Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

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  1. Chua LS, Abdul-Rahaman NL, Sarmidi MR, Aziz R
    Food Chem, 2012 Dec 1;135(3):880-7.
    PMID: 22953800 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.05.106
    The elemental profiles of six honey samples from Malaysia had been constructed using the data obtained from both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Potassium and sodium were the most abundant minerals covering from 69.3-78.6% and 14.1-28.7%, respectively. The ratio of potassium to sodium was more than one. Even though the minerals and trace elements composition varied dependent on the type of honey samples, there was no statistically significant difference between the analysed honey samples, namely tualang, gelam, acacia and a few forest honeys based on two-factor ANOVA and cluster analysis. The total element content of honey samples were strongly correlated with the electrical conductivity, but only have moderate correlation with the ash content and honey colour based on the regression analysis. PCA result on the available elemental data from worldwide honeys, including honey samples from Malaysia revealed that potassium and sodium were the mineral markers to distinguish honey origin. Both tualang and gelam honey samples from Malaysia have close mineral profile with sesame honeys from Egypt and multifloral honeys from India, whereas forest honeys Malaysia were near to avocado honeys from Spain and multifloral honeys from India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  2. Moniruzzaman M, Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    PMID: 23983317
    Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in contributing to the processes of aging and disease. In an effort to combat free radical activity, scientists are studying the effects of increasing individuals' antioxidant levels through diet and dietary supplements. Honey appears to act as an antioxidant in more ways than one. In the body, honey can mop up free radicals and contribute to better health. Various antioxidant activity methods have been used to measure and compare the antioxidant activity of honey. In recent years, DPPH (Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), ORAC (The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity), ABTS [2, 2-azinobis (3ehtylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diamonium salt], TEAC [6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox)-equivalent antioxidant capacity] assays have been used to evaluate antioxidant activity of honey. The antioxidant activity of honey is also measured by ascorbic acid content and different enzyme assays like Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPO), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Among the different methods available, methods that have been validated, standardized and widely reported are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  3. Nurul Syazana MS, Gan SH, Halim AS, Shah NS, Gan SH, Sukari HA
    PMID: 24146441
    The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  4. Hashim KN, Chin KY, Ahmad F
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 04;26(4).
    PMID: 33557218 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26040808
    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of five risk factors comprising central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, which predispose a person to cardiometabolic diseases. Many studies reported the beneficial effects of honey in reversing metabolic syndrome through its antiobesity, hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic, and hypotensive actions. This review aims to provide an overview of the mechanism of honey in reversing metabolic syndrome. The therapeutic effects of honey largely depend on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of its polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Polyphenols, such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid, are some of the phenolic acids known to have antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic properties. They could inhibit the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and its target lipogenic enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FAS). Meanwhile, caffeic acid and quercetin in honey are also known to reduce body weight and fat mass. In addition, fructooligosaccharides in honey are also known to alter lipid metabolism by reducing FAS activity. The fructose and phenolic acids might contribute to the hypoglycaemic properties of honey through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B insulin signalling pathway. Honey can increase the expression of Akt and decrease the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. Quercetin, a component of honey, can improve vasodilation by enhancing nitric oxide production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and stimulate calcium-activated potassium channels. In conclusion, honey can be used as a functional food or adjuvant therapy to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  5. Moniruzzaman M, Chowdhury MA, Rahman MA, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:359890.
    PMID: 24982869 DOI: 10.1155/2014/359890
    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  6. Chua LS, Adnan NA
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2014 Apr-Jun;13(2):169-79.
    PMID: 24876312
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of biochemical (enzymes) and nutritional components in the selected honey samples from Malaysia. The relationship is important to estimate the quality of honey based on the concentration of these nutritious components. Such a study is limited for honey samples from tropical countries with heavy rainfall throughout the year.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  7. Chua LS, Lee JY, Chan GF
    Anal Bioanal Chem, 2013 Apr;405(10):3063-74.
    PMID: 23292042 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-6630-2
    There are relatively limited studies on the protein of honey samples mainly because of the low amount of protein in honey (0.1-0.5 %), the difficulty in extracting honey protein from the sugar-rich environment, and the hindrance of protein characterization by conventional approaches. Several protein extraction methods such as mechanical (ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation) and chemical (precipitation) techniques have been applied to different types of honey samples. Most of these studies reported the quantity and molecular size of honey protein from gel electrophoresis, but were unable to identify and characterize the protein. This limitation might be due to the low capacity of analytical equipment in those days. Although different precipitants have also been used, not all them are compatible with mass spectrometric methods during downstream analysis. As a result, the sample preparation step is essential in order to confidently characterize the low and varied amount of honey protein. Nowadays, honey protein is getting attention from researchers because of its potential activity in pharmacological applications. Therefore, honey protein extraction and determination by mass spectrometry are critically reviewed in order to stimulate further honey protein research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  8. Mohd Kamal DA, Ibrahim SF, Kamal H, Kashim MIAM, Mokhtar MH
    Nutrients, 2021 Jan 10;13(1).
    PMID: 33435215 DOI: 10.3390/nu13010197
    Tualang, Gelam and Kelulut honeys are tropical rainforest honeys reported to have various medicinal properties. Studies related to the medicinal properties and physicochemical characteristics of these honeys are growing extensively and receiving increased attention. This review incorporated and analysed the findings on the biological and physicochemical properties of these honeys. Tualang, Gelam and Kelulut honeys were found to possess a wide variety of biological effects attributed to their physicochemical characteristics. Findings revealed that these honeys have anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties and effects on the cardiovascular system, nervous system and reproductive system. The physicochemical properties of these honeys were compared and discussed and results showed that they have high-quality contents and excellent antioxidant sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  9. Fletcher MT, Hungerford NL, Webber D, Carpinelli de Jesus M, Zhang J, Stone ISJ, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 07 22;10(1):12128.
    PMID: 32699353 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-68940-0
    Stingless bee (Meliponini) honey has long been considered a high-value functional food, but the perceived therapeutic value has lacked attribution to specific bioactive components. Examination of honey from five different stingless bee species across Neotropical and Indo-Australian regions has enabled for the first time the identification of the unusual disaccharide trehalulose as a major component representing between 13 and 44 g per 100 g of each of these honeys. Trehalulose is an isomer of sucrose with an unusual α-(1 → 1) glucose-fructose glycosidic linkage and known acariogenic and low glycemic index properties. NMR and UPLC-MS/MS analysis unambiguously confirmed the identity of trehalulose isolated from stingless bee honeys sourced across three continents, from Tetragonula carbonaria and Tetragonula hockingsi species in Australia, from Geniotrigona thoracica and Heterotrigona itama in Malaysia and from Tetragonisca angustula in Brazil. The previously unrecognised abundance of trehalulose in stingless bee honeys is concrete evidence that supports some of the reported health attributes of this product. This is the first identification of trehalulose as a major component within a food commodity. This study allows the exploration of the expanded use of stingless bee honey in foods and identifies a bioactive marker for authentication of this honey in associated food standards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  10. Zawawi N, Chong PJ, Mohd Tom NN, Saiful Anuar NS, Mohammad SM, Ismail N, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jul 21;26(15).
    PMID: 34361551 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26154399
    Honey is a well-known natural sweetener and is rich in natural antioxidants that prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress, which is responsible for many human diseases. Some of the biochemical compounds in honey that contribute to this property are vitamins and phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. However, the extent to which these molecules contribute towards the antioxidant capacity in vitro is inconsistently reported, especially with the different analytical methods used, as well as other extrinsic factors that influence these molecules' availability. Therefore, by reviewing recently published works correlating the vitamin, total phenolic, and flavonoid content in honey with its antioxidant activities in vitro, this paper will establish a relationship between these parameters. Based on the literature, vitamins do not contribute to honey's antioxidant capacity; however, the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids has an impact on honey's antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  11. Shadan AF, Mahat NA, Wan Ibrahim WA, Ariffin Z, Ismail D
    J Forensic Sci, 2018 Jan;63(1):80-85.
    PMID: 28383137 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.13512
    As consumption of stingless bee honey has been gaining popularity in many countries including Malaysia, ability to identify accurately its geographical origin proves pertinent for investigating fraudulent activities for consumer protection. Because a chemical signature can be location-specific, multi-element distribution patterns may prove useful for provenancing such product. Using the inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer as well as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the distributions of multi-elements in stingless bee honey collected at four different geographical locations (North, West, East, and South) in Johor, Malaysia, were investigated. While cross-validation using PCA demonstrated 87.0% correct classification rate, the same was improved (96.2%) with the use of LDA, indicating that discrimination was possible for the different geographical regions. Therefore, utilization of multi-element analysis coupled with chemometrics techniques for assigning the provenance of stingless bee honeys for forensic applications is supported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  12. Ng WJ, Sit NW, Ooi PA, Ee KY, Lim TM
    Molecules, 2021 Dec 16;26(24).
    PMID: 34946710 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26247628
    Stingless bee honey, specifically honeydew honey, is generally valued for its better health benefits than those of most blossom types. However, scientific studies about the differentiation of stingless bee honey based on honeydew and blossom origins are very limited. In this study, 13C NMR spectroscopy was employed to quantify the seven major sugar tautomers in stingless bee honey samples, and the major sugar compositions of both honeydew and blossom types were found not significantly different. However, several physicochemical properties of honeydew honey including moisture content, free acidity, electrical conductivity, ash content, acetic acid, diastase, hydrogen peroxide, and mineral elements levels were significantly higher; while total soluble solid, proline, and hydroxymethylfurfural were significantly lower than blossom honey. Greater antioxidant capacity in honeydew honey was proven with higher total phenolic compounds, ABTS, DPPH, superoxide radical scavenging activities, peroxyl radical inhibition, iron chelation, and ferric reducing power. Using principal component analysis (PCA), two clusters of stingless bee honey from the honeydew and blossom origin were observed. PCA also revealed that the differentiation between honeydew and blossom origin of stingless bee honey is possible with certain physicochemical and antioxidant parameters. The combination of NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics are suggested to be useful to determine the authenticity and botanical origin of stingless bee honey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  13. Razali MTA, Zainal ZA, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Zamri Z, Mohd Idrus MZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 28;23(9).
    PMID: 30154302 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092160
    The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  14. Moniruzzaman M, Rodríguez I, Rodríguez-Cabo T, Cela R, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    J Chromatogr A, 2014 Nov 14;1368:26-36.
    PMID: 25441341 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.09.057
    The suitability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for gas chromatography (GC) characterization of minor organic compounds in honey samples is evaluated. Under optimized conditions, samples were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by DLLME using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 0.075 mL) as extractant. The yielded settled phase was analyzed by GC using high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The whole sample preparation process is completed in approximately 10 min, with a total consumption of organic solvents below 4 mL, relative standard deviations lower than 12% and with more than 70 organic compounds, displaying linear retention index in the range from 990 to 2900, identified in the obtained extracts. In comparison with HS SPME extraction, higher peak intensities were attained for most volatile and semi-volatile compounds amenable to both extraction techniques. Furthermore, other species such as highly polar and water soluble benzene acids, long chain fatty acids, esters and flavonoids, which are difficult to concentrate by HS SPME, could be identified in DLLME extracts. Some of the compounds identified in DLLME extracts have been proposed as useful for samples classification and/or they are recognized as markers of honeys from certain geographic areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  15. Ng WJ, Ken KW, Kumar RV, Gunasagaran H, Chandramogan V, Lee YY
    PMID: 25435614
    BACKGROUND: Different researches on therapeutic effects of honey have been conducted in different regions; however the study on the potential antibacterial activity of Malaysian honey is still limited. In this study, antibacterial activities of different monofloral honey samples were tested against several common human pathogenic bacteria.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The well-diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) techniques were employed to investigate the putative antibacterial activity of Malaysian monofloral honey from Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub (Tualang), Melaleuca cajuputi Powell (Gelam) and Durio zibethinus Murr. (Durian). Honey samples were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6518 and ATCC25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228, Enterococcus faecium LMG16192, Enterococcus faecalis LMG16216 and ATCC29212, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC14028 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883.

    RESULTS: Marked variations were observed in the antibacterial activity of these honey samples. Durian honey failed to produce substantial antibacterial activity, whereas Tualang and Gelam honey showed a spectrum of antibacterial activity with their growth inhibitory effects against all of the tested bacterial species including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).

    CONCLUSION: Present findings suggested Gelam honey possesses highest antibacterial effect among the tested Malaysian honey samples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  16. Samat S, Nor NA, Nor Hussein F, Ismail WI
    PMID: 24885010 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-146
    Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14 days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  17. Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Azlan SA, Gan SH
    Molecules, 2013;18(12):14694-710.
    PMID: 24287998 DOI: 10.3390/molecules181214694
    Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  18. Khalil MI, Alam N, Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    J Food Sci, 2011 Aug;76(6):C921-8.
    PMID: 22417491 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02282.x
    The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  19. Khalil I, Moniruzzaman M, Boukraâ L, Benhanifia M, Islam A, Islam N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 20;17(9):11199-215.
    PMID: 22996344
    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  20. Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA, Alam N, Moniruzzaman M, Bai'e S, Man CN, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Jan 11;17(1):674-87.
    PMID: 22237682 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010674
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of evaporation, gamma irradiation and temperature on the total polyphenols, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities of Tualang honey samples (n = 14) following storage over three, six or twelve months. The mean polyphenol concentrations of the six gamma irradiated honey samples at three, six and twelve months, respectively, were 96.13%, 98.01% and 102.03% higher than the corresponding values of the eight non-gamma irradiated samples. Similarly, the mean values for flavonoids at three, six and twelve months were 111.52%, 114.81% and 110.04% higher, respectively, for the gamma irradiated samples. The mean values for DPPH radical-scavenging activities at three, six and twelve months were also 67.09%, 65.26% and 44.65% higher, respectively, for the gamma irradiated samples. These data indicate that all gamma irradiated honey samples had higher antioxidant potential following gamma irradiation, while evaporation and temperature had minor effects on antioxidant potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis
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