HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: To compare the anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-nociceptive properties of RG and BG.
METHODS: Nitric Oxide (NO) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay, quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema RESULTS: The ginsenoside contents were confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and has been altered through increased processing. The highest concentration of these extracts inhibited NO production to near-basal levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at the mRNA level was investigated using qRT-PCR. Comparatively, BG exhibited better inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Protein expression was determined using western blot analysis and BG exhibited stronger inhibition. Xylene-induced ear edema model in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats were carried out and tested with the effects of ginseng as well as dexamethasone and indomethacin - commonly used drugs. BG is a more potent anti-inflammatory agent, possesses anti-nociceptive properties, and has a strong potency comparable to the NSAIDs.
CONCLUSION: BG has more potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects due to the change in ginsenoside component with increased processing.
PURPOSE: The study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of the standardized 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet through its effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MyD88)-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 human macrophages.
METHODS: Standardization of the 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet was performed by using a validated reversed-phase HPLC method, while LC-MS/MS was used to profile the secondary metabolites. The release of pro-inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the Western blot technique was executed to elucidate the expression of mediators linked to MyD88-dependent respective signaling pathways. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was carried out to quantify the relative gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and pro-inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level.
RESULTS: The quantitative and qualitative analyses of Z. zerumbet extract showed the presence of several compounds including the major chemical marker zerumbone. Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2 protein expression and downregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers. Z. zerumbet-treatment also blocked NF-κB activation by preventing the phosphorylation of IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Z. zerumbet extract concentration-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of respective MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38) as well as Akt. Correspondingly, Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, TLR4 and MyD88 prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that Z. zerumbet has impressive role in suppressing inflammation and related immune disorders by inhibition of various pro-inflammatory markers through the imperative MyD88-dependent NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate dentatin isolated from C. excavata Burm.f., for anti-ulcer activity against ethanol ulcer model in rats.
METHODS: Gastric acid output, ulcer index, serum profile, histological evaluation using Hematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid Schiff base stainings and immunohistochemical localization for heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) were all investigated. Possible involvement of reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, radical scavenging, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity were investigated.
RESULTS: Dentatin showed anti-secretory activity against the pylorus ligature model and protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol ulceration, as revealed by the improved macroscopic and histological appearance. Dentatin significantly increased the gastric homogenate content of PGE2 GSH and SOD. Dentatin inhibited the lipid peroxidation as revealed by the reduced gastric content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, dentatin up-regulated HSP70 expression. However, dentatin showed insignificant anti-H. pylori activity.
CONCLUSION: Dentatin possesses gastro-protective activity, which could be attributed to the anti-secretory, mucus production, anti-oxidant, and HSP70 activities.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study extracted de-identified data from the Malaysian Registry of Intensive Care in four Malaysian tertiary ICUs between January 2010 and December 2014. The study was registered under the NMRR and approved by the ethics committee. AKI was defined as twice the baseline creatinine or urine output <0.5 ml/kg/h for 12 h.
Results: Of 26,663 patients, 24.2% had AKI within 24 h of admission. Patients with AKI were older and had higher severity of illness compared to those without AKI. AKI patients had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU, and hospital stay. Age, Simplified Acute Physiological II Score, and the presence of sepsis and preexisting hypertension, chronic cardiovascular disease independently associated with AKI. About 32.3% had sepsis. Patients with both AKI and sepsis had the highest risk of mortality (relative risk 3.43 [3.34-3.53]).
Conclusions: AKI is common in our ICU, with higher morbidity and mortality. Independent risk factors of AKI include age, the severity of illness, sepsis and preexisting hypertension, and chronic cardiovascular disease. AKI independently contributes to mortality. The presence of AKI and sepsis increased the risk of mortality by three times.
Summary of background data: Locally harvested autogenous bone graft eliminates possible donor site morbidity and has all the important basic bone graft properties such as osteoinductivity, osteogenicity and osteoconductivity. Its usage was reported to be adequate to achieve fusion but none had quantifies the amount of local bone graft harvested.
Methods: Total of 40 AIS patients were recruited in the study. All posterior spinal fusion surgeries were performed by the same dual surgeons and same anesthetist with a single observer collecting and measuring bone grafts harvested. The bone grafts harvested from each respective posterior element (spinous processes, laminas, facets and transverses processes) and measured accordingly.
Results: There were 36 females and 4 males. Amongst cases recruited, there were 32% Lenke 1, 28% Lenke 2, 8%Lenke 3, 22%Lenke 5 and 10% Lenke 6. Total thoracic levels involved were 333, whereas lumbar levels were 81. The mean total weight of bone graft obtained per case was 36.5 ± 13.7 g. The total weight of lumbar bone graft to the number of lumbar fusion levels (4.5 ± 1.2 g/fusion level) was significantly higher than the total weight of thoracic bone graft to the number of thoracic fusion levels (3.2 ± 1.2 g/fusion level). The amount of bone graft was obtained was highest from lumbar spinous process (42%), followed by thoracic spinous process (32%), lumbar lamina (29%), lumbar facet (28%), thoracic lamina (25%), thoracic facet (22%), and thoracic transverse process (21%).
Conclusions: Lumbar vertebra provided more bone graft than thoracic vertebra. Spinous processes contributed the highest amount of local bone graft in the thoracic and lumbar spine.