• 1 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 2Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia
  • 3 3Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia
Food Sci Biotechnol, 2018 Jun;27(3):905-914.
PMID: 30263818 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-017-0295-8


An optimized refining process for kenaf seed oil was conducted. The 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) contents, triacylglycerol composition, fatty acids composition, bioactive compounds, phosphorus contents, and oxidation indexes of the kenaf seed oil during each stage of the refining process were determined. The results showed that there was no detected 3-MCPD ester in kenaf seed oil throughout the refining process. Deodorization had slightly increased the 2-MCPD ester (9.0 μg/kg) and glycidyl ester (54.8 μg/kg). Oleic (36.53%) and linoleic acids (36.52%) were presented in the largest amount in the refined kenaf seed oil, and triacylglycerols contributed to 99.96% in the oil. There was a removal of 31.6% of phytosterol content and 17.1% of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in kenaf seed oil after refining. The refining process was totally removed the hydroperoxides, 93% of free fatty acids and 98.8% of phosphorus content in kenaf seed oil.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.