Affiliations 

  • 1 Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. atsifa79@gmail.com
  • 2 Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. miaz1501@gmail.com
  • 3 Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. maulidiani@upm.edu.my
  • 4 Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. khozirah@yahoo.com.my
  • 5 Syamille Agrofarm & Resort Sdn. Bhd., Lot 3749 & 3750, Jalan Lata Perahu, Kampung Chuar Hulu, Mukim Chegar Galah, 33020 Kati, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia. zulkiflizamri@yahoo.com
  • 6 Syamille Agrofarm & Resort Sdn. Bhd., Lot 3749 & 3750, Jalan Lata Perahu, Kampung Chuar Hulu, Mukim Chegar Galah, 33020 Kati, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia. ctAteh18@yahoo.com
  • 7 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. alfikhatib@iium.edu.my
  • 8 Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. faridah_abas@upm.edu.my
  • 9 Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. lingyeesoon@ums.edu.my
  • 10 Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. lrlim92@gmail.com
  • 11 Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. safinar@upm.edu.my
Molecules, 2018 Aug 28;23(9).
PMID: 30154302 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092160

Abstract

The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

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