha MS
    Adequate consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids are essential during pregnancy because they play an important role in the development offetal brain and retina. The rate of growth remains high during the first year of life. Omega-3 is converted inside the body into longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). DHA and EPA are primarily derived from fish and algae. DHA is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA is also required for the maintenance of normal brain function in adults. The inclusion of adequate amount of DHA in the diet improved learning ability, whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning. DHA is readily taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally realized. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula-fed infants is increased when their formula includes DHA. However, health professionals and the general public in Malaysia may not be aware about the importance, sources or the quantities required for these essential fat components in foods. This review discusses the benefits of omega-3 consumption with particular emphasis during pregnancy and the first year of life. This review will also attempt to discuss sources of omega-3 fatty acids in Malaysia with the aim to achieve the recommended nutrient intakes foromega-3 fatty acids.
    Keywords: Omega 3 fatty acids, Lactation in Pregnancy, Sources of Omega-3 FA
    MeSH terms: Breast Feeding; Humans; Pregnancy; Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  19. Chiew L, Das U
    Stroke is the most important cause of death and foremost cause for dysfunction around the globe. As a result increase in the numberof elderly population the incidence of stroke has emerged as an important public health problem. Major developments have taken place in the field of medication for the prevention and treatment of stroke during the past decade. In spite of major interventions proposed by several organizations and the government, the present scenario of the stroke management facilities is still not promising. This article intends to investigate the health care facilities present for the elderly individuals with high risk of strokereoccurrence through proper analysis of the health system in Malaysia. The objectives are to find out evidence-based, reasonably priced and endurable measures to control the recurrences of stroke and to evaluate the outcomes of these interventions. It was noticed that in Malaysia though there many amenities for stroke patients are available but reorganizing and strengthening of few aspects such as human resource by multidisciplinary input is necessary for proper management of senior stroke patients. Moreover monitoring is essential to support patients after discharge from the hospital. The ethical variations among patient with stroke recurrence and the risk factor associated with stroke is not fully understood by healthcare workers. So, this study attempts to guide the stroke patient, their families and the health care workers to prevent stroke recurrence.
    Keywords: Stroke, Stroke Interventions, Stroke in Malaysia
    MeSH terms: Aged; Complementary Therapies; China/ethnology; Humans; Malaysia; Stroke
  20. Citation: Medical Nutrition Therapy Guideline for Type 2 Diabetes, Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Dietitians' Association; 2013
    MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Diet; Diet Therapy; Endocrinology; Humans; Malaysia; Guidelines as Topic
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