Browse publications by year: 2018

  1. Sakkhachornphop S, Hadpech S, Wisitponchai T, Panto C, Kantamala D, Utaipat U, et al.
    Viruses, 2018 Nov 13;10(11).
    PMID: 30428529 DOI: 10.3390/v10110625
    Certain proteins have demonstrated proficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) life cycle disturbance. Recently, the ankyrin repeat protein targeting the HIV-1 capsid, AnkGAG1D4, showed a negative effect on the viral assembly of the HIV-1NL4-3 laboratory strain. To extend its potential for future clinical application, the activity of AnkGAG1D4 in the inhibition of other HIV-1 circulating strains was evaluated. Chimeric NL4-3 viruses carrying patient-derived Gag/PR-coding regions were generated from 131 antiretroviral drug-naïve HIV-1 infected individuals in northern Thailand during 2001⁻2012. SupT1, a stable T-cell line expressing AnkGAG1D4 and ankyrin non-binding control (AnkA32D3), were challenged with these chimeric viruses. The p24CA sequences were analysed and classified using the K-means clustering method. Among all the classes of virus classified using the p24CA sequences, SupT1/AnkGAG1D4 demonstrated significantly lower levels of p24CA than SupT1/AnkA32D3, which was found to correlate with the syncytia formation. This result suggests that AnkGAG1D4 can significantly interfere with the chimeric viruses derived from patients with different sequences of the p24CA domain. It supports the possibility of ankyrin-based therapy as a broad alternative therapeutic molecule for HIV-1 gene therapy in the future.
  2. Dabbagh A, Hedayatnasab Z, Karimian H, Sarraf M, Yeong CH, Madaah Hosseini HR, et al.
    Int J Hyperthermia, 2018 Nov 14.
    PMID: 30428737 DOI: 10.1080/02656736.2018.1536809
    PURPOSE: Although magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are promising agents for hyperthermia therapy, insufficient drug encapsulation efficacies inhibit their application as nanocarriers in the targeted drug delivery systems. In this study, porous magnetite nanoparticles (PMNPs) were synthesized and coated with a thermosensitive polymeric shell to obtain a synergistic effect of hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: PMNPs were produced using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide template and then coated by a polyethylene glycol layer with molecular weight of 1500 Da (PEG1500) and phase transition temperature of 48 ± 2 °C to endow a thermosensitive behavior. The profile of drug release from the nanostructure was studied at various hyperthermia conditions generated by waterbath, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), and alternating magnetic field (AMF). The in vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia efficacy of the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs) were assessed using human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    RESULTS: Heat treatment of DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs containing 235 ± 26 mg·g-1 DOX at 48 °C by waterbath, MRgFUS, and AMF, respectively led to 71 ± 4%, 48 ± 3%, and 74 ± 5% drug release. Hyperthermia treatment of the A549 cells using DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs led to 77% decrease in the cell viability due to the synergistic effects of magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

    CONCLUSION: The large pores generated in the PMNPs structure could provide a sufficient space for encapsulation of the chemotherapeutics as well as fast drug encapsulation and release kinetics, which together with thermosensitive characteristics of the PEG1500 shell, make DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs promising adjuvants to the magnetic hyperthermia modality.

  3. Tan LS, Daud MH, Nasirudin N
    J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol, 2018 Dec;23(4):577-580.
    PMID: 30428790 DOI: 10.1142/S2424835518720335
    Pyogenic granuloma, also known as lobular capillary hemangioma, is a benign vascular lesion of the skin or mucous membrane with rapid growth or repetitive trauma. Rarely seen in adult, its management varies and surgical intervention is usually common. We report a case of pyogenic granuloma of the right index finger in a 46-year-old gentleman who presented with painless swelling of the right index finger after a trivial injury. Wedge biopsy confirmed the diagnosis and excision of the granuloma measuring 3 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm was done with curettage and electrocautery over the base of granuloma. The wound subsequently healed well with good functional and aesthetic outcome.
  4. Naing C, Poovorawan Y, Tong KS
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2018 Nov 14;18(1):564.
    PMID: 30428847 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3506-x
    BACKGROUND: There are randomized trials assessing a variety of antiviral drugs for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but the relative effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains unclear. The objectives of the current study were to estimate and rank the relative effectiveness of antiviral drugs for treating HBV and HIV co-infected patients.

    METHODS: Randomized trials, assessing the efficacy of antiviral drugs for HBV and HIV co-infected patients were searched in health-related databases. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Main outcome in this meta-analysis study was the success of treatment by antivirals as determined by virologic response. We performed pairwise and network meta-analysis of these trials and assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach.

    RESULTS: Seven randomized trials (329 participants) were included in this network meta-analysis study. A network geometry was formed with six treatment options including four antiviral drugs, adefovir (ADV), emtricitabine (FTC), lamivudine (LMV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), combination treatment of TDF plus LMV, and placebo. The weighted percentage contributions of each comparison distributed fairly equally in the entire network of evidence. An assumption of consistency required for network meta-analysis was not violated (the global Wald test for inconsistency: Chi2(4) = 3.63, p = 0.46). The results of estimates showed no differences between the treatment regimens in terms of viral response for treating HBV and HIV co-infected patients, which spanned both benefit and harm (e.g. LMV vs TDF plus LMV: OR: 0.37, 95%CI: 0.06-2.41). Overall, the certainty of evidence was very low in all comparisons (e.g. LMV vs TDF plus LMV: 218 fewer per 1000,121 more to 602 fewer, very low certainty). Therefore, we remained uncertain to the true ranking of the antiviral treatments in HBV/ HIV co-infected patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the evidence is insufficient to provide guidance to the relative effectiveness of currently available antiviral drugs with dual activity in treating co-infection of HBV/HIV. Well-designed, large clinical trials in this field to address other important outcomes from different epidemiological settings are recommended.

  5. Rahman MHAA, Hairon SM, Hamat RA, Jamaluddin TZMT, Shafei MN, Idris N, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2018 Nov 14;18(1):569.
    PMID: 30428852 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3470-5
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease associated with occupations which exposed workers to environments contaminated with urine of infected animals. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among wet market workers in Kelantan.

    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in two main wet markets in Kelantan and 232 wet market workers were randomly selected. Blood samples were analysed for microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against 20 live leptospirosis reference serovars. MAT titres of 1:100 or more were considered as seropositive.

    RESULTS: It was found that the overall seroprevalence for leptospirosis among the respondents was 33.6% (95% CI = 27.5, 39.7). The samples were tested positive against serovars Melaka (IMR LEP 1), Terengganu (IMR LEP 115), Sarawak (IMR LEP 175), Copenhageni (IMR LEP 803/11), Hardjobovis (IMR LEP 27), Australis, Autumnalis, Bataviae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjoprajitno, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Javanica, Pyrogenes, Terrasovi, Djasiman, Patoc and Pomona. The predominant serovars was Autumnalis (18.2%).

    CONCLUSION: Wet markets workers were at risk for leptospirosis infection evidenced by high seroprevalence of leptospirosis in this study. Further research need to be conducted to determine factors that favours infection in this groups.

  6. Phang ZH, Saw XY, Nor NFBM, Ahmad ZB, Ibrahim SB
    BMC Cancer, 2018 Nov 14;18(1):1112.
    PMID: 30428857 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-018-5012-3
    BACKGROUND: Sacral chordoma is a locally aggressive malignant tumour originating from ectopic notochordal cells. The natural history of sacral chordoma is a slow growing tumour arising at the midline of the lower sacrum that can invade the sacrum and progressively increase in size expanding cranially and anteriorly. Metastasis is very rare even when the tumour is large. Sacral chordoma affects males more than females and is more commonly found in middle age and elderly patients.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 25 years old female had neglected an extremely large midline sacral mass for 2 years. On presentation to hospital, she had been bed bound for the past 2 years. The sacral mass was so large that it prevented her from lying down supine and sitting on the wheelchair comfortably. Clinical examination showed a 40 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm hard mass over the sacrum that involved both buttocks and the gluteal fold. Neurological exam of bilateral lower limb was normal. Computed Tomography Scan of the Pelvis showed a large destructive sacrococcygeal mass measuring 43 cm × 38 cm × 27 cm with extension into the presacral space resulting in anterior displacement of the rectum, urinary bladder and uterus; and posterior extension into the dorsal soft tissue with involvement of the gluteus, piriformis, and left erector spinae muscles. Biopsy taken confirmed Chordoma. This patient was managed by a multidisciplinary team in an Oncology referral centre. The patient had undergone Wide En Bloc Resection and Sacrectomy, a complex surgery that was associated with complications namely bleeding, surgical site infection and neurogenic bowel and bladder. Six months post operatively the patient was able to lie supine and sit on wheelchair comfortably. She required extensive rehabilitation to help her ambulate in future.

    CONCLUSION: This is a rare case of neglected sacral chordoma in a young female treated with Wide En Bloc Resection and Sacrectomy associated with complications of this complex surgery. Nevertheless, surgery is still worthwhile to improve the quality of life and to prevent complications secondary to prolonged immobilization. A multidisciplinary approach is ideal and team members need to be prepared to address the complications once they arise.

  7. Jessop TS, Ariefiandy A, Purwandana D, Ciofi C, Imansyah J, Benu YJ, et al.
    Proc. Biol. Sci., 2018 Nov 14;285(1891).
    PMID: 30429305 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1829
    Loss of dispersal typifies island biotas, but the selective processes driving this phenomenon remain contentious. This is because selection via, both indirect (e.g. relaxed selection or island syndromes) and direct (e.g. natural selection or spatial sorting) processes may be involved, and no study has yet convincingly distinguished between these alternatives. Here, we combined observational and experimental analyses of an island lizard, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis, the world's largest lizard), to provide evidence for the actions of multiple processes that could contribute to island dispersal loss. In the Komodo dragon, concordant results from telemetry, simulations, experimental translocations, mark-recapture, and gene flow studies indicated that despite impressive physical and sensory capabilities for long-distance movement, Komodo dragons exhibited near complete dispersal restriction: individuals rarely moved beyond the valleys they were born/captured in. Importantly, lizard site-fidelity was insensitive to common agents of dispersal evolution (i.e. indices of risk for inbreeding, kin and intraspecific competition, and low habitat quality) that consequently reduced survival of resident individuals. We suggest that direct selection restricts movement capacity (e.g. via benefits of spatial philopatry and increased costs of dispersal) alongside use of dispersal-compensating traits (e.g. intraspecific niche partitioning) to constrain dispersal in island species.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Inbreeding; Lizards; Syndrome; Telemetry; Ecosystem; Gene Flow; Biota; Islands
  8. Ahmad AA, Wahab NA, Yeo CW, Oh SJWY, Chen HC
    J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2018 Nov 15.
    PMID: 30429427 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.18-0297
    Forty rescued common palm civets were anesthetized. Twenty animals received intramuscular injections of alfaxalone 5 mg/kg and medetomidine 0.05 mg/kg (A-M group), whereas twenty animals received 5 mg/kg of tiletamine and zolazepam (T-Z group). The A-M group was reversed with atipamazole 0.25 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the time from anesthetic injection to induction and intubation between the A-M and T-Z groups. The time from the injection of reversal in the A-M group and the time from cessation of isoflurane in the T-Z group to extubation, first response to recovery and ambulation were longer (P<0.05) in the T-Z group. The T-Z group recorded lower (P<0.05) rectal temperatures compared to the A-M group. This study showed that both drug combinations can be used effectively for the immobilization of civets. The A-M combination provided better anesthetic depth, but with higher incidence of bradycardia and hypoxemia. The recovery time was reduced significantly as atipamezole was used as a reversal agent in the A-M combination.
    MeSH terms: Anesthetics; Animals; Bradycardia; Drug Combinations; Imidazoles; Injections, Intramuscular; Intubation; Isoflurane; Pregnanediones; Temperature; Tiletamine; Zolazepam; Incidence; Walking; Medetomidine; Viverridae; Airway Extubation
  9. Sittichaya W, Beaver RA
    Zookeys, 2018.
    PMID: 30429655 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.795.28384
    A new species, Cnestusquadrispinosus, is described from Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, and East Malaysia (Sabah). It is compared to three related species of Cnestus which lack a mycangial tuft of hairs on the pronotum, and have an impressed elytral declivity.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Brunei; Hair; Malaysia; Thailand; Weevils
  10. Song CP, Liew PE, Teh Z, Lim SP, Show PL, Ooi CW
    Front Chem, 2018;6:529.
    PMID: 30430106 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00529
    The formation of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) with the environmentally friendly and recyclable ionic liquid has been gaining popularity in the field of protein separation. In this study, the ATPSs comprising N,N-dimethylammonium N',N'-dimethylcarbamate (DIMCARB) and thermo-responsive poly(propylene) glycol (PPG) were applied for the recovery of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) derived from Escherichia coli. The partition behavior of GFP in the PPG + DIMCARB + water system was investigated systematically by varying the molecular weight of PPG and the total composition of ATPS. Overall, GFP was found to be preferentially partitioned to the hydrophilic DIMCARB-rich phase. An ATPS composed of 42% (w/w) PPG 1000 and 4.4% (w/w) DIMCARB gave the optimum performance in terms of GFP selectivity (1,237) and yield (98.8%). The optimal system was also successfully scaled up by 50 times without compromising the purification performance. The bottom phase containing GFP was subjected to rotary evaporation of DIMCARB. The stability of GFP was not affected by the distillation of DIMCARB, and the DIMCARB was successfully recycled in three successive rounds of GFP purification. The potential of PPG + DIMCARB + water system as a sustainable protein purification tool is promising.
    MeSH terms: Escherichia coli; Ions; Molecular Weight; Water; Propylene Glycol; Green Fluorescent Proteins; Ionic Liquids; Distillation; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions; Recycling
  11. Varadan M, Gopalkrishna P, Bhat PV, Kamath SU, S K, K TG, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2018 Nov 14.
    PMID: 30430337 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-018-2741-2
    OBJECTIVES: Periodontal disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) share risk factors like obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, along with evidence of chronic inflammation in the two conditions. Evaluating the influence of PCOS on periodontal health would, therefore, identify a possible association.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty women, divided into equal groups of PCOS and healthy patients, were clinically examined for periodontal parameters like probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (mGI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin (FI), triglycerides (TG), and free testosterone along with serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were the biochemical parameters evaluated.

    RESULTS: Women with PCOS had statistically significant differences in mGI, PI, testosterone, FBS, and TG when compared with healthy women (p 

  12. Verma R, Bairy I, Tiwari M, Bhat GV, Shenoy GG
    Mol. Divers., 2018 Nov 14.
    PMID: 30430400 DOI: 10.1007/s11030-018-9889-1
    A series of novel 2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-4-phenoxyphenyl)-6-(4-substituted phenyl) nicotinonitriles were synthesized and evaluated against HepG2, A-549 and Vero cell lines. Compounds 3b (IC50 16.74 ± 0.45 µM) and 3p (IC50 10.57 ± 0.54 µM) were found to be the most active compounds against A-549 cell line among the evaluated compounds. Further 3b- and 3p-induced apoptosis was characterized by AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) nuclear staining method and also by DNA fragmentation study. A decrease in cell viability and initiation of apoptosis was clearly evident through the morphological changes in the A-549 cells treated with 3b and 3p when stained with this method. Fragmentation of DNA into nucleosomes was observed which further confirmed the cell apoptosis in cells treated with compound 3b. Flow cytometry studies confirmed the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in A549 cells treated with compound 3b. Further in silico studies performed supported the in vitro anticancer activity of these compounds as depicted by dock score and binding energy values.
  13. Ramli NSK, Giribabu N, Karim K, Salleh N
    J. Mol. Histol., 2018 Nov 14.
    PMID: 30430402 DOI: 10.1007/s10735-018-9804-1
    Precise regulation of vas deferens fluid volume which is important for sperm survival might be influenced by testosterone. In order to investigate changes in vas deferens fluid volume and aquoporins (AQP) isoforms expression under testosterone influence, orchidectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were given 125 and 250 µg/kg/day testosterone with or without flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker or finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor for seven consecutive days. Following treatment completion, vas deferens was perfused and changes in the fluid secretion rate and osmolality were determined in the presence of acetazolamide. Rats were then sacrificed and vas deferens was harvested for histology, tissue expression and distribution analyses of AQP-1, AQP-2, AQP-5, AQP-7 and AQP-9 proteins by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our findings indicate that testosterone causes vas deferens fluid secretion rate to increase, which was antagonized by acetazolamide. Fluid osmolality increased following testosterone treatment and further increased when acetazolamide was given. Co-administration of flutamide or finasteride with testosterone causing both fluid secretion rate and osmolality to decrease. Histology revealed increased size of vas deferens lumen with increased thickness of vas deferens stroma. Expression of AQP-1, AQP-2 and AQP-9 were detected in vas deferens but not AQP-5 and AQP-7, and the levels of these proteins were increased by testosterone treatment mainly at the apical membrane of vas deferens epithelium. In conclusion, increased in vas deferens fluid secretion rate under testosterone influence mediated via the up-regulation of AQP-1, 2 and 9 might be important for vas deferens fluid homeostasis in order to ensure normal male fertility.
  14. Chongmelaxme B, Phisalprapa P, Sawangjit R, Dilokthornsakul P, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Pharmacoeconomics, 2018 Nov 15.
    PMID: 30430467 DOI: 10.1007/s40273-018-0736-0
    INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated lifetime liver-related clinical outcomes, costs of treatment, and the cost-effectiveness of treatment options for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Thailand.

    METHODS: A cost-utility analysis using a lifetime Markov model was conducted among Thai patients with NAFLD, from a societal perspective. Pioglitazone, vitamin E, a weight reduction program, and usual care were investigated, with the outcomes of interest being the number of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), lifetime costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: When compared with usual care, a weight reduction program can prevent cirrhosis and HCC cases by 13.91% (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.97, 20.59) and 2.12% (95% CrI 0.43, 4.56), respectively; pioglitazone can prevent cirrhosis and HCC cases by 9.30% (95% CrI -2.52, 15.24) and 1.42% (95% CrI -0.18, 3.74), respectively; and vitamin E can prevent cirrhosis and HCC cases by 7.32% (95% CrI -4.64, 15.56) and 1.12% (95% CrI -0.81, 3.44), respectively. Estimated incremental life expectancy and incremental QALYs for all treatment options compared with usual care were approximately 0.06 years and 0.07 QALYs, respectively. The lifetime costs of both a weight reduction program and pioglitazone were less than usual care, while vitamin E was $3050 (95% CrI 2354, 3650). The weight reduction program dominated all other treatment options. The probability of being cost-effective in Thailand's willingness-to-pay threshold ($4546/QALY gained) was 76% for the weight reduction program, 22% for pioglitazone, 2% for usual care, and 0% for vitamin E.

    CONCLUSIONS: A weight reduction program can prevent cirrhosis and HCC occurrences, and dominates all other treatment options. Pioglitazone and vitamin E demonstrated a trend towards decreasing the number of cirrhosis and HCC cases.

  15. Low TY, Mohtar MA, Ang MY, Jamal R
    Proteomics, 2018 Nov 15.
    PMID: 30431238 DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201800235
    Understanding the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes is essential to disentangle biological mechanisms and to unravel the molecular basis of diseases. Genes and proteins are closely linked in biological systems. However, genomics and proteomics have developed separately into two distinct disciplines whereby crosstalk among scientists from the two domains has been limited and this constrains the integration of both fields into a single data modality of useful information. The emerging field of proteogenomics attempts to address this by building bridges between the two disciplines. In this review, we briefly discuss how genomics and transcriptomics data in different formats can be utilized to assist proteogenomics application. Subsequently, a much larger part of this review focuses on proteogenomics research that are published in the last five years that answer two important questions. Firstly, we discuss how proteogenomics can be applied to tackle biological problems, covering genome annotation and precision medicine. Secondly, we cover the latest developments in analytical technologies for data acquisition and the bioinformatics tools to interpret and visualize proteogenomics data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    MeSH terms: Copyright; Genotype; Phenotype; Proteins; Computational Biology; Genomics; Databases, Genetic; Proteomics; Precision Medicine; Proteogenomics
  16. Valdiani A, Hansen OK, Nielsen UB, Johannsen VK, Shariat M, Georgiev MI, et al.
    PMID: 30431379 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2018.1489778
    Bioreactors are engineered systems capable of supporting a biologically active situation for conducting aerobic or anaerobic biochemical processes. Stability, operational ease, improved nutrient uptake capacity, time- and cost-effectiveness, and large quantities of biomass production, make bioreactors suitable alternatives to conventional plant tissue and cell culture (PTCC) methods. Bioreactors are employed in a wide range of plant research, and have evolved over time. Such technological progress, has led to remarkable achievements in the field of PTCC. Since the classification of bioreactors has been extensively reviewed in numerous reviews, the current article avoids repeating the same material. Alternatively, it aims to highlight the principal advances in the bioreactor hardware s used in PTCC rather than classical categorization. Furthermore, our review summarizes the most significant steps as well as current state-of-the-art of PTCC carried out in various types of bioreactor.
    MeSH terms: Biochemical Phenomena; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Technology; Biomass; Cell Culture Techniques; Bioreactors; Tissue Culture Techniques
  17. Guo G, Zhang W, Dang M, Yan M, Chen Z
    PMID: 30431692 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.22268
    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is observed in breast cancer. The major snag faced by the human population is the development of chemoresistance to HER2 inhibitors by advanced stage breast cancer cells. Moreover, recent researchers focussed on fisetin as an antiproliferative and chemotherapeutic agent. Therefore, this study was intended to analyze the effects of fisetin on HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Our results depicted that fisetin induced apoptosis of these cells by various mechanisms, such as inactivation of the receptor, induction of proteasomal degradation, decreasing its half-life, decreasing enolase phosphorylation, and alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling.
  18. Nabi FG, Sundaraj K, Lam CK, Palaniappan R
    Comput. Biol. Med., 2018 Nov 02;104:52-61.
    PMID: 30439599 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2018.10.035
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate and classify wheeze sounds of asthmatic patients according to their severity level (mild, moderate and severe) using spectral integrated (SI) features.

    METHOD: Segmented and validated wheeze sounds were obtained from auscultation recordings of the trachea and lower lung base of 55 asthmatic patients during tidal breathing manoeuvres. The segments were multi-labelled into 9 groups based on the auscultation location and/or breath phases. Bandwidths were selected based on the physiology, and a corresponding SI feature was computed for each segment. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were then performed to investigate the discriminatory behaviour of the features with respect to the severity levels in the various groups. The asthmatic severity levels in the groups were then classified using the ensemble (ENS), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (KNN) methods.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: All statistical comparisons exhibited a significant difference (p 

  19. Wang M, Chittiboyina AG, Parcher JF, Ali Z, Ford P, Zhao J, et al.
    Planta Med., 2018 Nov 15.
    PMID: 30440078 DOI: 10.1055/a-0782-0548
    The growing demand and commercial value of black pepper (Piper nigrum) has resulted in considerable interest in developing suitable and cost-effective methods for chemical characterization and quality evaluation purposes. In the current study, an extensive set of oil samples (n = 23) that were extracted by steam distillation from black pepper seeds was investigated to compare the chemical profiles of samples originating from nine major producing countries, as well as to identify potential chemical markers for quality evaluation. The twenty-two most abundant volatile compounds, mainly terpenes, in these oils were determined by conventional GC/MS analysis. Principal component analysis with this set of data revealed distinct clusters for samples that originated from China and Malaysia. Relatively low concentrations of sabinene (
  20. Hassan N, Ahmad T, Zain NM
    J. Food Sci., 2018 Nov 15.
    PMID: 30440088 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14370
    The issue of food authenticity has become a concern among religious adherents, particularly Muslims, due to the possible presence of nonhalal ingredients in foods as well as other commercial products. One of the nonhalal ingredients that commonly found in food and pharmaceutical products is gelatin which extracted from porcine source. Bovine and fish gelatin are also becoming the main commercial sources of gelatin. However, unclear information and labeling regarding the actual sources of gelatin in food and pharmaceutical products have become the main concern in halal authenticity issue since porcine consumption is prohibited for Muslims. Hence, numerous analytical methods involving chemical and chemometric analysis have been developed to identify the sources of gelatin. Chemical analysis techniques such as biochemical, chromatography, electrophoretic, and spectroscopic are usually combined with chemometric and mathematical methods such as principal component analysis, cluster, discriminant, and Fourier transform analysis for the gelatin classification. A sample result from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, which combines Fourier transform and spectroscopic technique, is included in this paper. This paper presents an overview of chemical and chemometric methods involved in identification of different types of gelatin, which is important for halal authentication purposes.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Cattle; Chromatography; Electrophoresis; Food; Fourier Analysis; Gelatin; Islam; Swine; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared; Principal Component Analysis
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