• 1 Institute of Engineering Mathematics, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia
  • 2 School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science &Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Mathematics, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Sci Rep, 2015;5:14640.
PMID: 26440761 DOI: 10.1038/srep14640


The paper deals with a stagnation-point boundary layer flow towards a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid where the flow and the sheet are not aligned. We used the Buongiorno model that is based on the Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis to describe the nanofluid in this problem. The main purpose of the present paper is to examine whether the non-alignment function has the effect on the problem considered when the fluid suction and injection are imposed. It is interesting to note that the non-alignment function can ruin the symmetry of the flows and prominent in the shrinking sheet. The fluid suction will reduce the impact of the non-alignment function of the stagnation flow and the stretching/shrinking sheet but at the same time increasing the velocity profiles and the shear stress at the surface. Furthermore, the effects of the pertinent parameters such as the Brownian motion, thermophoresis, Lewis number and the suction/injection on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are also taken into consideration. The numerical results are shown in the tables and the figures. It is worth mentioning that dual solutions are found to exist for the shrinking sheet.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.