Browse publications by year: 2015

  1. O'Brien MJ, Burslem DF, Caduff A, Tay J, Hector A
    New Phytol, 2015 Feb;205(3):1083-94.
    PMID: 25358235 DOI: 10.1111/nph.13134
    Drought regimes can be characterized by the variability in the quantity of rainfall and the duration of rainless periods. However, most research on plant response to drought has ignored the impacts of rainfall variation, especially with regard to the influence of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in promoting drought resistance. To test the hypothesis that these components of drought differentially affect NSC dynamics and seedling resistance, we tracked NSC in plant tissues of tropical tree seedlings in response to manipulations of the volume and frequency of water applied. NSC concentrations decreased in woody tissues under infrequent-high watering but increased under no watering. A faster decline of growth relative to stomatal conductance in the no watering treatment was consistent with NSC accumulation as a result of an uncoupling of growth and photosynthesis, while usage of stored NSCs in woody tissues to maintain function may account for the NSC decline under infrequent-high watering. NSCs, and specifically stem NSCs, contributed to drought resistance under severe water deficits, while NSCs had a less clear role in drought resistance to variability in water availability. The contrasting response of NSCs to water variability and deficit indicates that unique processes support seedling resistance to these components of drought.
    MeSH terms: Adaptation, Physiological*; Photosynthesis; Rain; Stress, Physiological*; Trees/growth & development; Trees/metabolism*; Water*; Wood; Plant Transpiration; Plant Stems/metabolism*; Seedlings/metabolism; Carbohydrate Metabolism*; Plant Stomata/physiology; Droughts*
  2. Diyes GCP, Karunaratne WAIP, Tomberlin JK, Rajakaruna RS
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Dec 01;32(4):791-795.
    PMID: 33557472
    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan polyphagous small fly with the ability of exploiting variety of ecological niches. Different life history stages act as detritivore, parasite, and parasitoid of wider spectrum of plant and animal matter under natural and laboratory conditions. Here, for the first time we present the opportunistic parasitism of M. scalaris on Otobius megnini, which act as a vector of Q fever and is capable of causing paralysis, toxic conditions, otoacariasis and otitis in humans and other animals. Tick samples from the ear canals of 14 thoroughbred horses were brought to the laboratory and several days later, larvae of M. scalaris were found feeding on immature stages of O. megnini. When the development was completed pupae were found attached to adult ticks and all nymphs were found dead. This context reveals the capability of M. scalaris surviving on O. megnini and the risk of their invading ear canals of horses.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Animals; Diptera; Ear Canal; Horses; Humans; Laboratories; Larva; Mite Infestations; Nymph; Otitis; Paralysis; Parasites; Pupa; Q Fever; Ticks; Ecosystem; Argasidae
  3. Dev V, Mahanta N, Baruah BK
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Dec 01;32(4):796-799.
    PMID: 33557473
    Dengue is emerging as major public health concern in northeast India and spreading with increased morbidity. Most cases were recorded in Guwahati metropolitan city of the state of Assam during post-monsoon months (September- December). These comprised all age groups of both sexes with significantly higher incidence of cases in adult males aged 26- 60 years.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Cities; Dengue; Female; Humans; India; Male; Middle Aged; Morbidity; Public Health; Incidence
  4. Dib JR, Fernández-Zenoff MV, Oquilla J, Rudelli M, Lazarte S, González SN
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Dec 01;32(4):800-804.
    PMID: 33557474
    The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in Colalao del Valle, a high-altitude community in Tucumán province, Argentina, was investigated. The data revealed a high prevalence of parasitism (79.7%) with no significant differences in distribution by sex or age. Protozoa infections were the most common with Blastocystis hominis being the most prevalent (62.5%), followed by Giardia lamblia (29.7%), Endolimax nana (15.6%), Entamoeba coli (12.5%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (3.1%). Interestingly, there was an absence of soil-transmitted helminths among the studied population which could be related to climate (variable temperatures, moderate rainfall) and soil type (clay).
    MeSH terms: Altitude; Animals; Argentina; Endolimax; Entamoeba; Helminths; Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic; Protozoan Infections; Soil; Temperature; Prevalence; Giardia lamblia; Blastocystis hominis
  5. Lee BQ, Khor SM
    Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2015 Jan;14(1):48-66.
    PMID: 33401813 DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12120
    Soy sauce, a dark-colored seasoning, is added to enhance the sensory properties of foods. Soy sauce can be consumed as a condiment or added during the preparation of food. There are 3 types of soy sauce: fermented, acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (acid- HVP), and mixtures of these. 3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-produced contaminants formed during the preparation of soy sauce and was found to be a by-product of acid-HVP-produced soy sauce in 1978. 3-MCPD has been reported to be carcinogenic, nephrotoxic, and reproductively toxic in laboratory animal testing and has been registered as a chemosterilant for rodent control. 3-MCPD is classified as a possible carcinogenic compound, and the maximum tolerated limit in food has been established at both national and international levels. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the detection of 3-MCPD in soy sauce, its toxic effects, and the potential methods to reduce its concentration, especially during the production of acid-HVP soy sauce. The methods of quantification are also critically reviewed with a focus on efficiency, suitability, and challenges encountered in analysis.
    MeSH terms: alpha-Chlorohydrin; Animals; Animals, Laboratory; Carcinogens; Chemosterilants; Condiments; Fermentation; Food; Hot Temperature; Hydrolysis; Rodent Control; Soy Foods
  6. Siti Mariam Ab Ghani, Ahmad Syahir Ahmad Zu Saifudin, Muhammad Aliff Ikram Noor Zari, Teh Adilla Mustaza
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2015;2(1):47-51.
    Dental fluorosis incidence had been reported to be affecting children widely, especially in water-fluoridated ar-ea. As these children grow into young adults, perceived aesthetic problems arise mainly due to their concern with generalized mottled and stained teeth appearance. Fixed prosthodontics treatment involving single anterior tooth in patients with generalized fluorosis condition had been found challenging due to aesthetic restorability to blend with fluorosis condition. Clinical considerations: A simplified procedural direct chair-side technique of mimicking fluorosis condition onto anterior all-ceramic crowns are discussed in this paper. The mimicked fluoro-sis is reversible and has the opportunity to be adjusted according to the patient’s fluorosis condition thus hinder-ing the need to redo the crown in the future. Conclusions: The appearance of anterior all-ceramic crowns with direct chair-side staining technique provided blended and harmonized well with the dental fluorosis condition in both patients thus, giving natural looking smile.
    MeSH terms: Ceramics; Child; Crowns; Esthetics; Fluoridation; Fluoride Poisoning; Humans; Fluorosis, Dental; Prosthodontics; Smiling; Staining and Labeling; Tooth Discoloration; Incidence; Young Adult
  7. Lee, Han Hing, Lee, Chee Yen, Shoji, Yoshinobu, Chin, Hoe Teh
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2015;2(1):40-46.
    Background: Saliva is a readily accessible biofluid that is important for the overall quality of life, func-tionally essential in the chewing, swallowing, tasting, regulation mouth flora and prevention of caries. The aim of this study is to assess the global metabolomic profile of saliva in healthy Malaysian adults. Methods: As a first step to determining and understanding the metabolomic profile of saliva in healthy Malaysian adults, we have collected saliva samples of 50 adults and measured the salivary metabolite to establish a profiling metabolite data, Human Metabolome Database (HMDB). Metabolites concentrations of saliva in healthy subjects were measured by using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results: The results showed there was no significant inter-individual variations of the key metabolites observed among the healthy Malaysian adults and there was no significant variation of the metabolites between female and male subjects. Conclusion: The metabolomic profile of saliva in healthy Malaysian adults could be used to establish the metabolomic database and used as a comparison for future study of the saliva of specific diseases.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Deglutition; Female; Humans; Male; Mastication; Mouth; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Quality of Life; Saliva; Specimen Handling; Metabolomics; Metabolome; Microbiota; Healthy Volunteers
  8. Faezah Sabirin, Siti Sarah Abdul Ahmad, W. Zahira Akmal W. Kamarudin
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2015;2(1):32-39.
    Background: Muscular pain is the most common symptom associated to muscular skeletal disorders (MSDs). Dentists were exposed to ergonomic hazards while treating the patients. Without proper dental ergonomics, they are predisposed to the MSDs. Objective: This present study was designed to analyse the prevalence of muscular pain among practising dentists in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) and it relatedness to ergonomic factors. Methodology: A total of 25 dentists were participated in this pilot study. The inclusion criteria include working experience of at least six months and those who were readily diagnosed with musculoskeletal disorders were excluded. A self-administered questionaire was employed to gather demogaphic informations and close ended (“yes” or “no”) questions were asked to assess the muscular pain experienced in the last 12 months. The collected data were then analysed statistically. Result: The result showed a 100% response rate. 92% of the respondents were reported to experience muscular pain, particularly on the upper body parts. Only maintenance of same postures without microbreaks and performing torsions or cervical flexions to improve vision of oral cavity correlate significantly (P
    MeSH terms: Dentists; Humans; Mouth; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Pilot Projects; Posture; Surveys and Questionnaires; Prevalence; Human Body; Myalgia
  9. Nik Zarina Nik Mahmood, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Mamat Azuddin, Noor Lide Abu Kassim
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2015;2(1):21-31.
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of type of viscosity and groove on surface detail reproduction of elastomeric impression materials. Methods: Two polyvinylsiloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials were investigated. An aluminium cylindrical reference block with V- and U-shaped grooves of 1 mm and 2 mm in depth was machined using CAD-CAM system. Impressions of the block were taken to produce 35 master dies. Each die was immersed in distilled water for 5 minutes prior to impression making. Surface topography of the dies and impressions were captured using Alicona Imaging System. Mean difference in depth between the mas-ter dies and corresponding impressions’ grooves were analyzed. Results: Type of viscosities and groove showed significant main effects on surface detail (p < .01), but no significant interaction was observed between the two (p > .01). Express™ putty/light exhibited the lowest mean difference in depth for all grooves. The highest mean difference for U1 (38.3μm ± 21.55), U2 (52.96μm ± 30.39),V1 (45.02μm ± 34.82) and V2 (58.44μm ± 44.19) was obtained from Impregum medium, Aquasil medium, Impregum™ heavy/light and Impregum™ heavy/light groups respectively. Conclusion: Express putty/light-bodied material produced the best surface detail, and U-shaped groove showed superior detail reproduction.
    MeSH terms: Aluminum; Polyvinyls; Resins, Synthetic; Siloxanes; Viscosity; Computer-Aided Design
  10. Al-Jaf, Nagham, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Hassan
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2015;2(1):14-20.
    Objectives: To assess interradicular spaces of maxilla and mandible in subjects with class I sagittal skeletal relationship as an aid for miniscrew placement. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 47 adult subjects with class I skeletal relationship. Interradicular spaces were obtained at the alveolar processes from first premolar to second molar at 2 different vertical levels (6 and 8mm) from the cementoenamel junction (C.E.J). Results: In the maxilla, the highest inter-radicular space existed between second premolar and first molar. In the mandible, the highest interradicular space existed between first and second molar. All mandibular measurements were higher than their respective maxillary measurement. Generally, availability of interradicular space increases apically in both arches, but the difference is not significant. In the maxilla, male subjects’ measurement were significantly higher at 8 mm level between second premolar and first molar and between first and second molar Conclusions: Interradicular spac-es in the maxillary and mandibular alveolar spaces are available for miniscrew placement. In both arches, a more apical location provides more interradicular space. However, careful planning is needed to avoid sinus perforation.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Alveolar Process; Bicuspid; Humans; Male; Mandible; Maxilla; Molar; Tooth Cervix; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  11. Budi Aslinie Md Sabri, Nur Hidayah Mohd Radzi, Fatimatuz Zahira Abdul Hadi, Ikmal HishamIsmai
    Objective: To evaluate feasibility of hand gloves as a rubber dam isolation alternative, in respect of physical properties. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial study design was used. Three types of gloves were tested with two types of a rubber dam used as the control group. Cut-out pattern of dumb-bell shapes were made from 35 samples for each type of groups and tensile strength were tested using Universal Testing Machine and the Trapezium X software. All tests for physical requirements were performed in accord-ance with American Society for Testing and Materials D412, Standard Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Rubbers and Thermoplastic Elastomers-Tension. Findings were analyzed by analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) and differences were compared using a Tukey-Kramer interval calculated at the 0.05 signifi-cance level. Results: Heavy gauge rubber dam has the highest Mean (calculated at the 0.05 significance level) except for maximum stress calculated at entire area. Medium-gauge rubber dam has significantly higher tensile strength (44.5075 N/mm2) when compared to heavy-gauge rubber dam (35.7787 N/mm2) although it was 0.09mm thinner. Discovery 2020 Powder Free Latex Examination Gloves with tensile strength value of 28.5922 N/mm2 (±3.27366) is more than the minimum requirement specified by American Federal Specification ZZ-R90B Rubber Dam (Dental, 1985) (4000 pounds per square inch or 27.6 N/mm2). For all variable tested, all groups are significantly different from each other. The mean square between the groups was quite large. Conclusion: This study shows that there are significant differences between the physical strength of latex gloves when com-pared to rubber dam. However, the comparison between thickness and tensile strength among various rubber dam, did not correspond proportionately. Only one type of rubber gloves met the minimum requirement but that is just one aspect. In view of these mixed results, more research is needed before we can conclude that it is feasable that we use hand gloves to replace rubber dam.
    MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance; Feasibility Studies; Latex; Materials Testing; Research Design; Software; Tensile Strength; United States; Rubber Dams; Gloves, Protective; Elastomers; Control Groups
  12. Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera Mohd Yusof
    In legal system, the admissibility of bite mark injury has proven to give more positive impact when current tech-nologies are adapted to its analysis. The early exposure of the digitalized bite mark analysis during the under-graduate dental program is beneficial to stimulate interests and provide guidance among the professional den-tists. The step-by-step bite mark analysis partly adapted from KU Leuven, Belgium is emphasized by delivering the illustrated practical techniques using computer software Adobe Photoshop®. The overlays analysis demon-strated its practicality as easy to use and offered opportunities to learn through unconventional mode of teach-ing. The incorporation of bite mark injury analysis to the undergraduate dental learning is highly recommended
    MeSH terms: Central Nervous System Stimulants; Belgium; Bites and Stings; Bites, Human; Humans; Software
  13. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015 02 10;75(2):66.
    PMID: 25838791
    The purely electroweak (EW) cross section for the production of two jets in association with a Z boson, in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text], is measured using data recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The electroweak cross section for the [Formula: see text] final state (with [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] and j representing the quarks produced in the hard interaction) in the kinematic region defined by [Formula: see text][Formula: see text], [Formula: see text][Formula: see text], transverse momentum [Formula: see text][Formula: see text], and pseudorapidity [Formula: see text], is found to be [Formula: see text], in agreement with the standard model prediction. The associated jet activity of the selected events is studied, in particular in a signal-enriched region of phase space, and the measurements are found to be in agreement with QCD predictions.
    MeSH terms: Biomechanical Phenomena; Hardness; Motion; Protons; Research; United States
  14. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015 04 09;75(4):147.
    PMID: 26041973
    Measurements of the differential and double-differential Drell-Yan cross sections in the dielectron and dimuon channels are presented. They are based on proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measured inclusive cross section in the [Formula: see text] peak region (60-120[Formula: see text]), obtained from the combination of the dielectron and dimuon channels, is [Formula: see text], where the statistical uncertainty is negligible. The differential cross section [Formula: see text] in the dilepton mass range 15-2000[Formula: see text] is measured and corrected to the full phase space. The double-differential cross section [Formula: see text] is also measured over the mass range 20 to 1500[Formula: see text] and absolute dilepton rapidity from 0 to 2.4. In addition, the ratios of the normalized differential cross sections measured at [Formula: see text] and 8[Formula: see text] are presented. These measurements are compared to the predictions of perturbative QCD at next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) orders using various sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs). The results agree with the NNLO theoretical predictions computed with fewz 3.1 using the CT10 NNLO and NNPDF2.1 NNLO PDFs. The measured double-differential cross section and ratio of normalized differential cross sections are sufficiently precise to constrain the proton PDFs.
    MeSH terms: Biometry; Data Collection; Protons; United States; Uncertainty; Text Messaging
  15. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015 05 29;75(5):237.
    PMID: 26069462
    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text], in the range [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] and pseudorapidity [Formula: see text] in the proton-nucleon center-of-mass frame. For [Formula: see text][Formula: see text], the charged-particle production is asymmetric about [Formula: see text], with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The [Formula: see text] distribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] compared to expectations from the pp reference. The enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations that include antishadowing modifications of nPDFs.
    MeSH terms: Ions; Motion; Motivation; Protons; Radioactivity; United States; Nucleons
  16. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015 06 26;75(6):288.
    PMID: 26146483
    The inclusive jet cross section for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7[Formula: see text] was measured by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0[Formula: see text]. The measurement covers a phase space up to 2[Formula: see text] in jet transverse momentum and 2.5 in absolute jet rapidity. The statistical precision of these data leads to stringent constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton. The data provide important input for the gluon density at high fractions of the proton momentum and for the strong coupling constant at large energy scales. Using predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, complemented with electroweak corrections, the constraining power of these data is investigated and the strong coupling constant at the Z boson mass [Formula: see text] is determined to be [Formula: see text], which is in agreement with the world average.
    MeSH terms: Data Collection; Motion; Protons; United States; Physical Phenomena; Text Messaging
  17. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015 07 01;75(7):302.
    PMID: 26190937
    This paper presents distributions of topological observables in inclusive three- and four-jet events produced in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7[Formula: see text] with a data sample collected by the CMS experiment corresponding to a luminosity of 5.1[Formula: see text]. The distributions are corrected for detector effects, and compared with several event generators based on two- and multi-parton matrix elements at leading order. Among the considered calculations, MadGraph interfaced with pythia6 displays the overall best agreement with data.
    MeSH terms: Anatomy, Regional; Software; United States; Physical Phenomena; Text Messaging
  18. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015 10 29;75(10):511.
    PMID: 26549982
    Measurements of the [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] production cross sections in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text] are presented. Candidate events for the leptonic decay mode [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] denotes an electron or a muon, are reconstructed and selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 (19.6)[Formula: see text] at 7 (8)[Formula: see text] collected with the CMS experiment. The measured cross sections, [Formula: see text] at 7[Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] at 8[Formula: see text], are in good agreement with the standard model predictions with next-to-leading-order accuracy. The selected data are analyzed to search for anomalous triple gauge couplings involving the [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] final state. In the absence of any deviation from the standard model predictions, limits are set on the relevant parameters. These limits are then combined with the previously published CMS results for [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] in 4[Formula: see text] final states, yielding the most stringent constraints on the anomalous couplings.
    MeSH terms: Data Collection; Electrons; Mesons; Protons; Publications; United States; Physical Phenomena; Text Messaging
  19. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015 11 20;75(11):542.
    PMID: 26640401
    The normalized differential cross section for top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) production is measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text] at the CERN LHC using the CMS detector in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurements are performed in the lepton[Formula: see text]jets ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]jets) and in the dilepton ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]) decay channels. The [Formula: see text] cross section is measured as a function of the kinematic properties of the charged leptons, the jets associated to b quarks, the top quarks, and the [Formula: see text] system. The data are compared with several predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamic up to approximate next-to-next-to-leading-order precision. No significant deviations are observed relative to the standard model predictions.
    MeSH terms: Aircraft; Biomechanical Phenomena; Data Collection; United States; Physical Phenomena; Text Messaging
  20. Choon MW, Abu Talib M, Yaacob SN, Awang H, Tan JP, Hassan S, et al.
    Child Adolesc Ment Health, 2015 May;20(2):89-93.
    PMID: 32680393 DOI: 10.1111/camh.12075
    BACKGROUND: This study examined the mediating role of negative automatic thoughts in the relationship between depression and suicidal behaviour in a sample of at-risk Malaysian adolescents.

    METHOD: A total of 1441 adolescents were initially recruited via multistage cluster sampling. Subsequently, 294 at-risk adolescents were selected for further analyses through a specified cut-off score.

    RESULTS: The results showed significant positive relationships among the study variables. Specifically, negative automatic thoughts emerged as a significant mediator in the relation between depression and suicidal behaviour (z = 7.15, p 

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