• 1 Kubang Kerian Nursing College
  • 2 Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • 3 Universiti Sains Malaysia


Introduction: In Malaysian nursing education, concept mapping is not widely practiced among nurse
educators and students. Therefore, the researcher aims to develop and evaluate the impact of the
Rusnani Concept Mapping (RCM) protocol on academic achievement and clinical practices among
diploma nursing students. RCM is one of the teaching learning methods that specifies guidelines for
nurse educators to harmonise classroom and clinical setting methods. Method: RCM is a concept
mapping protocol guideline developed by the researcher and is validated with content and face validity
and the Delphi technique. The study design is quasi-experimental with two groups. The experimental
and control groups received education using RCM and the lecture method, respectively. Data were
analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics using paired t-tests. P values less than 0.05 were
interpreted as significant. Results: In the pre-test, the students taught using RCM had a mean
achievement score of 11.23 with and SD = 2.59, while at post-test, the mean achievement score was
13.19 with and SD = 1.71 and a mean gain score of 1.96. In contrast, students taught using lecture
method had a mean achievement score of 10.71 and SD = 2.23 in the pre-test and a mean score of
12.60, SD = 1.64 in post-test achievement with a mean gain score of 1.89. The post-test scores of the
experimental and control group were significantly different (t = 2.53, p < 0.05). The mean concept
mapping care plan score was 59.33 and 65.23, respectively, for the control group and experimental
group. The paired t-test revealed that there was a significant difference between experimental and
control groups, p value < 0.05. The result of students’ perceptions regarding concept mapping in the
experimental group showed as positive moderate with a mean score of 3.44. Conclusion: This study
provides additional evidence that RCM is instructionally valuable as a learning method and is an active
learning strategy for meaningful learning and motivating superior achievement in students.