In recent years, the development of hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan (HA) based scaffolds, medical devices, bioconjugate systems have expanded into a broad range of research and clinical applications. Research findings over the last two decades suggest that the abundance of HA in most mammalian tissues with distinctive biological roles and chemical simplicity for modifications have made it an attractive material with a rapidly growing global market. Besides its use as native forms, HA has received much interest on so-called "HA-bioconjugates" and "modified-HA systems". In this review, the importance of chemical modifications of HA, underlying rationale approaches, and various advancements of bioconjugate derivatives with their potential physicochemical, and pharmacological advantages are summarized. This review also highlights the current and emerging HA-based conjugates of small molecules, macromolecules, crosslinked systems, and surface coating strategies with their biological implications, including their potentials and key challenges discussed in detail.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.