Graphene is a 2-dimensional nanomaterial with an atomic thickness has attracted a strong scientific interest owing to their remarkable optical, electronic, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Graphene-based materials particularly graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are widely utilized in various applications ranging from food industry, environmental monitoring and biomedical fields as well as in the development of various types of biosensing devices. The richness in oxygen functional groups in the materials serves as a catalysis for the development of biosensors/electrochemical biosensors which promotes for an attachment of biological recognition elements, surface functionalization and compatible with micro- and nano- bio-environment. In this review, the graphene-based materials application in electrochemical biosensors based on recent advancement (e.g; the surface modification and analytical performances) and the utilization of such biosensors to monitor the noncommunicable diseases are presented. The detection performances of the graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are in the range of ng/mL and have reached up to fg/mL in detecting the targets of NCDs with higher selectivity, sensitivity and stability with good reproducibility attributes. We have discussed the advances while addressing the very specific biomarkers for the NCDs detection. Challenges and possible future research directions for the NCDs detection based on graphene nanocomposite with other 2D nanomaterials are outlined.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.