Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 108 in total

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  1. Anarjan N, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2013 Jan 09;18(1):768-77.
    PMID: 23303336 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18010768
    The effects of selected nonionic emulsifiers on the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nanodispersions produced by an emulsification/evaporation technique were studied. The emulsifiers used were polysorbates (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60 and Polysorbate 80) and sucrose esters of fatty acids (sucrose laurate, palmitate, stearate and oleate). The mean particle diameters of the nanodispersions ranged from 70 nm to 150 nm, depending on the emulsifier used. In the prepared nanodispersions, the astaxanthin particle diameter decreased with increasing emulsifier hydrophilicity and decreasing carbon number of the fatty acid in the emulsifier structure. Astaxanthin nanodispersions with the smallest particle diameters were produced with Polysorbate 20 and sucrose laurate among the polysorbates and the sucrose esters, respectively. We also found that the Polysorbate 80- and sucrose oleate-stabilized nanodispersions had the highest astaxanthin losses (i.e., the lowest astaxanthin contents in the final products) among the nanodispersions. This work demonstrated the importance of emulsifier type in determining the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nano-dispersions.
  2. Mirhosseini H, Tan CP
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2010 Jun;90(8):1308-16.
    PMID: 20474048 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3928
    The constituents in a food emulsion interact with each other, either physically or chemically, determining the overall physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of the final product. Thus, the main objective of present study was to investigate the effect of emulsion components on beverage emulsion properties.
  3. Tan CP, Rokiah P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60 Suppl D:48-53.
    PMID: 16315624
    Formative and summative student assessment has always been of concern to medical teachers, and this is especially important at the level of graduating doctors. The effectiveness and comprehensiveness of the clinical training provided is tested with the use of clinical cases, either with real patients who have genuine medical conditions, or with the use of standardised patients who are trained to simulate accurately actual patients. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is one method of assessing the adequacy of clinical skills of medical students, and their level of competence. It can be used to test a variety of skills such as history taking (communication and interpersonal skills) and performing aspects of physical examination, undertaking emergency procedures, and interpreting investigational data. It can also be used to ensure an adequate depth and breadth of coverage of clinical skills expected of a graduating doctor.
  4. Anarjan N, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):127.
    PMID: 23875816 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-127
    The emulsification-evaporation method was used to prepare astaxanthin nanodispersions using a three-component emulsifier system composed of Tween 20, sodium caseinate and gum Arabic. Using Response-surface methodology (RSM), we studied the main and interaction effects of the major emulsion components, namely, astaxanthin concentration (0.02-0.38 wt %, x1), emulsifier concentration (0.2-3.8 wt %, x2) and organic phase (dichloromethane) concentration (2-38 wt %, x3) on nanodispersion characteristics. The physicochemical properties considered as response variables were: average particle size (Y1), PDI (Y2) and astaxanthin loss (Y3).
  5. KoohiKamali S, Tan CP, Ling TC
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:475027.
    PMID: 22593688 DOI: 10.1100/2012/475027
    In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel) content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD) through response surface methodology (RSM) was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w). The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC) was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P ≥ 0.05). Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM) methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.
  6. Cheong JN, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2010 Jun;61(4):417-24.
    PMID: 20151850 DOI: 10.3109/09637481003591574
    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters and sodium caseinate on physicochemical properties of palm-based functional lipid nanodispersions prepared by the emulsification-evaporation technique. The results indicated that the average droplet size increased significantly (P < 0.05) by increasing the chain length of fatty acids and also by increasing the hydrophile-lipophile balance value. Among the prepared nanodispersions, the nanoemulsion containing Polysorbate 20 showed the smallest average droplet size (202 nm) and narrowest size distribution for tocopherol-tocotrienol nanodispersions, while sodium caseinate-stabilized nanodispersions containing carotenoids had the largest average droplet size (386 nm), thus indicating a greater emulsifying role for Polysorbate 20 compared with sodium caseinate.
  7. Azila NM, Tan CP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60 Suppl D:35-40.
    PMID: 16315622
    Accreditation is a process by which official accrediting bodies evaluate institutions using a set of criteria and standards, following established procedures, to ensure a high quality of education needed to produce highly competent graduates. Additional objectives include (1) ensuring quality institutional functioning, (2) strengthening capabilities of educational institutions for service to the nation and (3) improving public confidence in medical schools. The accreditation process provides an opportunity for the institution to critically reflect upon all the aspects of its programme and the level of compliance or attainment of the requirements. The self-evaluation exercise, which identifies strengths and weaknesses, is perceived as formative. It is envisaged that eventually institutions will adopt a learning culture for curriculum development, implementation, monitoring and matching the outcomes. In conclusion, periodic accreditation activities can act as a "monitoring" system to ensure that the quality of medical education is maintained according to established standards.
  8. Che Man YB, Tan CP
    Phytochem Anal, ;13(3):142-51.
    PMID: 12099104
    The effects of scanning rates (1, 5, 10 and 20 degrees C/min) on the DSC cooling profiles of 11 vegetable oils have been determined in order to monitor peak transition temperatures, onset temperatures and crystallisation enthalpies. Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value analyses were used to complement the DSC data. The melted samples exhibited complicated crystallising exotherms. As the cooling rate increased, the crystallisation temperature decreased and the breadth of the crystallisation exotherm on cooling from the melt increased. In addition, the intensity of the exothermic peak increased somewhat when the cooling rate was increased. At slow cooling rates, TAG had more time to interact. It is conceivable that, at a low cooling rate (1 degree C/min), a prominent exotherm would be observed on crystallisation of vegetable oils and fats. The occurrence of one exotherm upon cooling indicated the co-crystallisation of the TAG upon slow cooling. On the basis of the corollary results obtained, vegetable oils may be differentiated by their onset temperature (Ton) values in the DSC cooling curves. Generally, there was a shift of Ton toward lower values with increasing cooling rates.
  9. Tan CP, Man YC
    Phytochem Anal, ;13(3):129-41.
    PMID: 12099103
    The melting curves of 11 vegetable oils have been characterised. Vegetable oil samples that were cooled at a constant rate (5 degrees C/min) from the melt showed between one and seven melting endotherms upon heating at four different heating rates (1, 5, 10 and 20 degrees C/min) in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value analyses were used to complement the DSC data. Generally, the melting transition temperature shifted to higher values with increased rates of heating. The breadth of the melting endotherm and the area under the melting peak also increased with increasing heating rate. Although the number of endothermic peaks was dependent on heating rate, the melting curves of the oil samples were not straightforward in that there was no correlation between the number of endothermic peaks and heating rates. Multiple melting behaviour in DSC experiments with different heating rates could be explained by: (1) the melting of TAG populations with different melting points; and (2) TAG crystal reorganisation effects. On the basis of the corollary results obtained, vegetable oils and fats may be distinguished from their offset-temperature (Toff) values in the DSC melting curves. The results showed that Toff values of all oil samples were significantly (p < 0.01) different in the melting curves scanned at four different scanning rates. These calorimetric results indicate that DSC is a valuable technique for studying vegetable oils.
  10. Daniali G, Jinap S, Hajeb P, Sanny M, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2016 Dec 01;212:244-9.
    PMID: 27374529 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.174
    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g.
  11. Leong MH, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J. Food Sci., 2016 Oct;81(10):C2367-C2372.
    PMID: 27635525 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13442
    The objective of this research was to study the oxidative stability and antioxidant properties of microencapsulated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil (MKSO) produced by co-extrusion technology upon accelerated storage. The combination of sodium alginate, high methoxyl pectin, and chitosan were used as shell materials. The oxidative stability of the kenaf seed oil was determined by iodine value, peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, and free fatty acid content. Total phenolic content, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical-scavenging assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay were used to examine the antioxidant properties of oils. Oxidative stability tests showed that bulk kenaf seed oil (BKSO) was oxidized significantly higher (P < 0.05) than MKSO. The total increment of TOTOX value of BKSO was 165.93% significantly higher (P < 0.05) than MKSO. Co-extrusion technology has shown to be able to protect kenaf seed oil against lipid oxidation and delay the degradation of natural antioxidants that present in oil during storage.
  12. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J. Food Sci., 2017 Jul;82(7):1622-1630.
    PMID: 28608553 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13758
    Kenaf seed oil has been suggested to be used as nutritious edible oil due to its unique fatty acid composition and nutritional value. The objective of this study was to optimize the bleaching parameters of the chemical refining process for kenaf seed oil, namely concentration of bleaching earth (0.5 to 2.5% w/w), temperature (30 to 110 °C) and time (5 to 65 min) based on the responses of total oxidation value (TOTOX) and color reduction using response surface methodology. The results indicated that the corresponding response surface models were highly statistical significant (P < 0.0001) and sufficient to describe and predict TOTOX value and color reduction with R2 of 0.9713 and 0.9388, respectively. The optimal parameters in the bleaching stage of kenaf seed oil were: 1.5% w/w of the concentration of bleaching earth, temperature of 70 °C, and time of 40 min. These optimum parameters produced bleached kenaf seed oil with TOTOX value of 8.09 and color reduction of 32.95%. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental and predicted values, indicating the adequacy of the fitted models.
  13. Daniali G, Jinap S, Sanny M, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2018 Apr 15;245:1-6.
    PMID: 29287315 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.070
    This work investigated the underlying formation of acrylamide from amino acids in frying oils during high temperatures and at different times via modeling systems. Eighteen amino acids were used in order to determine which one was more effective on acrylamide production. Significantly the highest amount of acrylamide was produced from asparagine (5987.5µg/kg) and the lowest from phenylalanine (9.25µg/kg). A constant amount of asparagine and glutamine in palm olein and soy bean oils was heated up in modelling system at different temperatures (160, 180 and 200°C) and times (1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5min). The highest amount of acrylamide was found at 200°C for 7.5min (9317 and 8511µg/kg) and lowest at 160°C for 1.5min (156 and 254µg/kg) in both frying oils and both amino acids. Direct correlations have been found between time (R2=0.884), temperature (R2=0.951) and amount of acrylamide formation, both at p<0.05.
  14. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2018 Jul;24(5):404-413.
    PMID: 29466882 DOI: 10.1177/1082013218760882
    Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been proven for its multi-pharmacological benefits; however, its poor water solubility and stability have limited its industrial applications. This study was aimed to further improve the stability of pre-developed kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions by using food-grade ternary emulsifiers. The effects of emulsifier concentration (1, 5, 10, 15% w/w), homogenisation pressure (16,000, 22,000, 28,000 psi), and homogenisation cycles (three, four, five cycles) were studied to produce high stability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions using high pressure homogeniser. Generally, results showed that the emulsifier concentration and homogenisation conditions had great effect ( p 
  15. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J. Food Sci., 2018 Jul;83(7):1964-1969.
    PMID: 29802733 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14191
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α-tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7- and 1.4-fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and <3), suggesting that it can be fortified into beverages within this pH range PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The production of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had provided a delivery system to encapsulate the kenaf seed oil, as well as enhanced the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of kenaf seed oil. Therefore, kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions exhibit a great potential application in nutraceutical fields.
  16. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J. Food Sci., 2018 Sep;83(9):2288-2294.
    PMID: 30074623 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14291
    Kenaf seed oil is prone to undergo oxidation due to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, thus microencapsulation stands as an alternative to protect kenaf seed oil from the adverse environment. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) by the use of gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate as the wall materials by spray drying. Bulk refined kenaf seed oil (BRKSO) and MRKSO were kept at 65 °C for 24 days to evaluate its oxidative stability, changes of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, phytosterol content, and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, and total oxidation value of BRKSO were significantly higher than the MRKSO at day 24. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were reduced 66.1% and 56.8% in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. There was a reduction of 71.7% and 23.5% of phytosterol content in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. The degradation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids in BRKSO was higher than that of MRKSO. This study showed that the current microencapsulation technique is a feasible way to retard the oxidation of kenaf seed oil.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: There is increasing research on the functional properties of crude kenaf seed oil, but the crude kenaf seed oil is not edible. This study offered in developing of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil by spray drying, which is suitable for food application. The microencapsulation of refined kenaf seed oil with healthier wall materials is beneficial in developing a diversity of functional food products and supplements.

  17. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J. Food Sci., 2018 Oct;83(10):2457-2465.
    PMID: 30178877 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14332
    Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (NANO) stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and Tween 20 (T20) have been optimized and shown to improve in vitro bioaccessibility and physicochemical stability in the previous study. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidants in the NANO during storage at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C). An evaluation of the antioxidant activities of each emulsifier showed that SC had good scavenging capability with 97.6% ABTS radical scavenging activity. Therefore, SC which was used as one of the main emulsifiers could further enhanced the antioxidant activity of NANO. At week 8 of storage, NANO that stored at 4 °C had maintained the best bioactive compounds stability and antioxidant activities with 90% retention of vitamin E and 65% retention of phytosterols. These results suggested that 4 °C would be the most suitable storage temperature for NANO containing naturally present vitamin E and phytosterols. From the accelerated storage results at 40 °C, NANO containing vitamin E and phytosterols had maintained half of its initial concentration until week 4 and week 2 of storage, which is equivalent to 16 weeks and 8 weeks of storage at room temperature, respectively.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide a better understanding on the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in oil-in-water nanoemulsions that stabilized by similar ternary emulsifiers during storage at different temperatures. In addition, this study could be used as a predictive model to estimate the shelf life of bioactive compounds encapsulated in the form of nanoemulsions.

  18. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    Food Sci. Biotechnol., 2017;26(1):63-69.
    PMID: 30263511 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-017-0009-2
    This study assessed the changes of antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of crude and refined kenaf seed oil during accelerated storage at 65°C for 24 days. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays were used to determine their antioxidant activity. The changes of phenolic, tocopherol, and phytosterol contents during the storage were also studied. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of refined oil were significantly lower than those of crude oil after the accelerated storage. There was a decrease of 72.5% tocopherol content and 31.1% phytosterol content in the crude oil and a decrease of 67% tocopherol content and 12.1% phytosterol content in the refined oil during the accelerated storage. There was no significant difference in tocopherol and phytosterol contents for crude and refined oils after the storage. The rate of degradation of tocopherol and phytosterol contents in refined oil was slower than that in crude oil during the storage.
  19. Leong JY, Tey BT, Tan CP, Chan ES
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2015 Aug 5;7(30):16169-76.
    PMID: 26148344 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b04486
    Ionotropic gelation has been an attractive method for the fabrication of biopolymeric oil-core microcapsules due to its safe and mild processing conditions. However, the mandatory use of a nozzle system to form the microcapsules restricts the process scalability and the production of small microcapsules (<100 μm). We report, for the first time, a nozzleless and surfactant-free approach to fabricate oil-core biopolymeric microcapsules through ionotropic gelation at the interface of an O/W Pickering emulsion. This approach involves the self-assembly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles at the interface of O/W emulsion droplets followed by the addition of a polyanionic biopolymer into the aqueous phase. Subsequently, CaCO3 nanoparticles are dissolved by pH reduction, thus liberating Ca(2+) ions to cross-link the surrounding polyanionic biopolymer to form a shell that encapsulates the oil droplet. We demonstrate the versatility of this method by fabricating microcapsules from different types of polyanionic biopolymers (i.e., alginate, pectin, and gellan gum) and water-immiscible liquid cores (i.e., palm olein, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, and toluene). In addition, small microcapsules with a mean size smaller than 100 μm can be produced by selecting the appropriate conventional emulsification methods available to prepare the Pickering emulsion. The simplicity and versatility of this method allows biopolymeric microcapsules to be fabricated with ease by ionotropic gelation for numerous applications.
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