• 1 Universiti Teknologi MARA


In this paper, a micropropagation protocol of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata Wurmb Merr) through callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was examined. Callus induction frequency and somatic embryogenesis response were dependent on plant growth regulators (PGRs) and genotype. Semi-compact and compact embryogenic calluses were induced from excised immature zygotic embryo (IZE) cultured on semi-solid MS (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with various concentration and combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyl aminopurine acid (BAP). MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP was found optimum to induce 100% rate of embryogenic calluses and maximum degree of callus formation after 8 and 12 weeks of culture. The incorporation of increased sucrose concentration (60.0 g/L) and 2.0 g/L casein hydrolysate (CH) to the culture medium with similar PGRs composition enhanced the induction of globular somatic embryos (SEs), while addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3) produced SEs of different stages. SEs maturated in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP and 1.0 mg/L naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) formed cotyledon-stage embryos. Clonal roots regeneration was obtained on half-strength MS devoid of PGRs after 4 months of culture. Frequent subcultures increased embryogenesis rate favourably.