MATERIALS AND METHODS: PMNPs were produced using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide template and then coated by a polyethylene glycol layer with molecular weight of 1500 Da (PEG1500) and phase transition temperature of 48 ± 2 °C to endow a thermosensitive behavior. The profile of drug release from the nanostructure was studied at various hyperthermia conditions generated by waterbath, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), and alternating magnetic field (AMF). The in vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia efficacy of the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs) were assessed using human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.
RESULTS: Heat treatment of DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs containing 235 ± 26 mg·g-1 DOX at 48 °C by waterbath, MRgFUS, and AMF, respectively led to 71 ± 4%, 48 ± 3%, and 74 ± 5% drug release. Hyperthermia treatment of the A549 cells using DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs led to 77% decrease in the cell viability due to the synergistic effects of magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: The large pores generated in the PMNPs structure could provide a sufficient space for encapsulation of the chemotherapeutics as well as fast drug encapsulation and release kinetics, which together with thermosensitive characteristics of the PEG1500 shell, make DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs promising adjuvants to the magnetic hyperthermia modality.
METHODS: Randomized trials, assessing the efficacy of antiviral drugs for HBV and HIV co-infected patients were searched in health-related databases. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Main outcome in this meta-analysis study was the success of treatment by antivirals as determined by virologic response. We performed pairwise and network meta-analysis of these trials and assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach.
RESULTS: Seven randomized trials (329 participants) were included in this network meta-analysis study. A network geometry was formed with six treatment options including four antiviral drugs, adefovir (ADV), emtricitabine (FTC), lamivudine (LMV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), combination treatment of TDF plus LMV, and placebo. The weighted percentage contributions of each comparison distributed fairly equally in the entire network of evidence. An assumption of consistency required for network meta-analysis was not violated (the global Wald test for inconsistency: Chi2(4) = 3.63, p = 0.46). The results of estimates showed no differences between the treatment regimens in terms of viral response for treating HBV and HIV co-infected patients, which spanned both benefit and harm (e.g. LMV vs TDF plus LMV: OR: 0.37, 95%CI: 0.06-2.41). Overall, the certainty of evidence was very low in all comparisons (e.g. LMV vs TDF plus LMV: 218 fewer per 1000,121 more to 602 fewer, very low certainty). Therefore, we remained uncertain to the true ranking of the antiviral treatments in HBV/ HIV co-infected patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the evidence is insufficient to provide guidance to the relative effectiveness of currently available antiviral drugs with dual activity in treating co-infection of HBV/HIV. Well-designed, large clinical trials in this field to address other important outcomes from different epidemiological settings are recommended.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in two main wet markets in Kelantan and 232 wet market workers were randomly selected. Blood samples were analysed for microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against 20 live leptospirosis reference serovars. MAT titres of 1:100 or more were considered as seropositive.
RESULTS: It was found that the overall seroprevalence for leptospirosis among the respondents was 33.6% (95% CI = 27.5, 39.7). The samples were tested positive against serovars Melaka (IMR LEP 1), Terengganu (IMR LEP 115), Sarawak (IMR LEP 175), Copenhageni (IMR LEP 803/11), Hardjobovis (IMR LEP 27), Australis, Autumnalis, Bataviae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjoprajitno, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Javanica, Pyrogenes, Terrasovi, Djasiman, Patoc and Pomona. The predominant serovars was Autumnalis (18.2%).
CONCLUSION: Wet markets workers were at risk for leptospirosis infection evidenced by high seroprevalence of leptospirosis in this study. Further research need to be conducted to determine factors that favours infection in this groups.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 25 years old female had neglected an extremely large midline sacral mass for 2 years. On presentation to hospital, she had been bed bound for the past 2 years. The sacral mass was so large that it prevented her from lying down supine and sitting on the wheelchair comfortably. Clinical examination showed a 40 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm hard mass over the sacrum that involved both buttocks and the gluteal fold. Neurological exam of bilateral lower limb was normal. Computed Tomography Scan of the Pelvis showed a large destructive sacrococcygeal mass measuring 43 cm × 38 cm × 27 cm with extension into the presacral space resulting in anterior displacement of the rectum, urinary bladder and uterus; and posterior extension into the dorsal soft tissue with involvement of the gluteus, piriformis, and left erector spinae muscles. Biopsy taken confirmed Chordoma. This patient was managed by a multidisciplinary team in an Oncology referral centre. The patient had undergone Wide En Bloc Resection and Sacrectomy, a complex surgery that was associated with complications namely bleeding, surgical site infection and neurogenic bowel and bladder. Six months post operatively the patient was able to lie supine and sit on wheelchair comfortably. She required extensive rehabilitation to help her ambulate in future.
CONCLUSION: This is a rare case of neglected sacral chordoma in a young female treated with Wide En Bloc Resection and Sacrectomy associated with complications of this complex surgery. Nevertheless, surgery is still worthwhile to improve the quality of life and to prevent complications secondary to prolonged immobilization. A multidisciplinary approach is ideal and team members need to be prepared to address the complications once they arise.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty women, divided into equal groups of PCOS and healthy patients, were clinically examined for periodontal parameters like probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (mGI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin (FI), triglycerides (TG), and free testosterone along with serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were the biochemical parameters evaluated.
RESULTS: Women with PCOS had statistically significant differences in mGI, PI, testosterone, FBS, and TG when compared with healthy women (p
METHODS: A cost-utility analysis using a lifetime Markov model was conducted among Thai patients with NAFLD, from a societal perspective. Pioglitazone, vitamin E, a weight reduction program, and usual care were investigated, with the outcomes of interest being the number of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), lifetime costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.
RESULTS: When compared with usual care, a weight reduction program can prevent cirrhosis and HCC cases by 13.91% (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.97, 20.59) and 2.12% (95% CrI 0.43, 4.56), respectively; pioglitazone can prevent cirrhosis and HCC cases by 9.30% (95% CrI -2.52, 15.24) and 1.42% (95% CrI -0.18, 3.74), respectively; and vitamin E can prevent cirrhosis and HCC cases by 7.32% (95% CrI -4.64, 15.56) and 1.12% (95% CrI -0.81, 3.44), respectively. Estimated incremental life expectancy and incremental QALYs for all treatment options compared with usual care were approximately 0.06 years and 0.07 QALYs, respectively. The lifetime costs of both a weight reduction program and pioglitazone were less than usual care, while vitamin E was $3050 (95% CrI 2354, 3650). The weight reduction program dominated all other treatment options. The probability of being cost-effective in Thailand's willingness-to-pay threshold ($4546/QALY gained) was 76% for the weight reduction program, 22% for pioglitazone, 2% for usual care, and 0% for vitamin E.
CONCLUSIONS: A weight reduction program can prevent cirrhosis and HCC occurrences, and dominates all other treatment options. Pioglitazone and vitamin E demonstrated a trend towards decreasing the number of cirrhosis and HCC cases.
METHOD: Segmented and validated wheeze sounds were obtained from auscultation recordings of the trachea and lower lung base of 55 asthmatic patients during tidal breathing manoeuvres. The segments were multi-labelled into 9 groups based on the auscultation location and/or breath phases. Bandwidths were selected based on the physiology, and a corresponding SI feature was computed for each segment. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were then performed to investigate the discriminatory behaviour of the features with respect to the severity levels in the various groups. The asthmatic severity levels in the groups were then classified using the ensemble (ENS), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (KNN) methods.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: All statistical comparisons exhibited a significant difference (p