Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 123 in total

  1. Tan SJ, Ismail IS
    PMID: 32565853 DOI: 10.1155/2020/3582947
    A healthy diet should nourish the brain with essential nutrients, including bioactive compounds, for normal brain functioning and to protect it from the negative effects of inflammation and oxidative stress. In this review, a concise summation of the protective effects of selected fruits, namely, berries, grapes, and citrus fruits, against neurological disorder is presented. The focus is on the neuroprotective potential of these fruits against neurodegenerative and mental disorders. The fruits selection was based on the vast reported pharmacological studies on their neuroprotection efficacies. Hence, the respective knowledge and limitations are discussed based on the biological and pharmacological evidence compiled from the previously reported laboratory, epidemiology, and intervention trials.
  2. Ahmed KA, Muniandy S, Ismail IS
    J Clin Biochem Nutr, 2009 Jan;44(1):14-27.
    PMID: 19177184 DOI: 10.3164/jcbn.08-190
    In comparison to the general population, individuals with diabetes suffer a 3- to 4-fold increased risk for developing complications of atherosclerosis and vascular insufficiency. This fact should be taken into account to develop a suitable determinant for the early detection of these complications and subsequently reduce the adverse effect of type 2 diabetes. In vitro experiments have shown that the products of glucose auto-oxidation and Amadori adducts are both potential sources of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML). Excessive formation of CML on low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been proposed to be an important mechanism for the dyslipidemia and accelerated atherogenesis observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. It has been postulated that the uptake of CML-LDL by LDL receptors is impaired, thereby decreasing its clearance from the blood circulation. Alternatively, the uptake of these modified LDL particles by scavenger receptors on macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and by AGE receptors on endothelial cells, SMCs, and monocytes is highly enhanced and this, in turn, is centrally positioned to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications especially coronary artery disease. The present review summarizes the up-to-date information on effects and mechanism of type 2 diabetes-associated coronary atherosclerosis induced by CML-LDL modification.
  3. Muniandy S, Qvist R, Zaini A, Chinna K, Ismail IS
    PMID: 16295560
    The concentration of plasma sialic acid was estimated using the modified chemical method and the more sensitive enzymatic method in 20 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and 20 control subjects. The mean sialic acid concentration values of the control subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance using the enzymatic method were 1.747 +/- 0.047 and 2.583 +/- 0.070 mmole/l and 1.753 +/- 0.067 and 2.591 +/- 1.02 mmole/l for the chemical method. The intra-assay coefficient of variation for the control subjects and for the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were 1.963% and 1.583%, respectively, for the enzymatic assay and 2.728% and 2.431%, respectively, for the chemical assay. The inter-assay coefficient of variation for the control subjects and for the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were 2.686% and 2.723% for the enzymatic assay, and 3.819% and 3.95% for the chemical assay. Since the values do not differ significantly, the chemical assay is a cost effective method that can be used in large epidemiological studies.
  4. Mohd-Zain Z, Kamsani NH, Ismail IS, Ahmad N
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):372-80.
    PMID: 23018500 MyJurnal
    Prior to the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination worldwide, H. influenzae has been one of the main causative agents of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children. Due to the lack of information on the characteristics of the H. influenzae isolates that have previously been collected in Malaysia, the H. influenzae were assessed of their microbial susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. Emphasis was made on strains that were resistance to co-trimoxazole (SXT) and their mode of transfer of the antibiotic resistance determinants were examined. A collection of 34 H. influenzae isolates was serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed to 11 antibiotics. To the isolates that were found to be resistant to co-trimoxazole, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) to SXT was performed using Etest while agar dilution method was used to measure the individual MICs of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SUL). These isolates were also examined for presence of plasmid by PCR and isolation method. Conjugal transfers of SXT-resistant genes to SXT-susceptible hosts were performed to determine their rate of transfer. Result showed that 20.6% of the total number of isolates was serotype B while the remaining was non-typeable. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of all the isolates revealed that 58.8% was resistant to at least one antibiotic. Majority of these isolates were equally resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (29.4% each), followed by resistance to SXT (26.5%). From nine isolates that were found to be SXT-resistant, five contained plasmid/s. Conjugal transfer experiment showed that these five isolates with plasmid transferred SXT-resistance determinants at a higher frequency than those without. From these observations, it is postulated that plasmid is not involved in the transfer of SXT-resistance genes but presence of plasmid facilitates their transfer. The information obtained from this study provides some basic knowledge on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the H. influenzae isolates and their mode of transfer of SXT-resistance genes.
  5. Maulidiani, Rudiyanto, Abas F, Ismail IS, Lajis NH
    Food Chem, 2018 Jun 01;250:37-45.
    PMID: 29412925 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.01.023
    Optimization process is an important aspect in the natural product extractions. Herein, an alternative approach is proposed for the optimization in extraction, namely, the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE). The approach combines the Latin hypercube sampling, the feasible range of independent variables, the Monte Carlo simulation, and the threshold criteria of response variables. The GLUE method is tested in three different techniques including the ultrasound, the microwave, and the supercritical CO2 assisted extractions utilizing the data from previously published reports. The study found that this method can: provide more information on the combined effects of the independent variables on the response variables in the dotty plots; deal with unlimited number of independent and response variables; consider combined multiple threshold criteria, which is subjective depending on the target of the investigation for response variables; and provide a range of values with their distribution for the optimization.
  6. Ismail IS, Rashidi NA, Yusup S
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Feb;29(9):12434-12440.
    PMID: 34189693 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-15030-x
    Bamboo is the fastest-growing plant and is abundant in Malaysia. It is employed as a starting material for activated carbon production and evaluated for its potential in CO2 capture. A single-stage phosphoric acid (H3PO4) activation is adopted by varying the concentrations of H3PO4 between 50 and 70 wt.% at a constant temperature and holding time of 500°C and 120 min, respectively. The bamboo-based activated carbons are characterized in terms of product yield, surface area, and porosity, as well as surface chemistry properties. Referring to the experimental findings, the prepared activated carbons have BET surface area of >1000 m2 g-1, which implies the effectiveness of the single-stage H3PO4 activation. Furthermore, the prepared activated carbon via 50 wt.% H3PO4 activation shows the highest BET surface area and carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of 1.45 mmol g-1 at 25°C/1 bar and 9.0 mmol g-1 at 25°C/30 bar. With respect to both the characterization analysis and CO2 adsorption performance, it is concluded that bamboo waste conversion to activated carbon through H3PO4 activation method is indeed promising.
  7. Safi SZ, Qvist R, Yan GO, Ismail IS
    BMC Med Genomics, 2014;7:29.
    PMID: 24885710 DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-7-29
    Aberrant epigenetic profiles are concomitant with a spectrum of developmental defects and diseases. Role of methylation is an increasingly accepted factor in the pathophysiology of diabetes and its associated complications. This study aims to examine the correlation between oxidative stress and methylation of β1, β2 and β3-adrenergic receptors and to analyze the differential variability in the expression of these genes under hyperglycemic conditions.
  8. Mahmod II, Kwong HC, Mohamed Tahir MI, Ismail IS
    Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online, 2011 Dec 1;67(Pt 12):o3296.
    PMID: 22199798 DOI: 10.1107/S1600536811047337
    The title dammarane triterpenoid, C(30)H(50)O(4), assigned the name chrysura, was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Walsura chrysogyne leaves (Meliaceae). It has 20S*,24S* relative stereochemistry and an oxepanone ring with two methyl groups at position 4. The two cyclo-hexane rings adopt chair conformations. The cyclo-pentane and tetra-hydro-furan rings have envelope conformations; their mean planes make a dihedral angle of 13.1 (3)°, indicating that the rings are only slightly tilted with respect to each other. There is an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond in the mol-ecule, which forms S(6) and S(7) ring motifs. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [001] which stack along the b-axis direction.
  9. Kaviarasan S, Muniandy S, Qvist R, Ismail IS
    J Clin Biochem Nutr, 2009 Jul;45(1):1-8.
    PMID: 19590700 DOI: 10.3164/jcbn.08-266
    Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as one of the major underlying mechanisms behind many acute and chronic diseases. However, the measurement of free radicals or their end products is complicated. Isoprostanes, derived from the non-enzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid are now considered to be reliable biomarkers of oxidant stress in the human body. Isoprostanes are involved in many of the human diseases such as type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes elevated levels of F(2)-Isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs) have been observed. The measurement of bioactive F(2)-IsoPs levels offers a unique noninvasive analytical tool to study the role of free radicals in physiology, oxidative stress-related diseases, and acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. Measurement of oxidative stress by various other methods lacks specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to shed light on the implemention of F(2)-IsoPs measurement as a gold-standard biomarker of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetics.
  10. Qvist R, Ismail IS, Chinna K, Muniandy S
    Indian J Clin Biochem, 2008 Jul;23(3):246-9.
    PMID: 23105763 DOI: 10.1007/s12291-008-0055-x
    Although HbA(1C) is widely accepted as a useful index of mean blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients its usefulness as screening test for diabetes has been controversial. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the level of HbA(1C) predicted diabetes in a prediabetic group of subjects. Plasma lipids, oral glucose tolerance, HbA(1C) was determined in 90 normal control subjects, 57 offspring of one type 2 diabetes mellitus parent and 11 diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals. The mean age of participants was 44.5 yrs (not significantly different amongst the three groups) and the mean body mass index was 26.8 (not significantly different amongst the three groups). Two hours after a 75 g glucose challenge, the offspring had a significantly higher plasma glucose level (mean = 7.1 mmol/L, p value = 0.002) than the normals. Similarly the HbA(1C) values were higher in the offspring than in the normals (mean = 5.78%, p value = 0.016). Besides the significantly higher values for oral glucose tolerance test and HbA(1C), the diabetics also were significantly higher for triglycerides (mean = 2.25mmol/L), total cholesterol (mean = 6.24mmol/L) and systolic blood pressure (mean = 138.45mm Hg) than the offspring (P value = 0.031, 0.006, 0.010) and the normals (P value = 0.026, 0.018, 0.002) respectively. The mean values of diastolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were not significantly different amongst the three groups.
    Study site: Diabetic clinic, University of Malaya Medical centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  11. Narayanaswamy R, Isha A, Wai LK, Ismail IS
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2016 Jan;12(Suppl 1):S21-6.
    PMID: 27041853 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.176111
    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau has gained popularity among Malaysians as a traditional plant for anti-inflammatory activity.
  12. Lee SY, Mediani A, Ismail IS, Maulidiani, Abas F
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Jan 07;19(1):7.
    PMID: 30616569 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2413-4
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant cultivated as vegetable in Southeast Asia. Previous works have revealed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Continuing our interest on this plant, the present work is focused in identification of the bioactive compounds from different polarity fractions of N. oleracea, namely hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EF) and methanol (MF).

    METHODS: The N. oleracea fractions were obtained using solid phase extraction (SPE). A metabolomics approach that coupled the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was applied to distinguish the metabolite variations among the N. oleracea fractions, as well as to assess the correlation between metabolite variation and the studied bioactivities (DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities). The bioactive fractions were then subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to profile and identify the potential bioactive constituents.

    RESULTS: The principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated EF and MF from the other fractions with the higher distributions of phenolics. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed a strong correlation between the phenolics and the studied bioactivities in the EF and the MF. The UHPLC-MS/MS profiling of EF and MF had tentatively identified the phenolics present. Together with some non-phenolic metabolites, a total of 37 metabolites were tentatively assigned.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this work supported that N. oleracea is a rich source of phenolics that can be potential antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors for the management of diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the metabolite-bioactivity correlation and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of N. oleracea fractions.

  13. Hong X, Ajat M, Fakurazi S, Noor AM, Ismail IS
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2021 Mar 25;268:113647.
    PMID: 33271242 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113647
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser (locally known as 'Dedalu' or 'dian nan ji sheng' in Malaysia and China) is a hemi-parasitic shrub that is widely used as herbal medicine to treat inflammation, rheumatism, and stroke. However, the scientific basis of its anti-inflammatory function and mechanism remain to be proven.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity as well as the preliminary mechanism of S. ferruginea parasitizing on Tecoma stans.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-inflammatory capability of freeze-dried stem aqueous extract was assessed via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism was deciphered through reverse transcriptase and real time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR and qPCR) for inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNA expression.

    RESULTS: The results exhibited that aqueous extract of freeze-dried S. ferruginea stem sample concentration-dependently inhibited IL-1β protein production along with the down regulation of iNOS and IL-1β mRNA expression. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the protein release of IL-6 and IL-10 in a concentration-dependent manner. However, it slightly reduced TNF-α at higher sample concentration (250 μg/mL) without affecting the mRNA expression levels of COX-2 and TNF-α.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that S. ferruginea parasitizing on Tecoma stans exerted anti-inflammatory capability attributed to inhibition of iNOS and IL-1β mRNA expression, NO creation, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α protein production, indicating this plant might be a useful plant-derived candidate against inflammation.

  14. Kadir NAAA, Azlan A, Abas F, Ismail IS
    Foods, 2021 Jan 27;10(2).
    PMID: 33513823 DOI: 10.3390/foods10020262
    Dabai pulp oil (DPO) is new oil extracted from the pulp of Canarium odontophyllum. The quality and efficacy of DPO are needed to promote its potential as a new alternative fat. Therefore, we investigate the quality of DPO, which includes moisture and volatile content (MVC), free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), and peroxide value (PV). Furthermore, we evaluate the efficacy of DPO against hypercholesterolemia elicited by a high-cholesterol diet in rats. The MVC of DPO was <0.001 ± 0.00%. Next, the FFA in DPO was 2.57 ± 0.03%, and the IV of DPO was 53.74 ± 0.08 g iodine/100 g oil. Meanwhile, the PV of DPO was 4.97 ± 0.00 mEq/kg. Supplementation of DPO in hypercholesterolemic rats for 30 days revealed the hypocholesterolemic effect (significant reduction of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) accompanied by a significant reduction of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α), and lipid peroxidation (MDA). We also observed a significant improvement of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and antioxidant capacities (total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) of the rats. The results on the quality and efficacy of locally made DPO suggest its potential use as a healthy alternative fat in the future.
  15. Kadir NAAA, Azlan A, Abas F, Ismail IS
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 28;26(3).
    PMID: 33525363 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030671
    All food scientists must utilize plants for their application as functional foods to reduce hypercholesterolemia incidence through diet. Canarium odontophyllum (dabai) is a novel source for new healthy oil and functional foods. In this work, we evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracted dabai pulp oil (DPO) and defatted dabai pulp (DDP) against hypercholesterolemia elicited by a high-cholesterol diet in rats. Our results show that DPO and DDP supplementation exerted beneficial hypocholesterolemic effects against the high-cholesterol diet-fed rat. Nevertheless, supplementation with DDP revealed superior total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and HMG-CoA reductase lowering efficacy (p < 0.05). Supplementation of either DPO or DDP did not significantly affect AST and ALT levels than normal rats (p > 0.05). Therefore, DDP and DPO are considered as having no toxicological significance. The histological section of rats treated with DPO and DDP showed improved steatosis in hepatocytes. HPLC analysis revealed that DPO and DDP contained syringic acid, which plays an important role in the beneficial effect. In conclusion, our results support the hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of DPO and DDP in the hypercholesterolemic rats model.
  16. Kadir NAAA, Azlan A, Abas F, Ismail IS
    Nutrients, 2020 Nov 14;12(11).
    PMID: 33202660 DOI: 10.3390/nu12113511
    A source of functional food can be utilized from a source that might otherwise be considered waste. This study investigates the hypocholesterolemic effect of defatted dabai pulp (DDP) from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and the metabolic alterations associated with the therapeutic effects of DDP using 1H NMR urinary metabolomic analysis. Male-specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days to induce hypercholesterolemia. Later, the rats were administered with a 2% DDP treatment diet for another 30 days. Supplementation with the 2% DDP treatment diet significantly reduced the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (α-TNF)) and significantly increased the level of antioxidant profile (total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxide (GPX), and catalase (CAT)) compared with the positive control group (PG) group (p < 0.05). The presence of high dietary fibre (28.73 ± 1.82 g/100 g) and phenolic compounds (syringic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid) are potential factors contributing to the beneficial effect. Assessment of 1H NMR urinary metabolomics revealed that supplementation of 2% of DDP can partially recover the dysfunction in the metabolism induced by hypercholesterolemia via choline metabolism. 1H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis of urine from hypercholesterolemic rats in this study uncovered the therapeutic effect of DDP to combat hypercholesterolemia.
  17. Hellal K, Mediani A, Ismail IS, Tan CP, Abas F
    Food Res Int, 2021 02;140:110046.
    PMID: 33648271 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.110046
    Lupinus albus or white lupine has recently received increase attention for its medicinal values. Several studies have described the hypoglycemic effect of the white lupine, which is known as a food plant with potential value for treatment of diabetes. This study provides useful information for the identification and quantification of compounds in L. albus fractions by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. In total, 35 metabolites were identified from L. albus fractions.Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a multivariate projection method for visualizing the different composition of four different fractions. The bioactivities of fractions with different polarity obtained from the extract of L. albus seeds are reported. Among the fractions studied, the chloroform fraction (CF) exhibits a high free radical scavenging (DPPH) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 24.08 and 20.08 μg/mL, respectively. A partial least-squares analyses (PLS) model had been successfully performed to correlate the potential active metabolites with the corresponding biological activities. Metabolites containing proline, caprate, asparagine, lupinoisolone C, hydroxyiso lupalbigenin and some unknown compounds show high correlation with the bioactivities studied. Moreover, the structural identification in the active fraction was supported by ultrahigh-performance-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 21 metabolites were tentatively identified from MS/MS data by comparison with previously reported data. Most of these compounds are isoflavonoids without known biological activity. This information may be useful for developing functional food from L. albus with potential application in the management of diabetes.
  18. Kadir NAAA, Azlan A, Abas F, Ismail IS
    Molecules, 2021 Sep 13;26(18).
    PMID: 34577016 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26185545
    There has been growing interest among food scientists in producing a toxin-free fat as an end product with varying physical or nutritional properties of interest to the food industry. Oleoresin is a rich source of bioactive compounds which consumers can easily add to a large variety of food. Dabai (Canarium odontophyllum) pulp oleoresin (DPL) was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, a green extraction technology. This study investigates the quality of SC-CO2 extracted DPL in discovering its potential as a new alternative fat. The extraction experiment was carried out at a pressure of 40 MPa and a temperature of 40 °C. DPL is a saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich fat due to its high SFA composition (47.72 ± 0.01%). In addition, the low content of peroxide value (PV) (5.60 ± 0.09 mEq/kg) and free fatty acids (FFA) (3.40 ± 0.03%) indicate the quality and stability of DPL for various applications besides food consumption. DPL also has a low slip melting point (SMP) (20.20 ± 0.03 °C), and HPLC-FID revealed that DPL contained 0.13 ± 0.02 mg/100 g of vitamin E (α-tocopherol), indicating its potential application as a solid fat with a bioactive compound. This present work demonstrates the possible prospect of DPL in the formulation of end products for food industries.
  19. Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Ahmad Azam A, Abas F, Shaari K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Sep;97(12):4169-4179.
    PMID: 28233369 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8288
    BACKGROUND: Java tea is a well-known herbal infusion prepared from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS). The biological properties of tea are in direct correlation with the primary and secondary metabolite composition, which in turn largely depends on the choice of drying method. Herein, the impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e. shade, microwave and freeze drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of OS leaves was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate classification and regression analysis tools.

    RESULTS: A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Raja Mazlan RNA, Rukayadi Y, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS
    Molecules, 2018 Jul 16;23(7).
    PMID: 30012946 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23071730
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different solvents for extraction, liquid⁻liquid partition, and concentrations of extracts and fractions of Piper cubeba L. on anticariogenic; antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity against oral bacteria. Furthermore, ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was applied to discriminate between the extracts and fractions and examine the metabolites that correlate to the bioactivities. All tested bacteria were susceptible to Piper cubeba L. extracts and fractions. Different solvents extraction, liquid⁻liquid partition and concentrations of extracts and fractions have partially influenced the antibacterial activity. MTT assay showed that P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells at selected concentrations. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluated by nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cells showed a reduction in NO production in cells treated with P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions, compared to those without treatment. Twelve putative metabolites have been identified, which are (1) cubebin, (2) yatein, (3) hinokinin, (4) dihydrocubebin, (5) dihydroclusin, (6) cubebinin, (7) magnosalin, (8) p-cymene, (9) piperidine, (10) cubebol, (11) d-germacrene and (12) ledol. Different extraction and liquid⁻liquid partition solvents caused separation in principal component analysis (PCA) models. The partial least squares (PLS) models showed that higher anticariogenic activity was related more to the polar solvents, despite some of the active metabolites also present in the non-polar solvents. Hence, P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions exhibited antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity and have potential to be developed as the anticariogenic agent.
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