Most studies highlight mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) extracted primarily from bone marrow (BM), very few report the use of peripheral blood (PB), often due to the associated low seeding density and difficulties with extraction techniques. As ageing populations are becoming more predominant globally, together with escalating demands for MSC transplantation and tissue regeneration, obtaining quality MSCs suitable for induced differentiation and biological therapies becomes increasingly important. In this study, BM and PB were obtained from elderly patients and extracted MSCs grown in vitro to determine their successful isolation and expansion. Patients' socio-demographic background and other medical information were obtained from medical records. Successful and failed cultures were correlated with key demographic and medical parameters. A total of 112 samples (BM or PB) were used for this study. Of these, 50 samples (44.6%) were successfully cultured according to standardised criteria with no signs of contamination. Our comparative analyses demonstrated no statistical correlation between successful MSC cultures and any of the six demographic or medical parameters examined, including sample quantity, age, sex, race, habits and underlying comorbidities of sample donors. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that typical demographics and comorbidities do not influence successful MSC isolation and expansion in culture.
MeSH terms: Aged; Aging; Biological Therapy; Bone Marrow; Bone Marrow Cells; Cell Differentiation; Demography; Habits; Humans; Medical Records; Wound Healing
Despite significant advances in medicine, death remains a certainty for every living human being. End-of-life care decision-making is not made easier in a multi-cultural and multi-religious society like Malaysia. As such, planning for one's death by making Advance Decisions can be immensely valuable as it can help healthcare providers in Malaysia to understand better the preferences and wishes of their patients. However, compared to other countries, there is currently no specific legislation on any form of Advance Decisions in Malaysia despite many doctors voicing a need for them. Unlike the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in the UK, the Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 does not cover all instances of incapacity and only applies to those who suffer from a mental disorder as defined in the Act. In the absence of legislation, one could look to ethical guidelines, especially from the Malaysian Medical Council, but find that this can sometimes be problematic. It is argued that a concerted effort involving all relevant parties is required to develop a pragmatic and viable Advance Decisions frameworkl in Malaysia.
Blastocystis is one of the most common parasites inhabiting the intestinal tract of human and animals. Currently, human Blastocystis isolates are classified into nine subtypes (STs) based on the phylogeny of their small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Although its pathogenicity remains controversial, the possibility of zoonotic transmission was recognized since eight of the nine STs (except for ST9) have been reported in both humans and animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolated from humans and associated animals in an indigenous community with poor hygiene in Malaysia, where the risk of parasitic infection is high. A total of 275 stool samples were collected, subjected to DNA extraction and amplified by PCR assay. The Blastocystis-positive amplicons were then purified and sequenced. Phylogenetic tree of positive isolates, reference strains and outgroup were constructed using maximum likelihood method based on Hasegawa-KishinoYano+G+I model. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection among humans and domestic animals by PCR assay were 18.5% (45/243) and 6.3% (2/32), respectively. Through molecular phylogeny, 47 isolates were separated into five clusters containing isolates from both hosts. Among human isolates, ST3 (53.3%) was the predominant subtype, followed by ST1 (31.1%) and ST2 (15.6%). Chicken and cattle had lower proportions of ST6 (50%) and ST10 (50%), that were barely seen in humans. The distinct distributions of the most important STs among the host animals as well as humans examined demonstrate that there is various host-specific subtypes in the lifecycle of Blastocystis.
Chloroquine resistance transporter of Plasmodium falciparum (PfCRT) is a food vacuolar transmembrane protein that mediates susceptibility of the parasite to chloroquine. A mutation at K76T of the Pfcrt gene is a key determinant for chloroquine resistance phenotype. In the absence of drug pressure, in vitro growth rate of chloroquine-resistance parasites was outcompeted by wild-type parasites unless intragenic compensatory mutations occurred. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum bearing the Cam734 haplotype known to circulate in endemic areas of Cambodia bordering Thailand contains 9 mutations in Pfcrt and exhibits both chloroquine resistance and comparable growth rate to the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. To analyze the evolution of the Cam734 haplotype, codon-based analysis was performed by using the mixed effects model of evolution (MEME), branch-site random effects likelihood (BR-REL) and other related methods. Results revealed that the Cam734 haplotype has evolved distinctively from other known mutant haplotypes including the most common Dd2 haplotype in Southeast Asia. Evidence of episodic positive selection was detected at codon 144, characterized by c.[430G>T; 431C>T] (p.A144F), known to be indispensable for both chloroquine resistance and restoration of growth rate of the parasites. To survey the prevalence of mutations at codons 76 and 144 in Pfcrt among Thai isolates, restriction fragment analysis of 548 P. falciparum isolates collected from six endemic provinces of Thailand during 1991 and 2016 was performed. The 144F Pfcrt mutant was detected in 7 (1.28%) isolates. All Thai isolates analyzed herein harbored a mutation at codon 76 whilst the wild-type parasite was not found. The low prevalence of isolates bearing the mutation 144F in PfCRT could imply little or lack of survival advantage of this mutant in endemic areas of Thailand where the wild-type parasites seem to be absent or extremely rare.
Despite the public health importance of Culex pipiens pipiens, their resistance to pirimiphos-methyl insecticides has not been explored enough. Late third and early fourth larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens were collected from three localities between 2003 and 2005 in Northern and Southern Tunisia. All bioassays were carried out using pirimiphosmethyl and propoxur insecticides. Populations of Culex pipiens pipiens were susceptible, moderate and resistant to pirimiphos-methyl insecticide. Resistance to this compound ranged from 2.62 in sample # 2 to 19.9 in sample # 1. The moderate resistance (5.25) was recorded in sample # 3. Synergist's tests showed that the resistance to pirimiphos-methyl was not affected by detoxification enzymes. However, biochemical assays showed the involvement of both metabolic (esterases) and target site (insensitive acetylcholinesterase) resistance mechanisms. The highest frequencies of the resistant phenotypes ([RS] and [RR]) (<0.74) were detected in the most resistant samples (#1). Four esterases enzymes including C1 encoded by the Est-1 locus and three esterases encoded by the Ester super locus: A2-B2, A4-B4 (or A5-B5, which has the same electrophoretic mobility) and B12 were detected. The highest (0.61) and the lowest (0.22) frequencies of these esterases were recorded in samples # 1 (Sidi Hcine) and # 2 (El Fahs) which recorded the highest and the lowest level of resistance, respectively. Monitoring of insecticide resistance should be evaluated regularly for management of vector control.
Resistant and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains are considered to be one of the major causes of foodborne diseases due to the consumption of sweet. The present research was done to study the distribution of enterotoxin types, enterotoxigenic genes and antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aureus strains isolated from traditional sweet samples. Eight-hundred and fifteen sweet samples were cultured and S. aureus strains were identified. Antibiotic resistance, enterotoxigenicity and enterotoxigenic gene profile were studied using disk diffusion, Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay and PCR, respectively. One-hundred and seven out of 815 (13.12%) sweet samples were positive for S. aureus. Prevalence of S. aureus in dried and semi-dried sweet samples were 15.08% and 11.13%, respectively (P <0.05). Forty-six out of 107 S. aureus strains (42.99%) were determined as enterotoxigenic. A (41.30%) and C (17.39%) were the most commonly detected enterotoxin types. Sea (20.56%), sec (14.95%) and seb (11.21%) were the most commonly detected enterotoxigenic genes. There were no positive sample for the sej enterotoxin gene. S. aureus strains harbored the highest prevalence of resistance against penicillin (88.78%), tetracycline (83.17%), ceftaroline (75.70%) and doxycycline (71.02%). Simultaneous presence of enterotoxins and enterotoxigenic genes in multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains indicates important public health issue regarding the consumption of contaminated traditional sweet samples.
High-fat diet (HFD) can cause hyperlipidemia, fatty liver and cardiovascular disorders. Herein, we evaluated therapeutic effects and possible underlying mechanisms of actions of Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) against experimental HFD induced dyslipidemia, hepatic and cardiovascular pathology. Forty Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (10 each); mice fed standard diet (SD), mice fed HFD, mice fed HFD for 8 weeks then infected by S. mansoni cercaria (HFD+I) and mice fed HFD for 8 weeks then treated with SEA (HFD+SEA), all mice were euthanized 16 weeks after starting the experiment. HFD+SEA mice showed significantly (p<0.001) reduced total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG), and significantly (p<0.05) increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) comparing to HFD mice with non-significant difference with HFD+I mice group. Doppler flowmetry showed significantly (p<0.01) lower arterial resistance and significantly (p<0.05) higher blood flow velocity in HFD+SEA and HFD+I mice groups than HFD mice. HFD+SEA mice revealed improving in liver and aortic pathology and these were better than HFD+I mice group. HFD+SEA and HFD+I mice groups had less myocardium lipid deposits, but still showing some congested blood vessels. HFD myocardium revealed strong CD34+ expression on immunohistochemistry study, while that of HFD+SEA showed weak and HFD+I mice had moderate expressions. HFD+SEA mice had significantly (p<0.01) lower serum IL-1β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and significantly (p<0.001) higher serum transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and IL-10 than HFD mice with non-significant difference with HFD+I mice. In conclusion, SEA lowered serum lipids, improved aortic function, decreased liver and cardiovascular pathology in HFD mice, so, it is recommended to purify active molecules from SEA to develop anti-dyslipidemic treatment.
During pregnancy, Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted from mother to foetus and trigger a primary infection that may be symptomatic. It is important to distinguish between recently acquired and past infections to ensure proper treatment to minimize irreversible foetal injury. We used PCR of the B1 gene to evaluate the accuracy of T. gondii IgG antibody avidity testing in discriminating recent from past infection. In a cross-sectional study, T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were detected by enzyme linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) in 2120 serum samples from pregnant women referred to Karaj medical laboratories, February 2013 through March 2015 with 40 samples found positive. IgM-positive samples were evaluated by IgG avidity testing and PCR to amplify the B1 gene. Avidity studies indicated 20 samples with high IgG avidity, 15 with low IgG avidity, and five showing borderline values. The B1 gene was amplified in the borderline samples, with nine of the 15 showing low avidity. The B1 gene was not amplified in the high avidity sera. Our findings suggest that IgG avidity alone may not be sufficient to discriminate recent from past T. gondii infection and should not be used as the sole confirmatory test in pregnant women with IgG and IgM T. gondii antibodies. IgG avidity testing in combination with PCR may be more reliable for distinguishing between high- and low-risk infection and decrease the frequency of unnecessary treatment of pregnant women.
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are among the most important infectious diseases in Iran. A cross sectional study was designed to determine frequency of intestinal parasites among referrals to a large teaching hospital in Khuzestan, Southwest of Iran, 2017. A total number of 5613 stool samples were examined through direct smear and formalin-ether concentration methods to detect possible parasitic infections. Samples consisted of 2643 (47.09%) male and 2970 (52.91%) female. A total of 1468 (26.15%) samples were positive (13.11% male and 13.4% female) and 4145 (73.85%) were negative. The results also showed that 255 of samples had more than one type of parasite (mix infections). Counting single and mix parasite infections, the total number of positive cases reached to 1723. Helminthes parasites were present in 12 (0.7%) cases, while intestinal protozoan parasites were in 1711 (99.3%) cases. Almost equally, pathogenic and nonpathogenic parasites infected 860 (49.91%) and 863 (50.09%) of patients, respectively. The frequency for helminthes was determined at 0.52% with Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis however, Giardia lamblia in 38.54% and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar at 10.68% were concluded as protozoa elements. The IPIs frequency was recorded in female and male patients at 49.16% and 50.14%, respectively. According to the current results the infection rate of intestinal parasites has been significantly reduced especially for helminths infections in this region possibly due to public attention to health issues such as; increased awareness of people, improvement of sanitation, seasonal variations, health education and personal hygiene.
Coccidiosis is one of the most dangerous diseases that affect poultry, resulting in worldwide economic losses. Plant extracts and essential oils have been used as potential alternatives for chemotherapeutics, because they don't have the negative consequence of creating tissue residue and drug resistance. Therefore, this study had been conducted to determine the efficacy of artemisinin liquid extract, cinnamon essential oil and clove essential oil against Eimeria stiedae in rabbits. Sixty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six equal groups, where group 1 and group 2 represented the negative and the positive controls, respectively, and groups 3-6 were infected with Eimeria stiedae and received 15 ppm toltrazuril, 200 ppm artemisinin, 100 mg/kg cinnamon oil, and 100 mg/kg clove oil, respectively. The results showed that artemisinin had a significant beneficial role in protection against hepatic coccidiosis: it mitigated the clinical symptoms, reduced the mortality rates, improved body weight and feed conversion, decreased the oocyst output, prevented oxidative stress, improved biochemical parameters, and decreased the lesion formation. Moreover, it has been found that cinnamon and clove essential oils induced partial protection against hepatic coccidiosis. Our findings suggested that artemisinin liquid extract and cinnamon and clove essential oils could be used for protection against hepatic coccidiosis. However, further investigations are needed in order to elucidate the active components, optimal doses, and mode of action of these extracts and essential oils before their clinical applications.
Cryptosporidium parasites can infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including reptiles, mammals, and birds. Due to the zoonotic nature of cryptosporidiosis and its close contact with exotic birds and humans, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in exotic birds of southwest of Iran, by the staining and molecular methods. In the present research, 369 stool specimens were randomly collected from exotic birds and stained by modified acid-fast stain using Ziehl-Neelsen method. The slides were examined using light microscopy at a magnification of 100X. Then, the extracted DNA was amplified using the PCR method. Finally, all genotypes and positive samples from PCR assay were sequenced by Bioneer Company (Daejeon, South Korea). Among 369 stool specimens, 25 and 27 cases were found to be positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and the PCR methods, respectively. Based on the genotyping, C. avian genotype III and C. meleagridis were detected in 25 and 2 stool samples, respectively. The results revealed a relatively high prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in exotic birds in the southwest of Iran. Due to the zoonotic nature of C. meleagridis, these exotic birds can be a significant source of cryptosporidiosis. It is important that high-risk people, including immune-deficient patients, receive correct information about the risk of indirect and direct contact with infected exotic birds.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) dhangi sp. nov., S. (G.) sumbaense sp. nov. and S. (Nevermannia) wayani sp. nov. are described from the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. Simulium (G.) sumbaense sp. nov. is placed in the S. varicorne species-group and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight filaments arranged as (1+1+1+1+2)+2 from dorsal to ventral, while S. (G.) dhangi sp. nov., unplaced to group, is characterized by the pupal gill composed of two inflated trunks and four slender filaments all arising basally, and the short larval antenna as long as the stem of the labral fan. Simulium (N.) wayani sp. nov. belongs to the S. ruficorne species-group and is characterized by the female spermatheca with an unsclerotized neck, and pupal gill with four inflated filaments. The number of species of black flies from the archipelago increases from 19 to 22.
Simulium chayamaritae Takaoka and Srisuka from Thailand belongs to the Simulium darjeelingense species-group of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae). The female of this species is described for the first time based on a female reared from a pupa collected from Chiang Mai, Thailand. It is characterized by the sensory vesicle elongate and the inner margins of the arms of the genital fork divergent, then convergent apically. It is similar to the female of S. eshimai Takaoka and Adler of the same speciesgroup from Vietnam. Taxonomic notes are given to separate it from two other species of the S. darjeelingense species-group from India and Malaysia, and 28 of 31 other species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia recorded from Thailand.
Co-infection with multiple different parasites is a common phenomenon in both human and animals. Among parasites that frequently co-infect the same hosts, are the filarial worms and malaria parasites. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between these parasites is still relatively unexplored with very few studies available on the resulting pathologies due to co-infection by filarial nematodes and malaria parasites. Hence, this study investigated the histopathological effect of Brugia pahangi and Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infections in gerbil host. Gerbils grouped into B. pahangi-infected, PbA-infected, B. pahangi and PbA-coinfected, and uninfected control, were necropsied at different time points of post PbA infections. Brugia pahangi infections in the gerbils were first initiated by subcutaneous inoculation of 50 infective larvae, while PbA infections were done by intraperitoneal injection of 106 parasitized red blood cells after 70 days patent period of B. pahangi. Organs such as the lungs, kidneys, spleen, heart and liver were harvested aseptically at the point of necropsy. There was significant hepatosplenomegaly observed in both PbA-infected only and coinfected gerbils. The spleen, liver and lungs were heavily pigmented. Both B. pahangi and PbA infections (mono and coinfections) resulted in pulmonary edema, while glomerulonephritis was associated with PbA infections. The presence of both parasites induced extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and liver. These findings suggest that the pathologies associated with coinfected gerbils were synergistically induced by both B. pahangi and PbA infections.
This paper reports total nematode anthelmintic resistance towards albendazole, fenbendazole, levamisole and ivermectin in a commercial sheep farm located in Terengganu, Malaysia. Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) was conducted on 25 sheep, where five sheep in each group were treated with the respective four anthelmintics based on live bodyweight. The balance of five sheep placed in the control group were not treated with any anthelmintics. At day 13 post-treatment, faecal egg count was conducted and nematode worm egg count reduction percentage was calculated to determine the resistance status towards the respective anthelmintics tested. Results showed that nematodes were resistant to all the anthelmintics tested, namely albendazole, fenbendazole, levamisole and ivermectin with reduction percentage of 87%, 46%, 94% and 68%, respectively. Subsequently, the third stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis recovered from post-treatment faecal cultures were subjected to allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) assay to determine the presence of the benzimidazole resistance gene. This study reports the occurrence of the classical F200Y mutation in the isotype 1 βtubulin gene, for the first time in Malaysia.
Studies on parasite populations in Antarctic soils are scarce and thus little is known about the threat of these parasites towards either the natural fauna or human visitors. However, human presence in Antarctica, mainly through research and tourism, keeps increasing over time, potentially exposing visitors to zoonotic infections from Antarctic wildlife and environment. Most available literature to date has focused on faecal samples from Antarctic vertebrates. Therefore, this study addressed the possible presence of parasites in Antarctic soil that may be infectious to humans. Soil samples were obtained from five locations on Signy Island (South Orkney Islands, maritime Antarctic), namely North Point and Gourlay Peninsula (penguin rookeries), Pumphouse (relic coal-powered pump house), Jane Col (barren high altitude fellfield) and Berntsen Point (low altitude vegetated fellfield close to current research station). Approximately 10% of the soil samples (14/135) from 3 out of the 5 study sites had parasites which included Diphyllobotridae spp. eggs, Cryptosporidium sp., an apicomplexan protozoa (gregarine), Toxoplasma gondii, helminths (a cestode, Tetrabothrius sp., and a nematode larva) and mites. The presence of parasites in the 3 sites are most likely due to the presence of animal and human activities as two of these sites are penguin rookeries (North Point and Gourlay Peninsula) while the third site (Pumphouse Lake) has human activity. While some of the parasite species found in the soil samples appear to be distinctive, there were also parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma gondii that have a global distribution and are potentially pathogenic.
T. gondii is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients which may be transmitted through blood transfusion. The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and molecular detection of T. gondii infection and the associated risk factors among young healthy blood donors in the central part of Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Blood samples were taken from 500 participants and the serum was separated. All serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies (IgG) and then all positive samples were evaluated for IgM antibodies using commercial ELISA kits. All IgM positive samples and 66 randomly selected IgG positive samples were further tested by PCR of the REP-529 gene. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG) avidity test was performed for 142 IgG positive samples which were randomly selected. In the current study, anti-T. gondii antibodies (IgG) and (IgM) were found in 316 (63.2%) and 3 (0.95 %) participants, respectively. Seropositivity rate of Toxoplasma was higher among blood donors living in rural areas (P=0.000) and those with a history of soil and animal contact (P<0.05). PCR of the REP-529 gene showed T. gondii DNA in 21 out of 66 samples. The REP-529 gene was not detected in IgM positive samples. Low avidity antibodies (IgG) was found in 23.2% of the IgG positive samples. In conclusions, this study found that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among young healthy blood donors in north of Iran was high. To reduce the risk of parasite transmission, leukofilteration method are recommended for donated blood used for immunosuppressed patients.
Toxoplasmosis is a protozoal infection of zoonotic potential with worldwide geographical distribution which affects nearly all warm-blooded animals including mammals and birds. Keeping in view, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis along with associated risk factors and its haematological impacts in small ruminants of district Multan, Pakistan. In this study, a total of 250 sera samples collected from sheep (n=125) and goats (n=125) from three tehsils of Multan were examined using commercially available Latex agglutination test kit for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies. The haematological profiles of Toxoplasma seropositive and seronegative animals were determined by using automated haematology analyser. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in small ruminants was 42.80% with a higher prevalence rate (44.80%) in sheep as compared to goats (40.80%). Sex, existence of co-morbid conditions, feeding pattern and presence of pet cats and dogs were identified as significant (P<0.05) risk factors associated with the presence of antibodies against toxoplasmosis. The breed was found to be a significant (P=0.026) risk factor for the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in goats but not in sheep. Haematological analysis revealed significantly altered leukocytic counts (P<0.05) in seropositive sheep and goats as compared to seronegative ones. Our findings showed that small ruminants of the Multan District in Pakistan are toxoplasma seropositive and may pose a serious threat of public health concern in the region.
Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by inhalation of Histoplasma capsulatum, which is mainly found in bird and bat droppings. Oral manifestation of histoplasmosis may be the only initial manifestation of the disease or associated with chronic disseminated histoplasmosis. The first review of oral histoplasmosis among Malaysian population from 1967 to 1994 (27 years) revealed the occurrence of 37 cases, reported by Ng and Siar in 1996. This current study is the updated overview of oral histoplasmosis cases in Malaysia. The objective of the study was to review and describe clinical and demographic profile of oral histoplasmosis in Malaysia and to correlate histopathological features of oral histoplasmosis with patient's immunity status. We reviewed oral histoplasmosis cases diagnosed in Stomatology Unit, Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Kuala Lumpur from 1995 until 2016. The data was retrieved from the Oral Pathology Information system (OPIS) Stomatology Unit, IMR, which is the largest oral pathology database in Malaysia. Information regarding patients' sociodemographic data, medical illness, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and referring healthcare institutions was extracted from the clinical information which accompanied the biopsy request form. A total of 39 cases of oral histoplasmosis were identified from 1995-2016. Majority of them were male (89.7%). The age ranges from 29 to 85 years with mean age of 57.8 years. Almost half of them were Malays (51.3%), followed by Chinese (33.3%), Indians (7.7%), and other races (7.7%). The most common sites of oral histoplasmosis were tongue, gingiva, palate, and alveolar ridge. The main clinical presentation was ulcer (61.5%) whereas 38.5% presented clinically as swelling. 17.9% of patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 12.8% had tuberculosis, 10.3% had diabetes mellitus, and 2.6% with hepatitis C. The incidence of oral histoplasmosis should raise suspicion of hidden immunodepression and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Early recognition and diagnosis is crucial to reduce risk of morbidity and mortality.
MeSH terms: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alveolar Process; Animals; Biopsy; Birds; Chiroptera; Delivery of Health Care; Diabetes Mellitus; Gingiva; Hepatitis C; Histoplasma; Histoplasmosis; HIV; Humans; Information Systems; Malaysia; Male; Middle Aged; Mycoses; Palate; Pathology, Oral; Tongue; Tuberculosis; Ulcer; HIV Infections; Incidence; Oral Medicine; Biomedical Research; Asian Continental Ancestry Group
The medically important mosquito, Aedes albopictus is native to Asia and has become a major health concern in most Asian countries including Malaysia. Being recognized as a dengue vector, a clearer understanding of how mosquito populations are geographically connected, may therefore represent a profound yet significant understanding of control strategies. There are no documented reports on the genetic structure of Ae. albopictus populations from different developed settlements inferred from microsatellite DNA markers in Malaysia, particularly in Penang Island (Northern Peninsular Malaysia). Here, we assessed the molecular population genetics of Ae. albopictus in terms of their allelic variation, genetic diversity and population structure. A total of 42 mosquitoes were sampled from Jelutong, Batu Maung and Balik Pulau which represented urban, suburban and rural areas in Penang Island respectively and analysed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci. All of the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing low genetic structure among geographic populations (FST= 0.0362). It is supported with admixture individuals observed in STRUCTURE and FCA and this suggests that high gene flow has been experienced between populations. These findings implicate passive dispersal through human-aided transportation; as a factor shaping the genetic structure of Ae. albopictus populations in Penang Island.