BACKGROUND: Metastatic tumours are more frequent in older individuals and can be the only sign/symptom of an undiagnosed primary malignancy.
CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old lady presented with an enlarging mandibular swelling. Incisional biopsy and imaging studies were suggestive of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Metastatic tumours should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mandibular swellings especially in older individuals.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present two cases of immunocompetent patients with long-standing, progressively enlarging parotid swelling. Postoperative histopathological examination of these patients revealed features of BLEC.
CONCLUSION: Wide surgical excision is the gold standard for treatment and recurrences is rare. These cases are of particular interest because of the rarity of BLEC in HIV-negative patients and highlight an important differential diagnosis of parotid swelling.
Methods: A total of 142 sera were used for kit evaluation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated by comparing rapid kit results with gold standard laboratory, microscopic agglutination test (MAT).
Results: We found this rapid kit to have a sensitivity and specificity of 66.6% and 78.9%, respectively, whereas the PPV and NPV of the kit appeared to be 73.3% and 73.2%, respectively.
Discussion: Test efficiency of this rapid kit is reasonable. It is specific in detecting leptospiral antibody and assures clinician of accurate diagnosis by having higher PPV and NPV. It is prompt and efficient in comparison with conventional methods in assisting differential diagnosis. High sensitivity and specificity leptospirosis rapid test is indeed a crucial measure to assist the diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 59 benign and malignant spindle cell tumours (18 MPNST and 41 of its histologic mimickers which included 10 schwannoma, 13 neurofibroma, 4 synovial sarcoma, 3 fibrosarcoma, 2 gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), 4 leiomyosarcoma, 1 spindle cell liposarcoma, 1 solitary fibrous tumour, 2 low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma and 1 unclassified spindle cell sarcoma), diagnosed from January 1998 to April 2018 in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) were tested for H3K27me3 by IHC. The MPNST histological grade was assessed based on the French Fe'de' ration Nationale des Centres de LutteContre le Cancer (FNCLCC) for 3 tiers system (low grade, intermediate grade and high grade). The clinicopathological data were retrieved from the patients' record.
RESULTS: A total of 61.1% (11/18 MPNST) showed loss of H3K27me3 expression which is statistically significant as compared to its histologic mimics (p<0.001). Similar findings (p=0.026) were also observed in high grade MPNST (81.8%), intermediate grade MPNST (100%) and 0% in low grade MPNST.
CONCLUSION: H3K27me3, combined with other panel of markers, is useful in MPNST diagnosis to differentiate it from the histological mimickers.