The aim of this paper is to report three cases of congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) of different anatomical varieties: (1) stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) involving the lower third of the esophagus; (2) fibromuscular stenosis (FMS) of the middle third; and (3) a membranous diaphragm (MD) involving the lower third. The first two patients were treated by segmental resection of the esophagus and end-to-end anastomosis with dramatic relief of symptoms. The third responded to dilatation. CES is a rare lesion, and about 500 cases are reported in the literature. CES due to TBR and fibromuscular hypertrophy is considered a segmental stenosis, as it involves a length of the esophageal wall, whereas the MD consists of mucosal folds and does not involve its muscular layer. The clinical presentation is varied, and a high index of suspicion is essential to arrive at an early diagnosis. Management depends on the type and severity of the stenosis. Stenosis due to TBR requires segmental resection. FMS may respond to dilatation, but severe degrees of stenosis require segmental excision. MDs usually respond to dilatation or may require endoscopic excision. Segmental stenosis can occur as an isolated lesion or in association with esophageal atresia or stenosis due to a MD. Based on this observation, a classification of CES is proposed.
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