• 1 Centre of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2 Programme of Biomedical Sciences, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, University City, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
  • 4 Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, American University of Sharjah, University City, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Saudi J Biol Sci, 2021 Apr;28(4):2352-2359.
PMID: 33911949 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.030


The incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis has been increasing since the previous decades, especially among contact lens users. This infection is majorly caused by the use of ineffective contact lens disinfecting solution. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro effects of multi-purpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from contact lens paraphernalia and an environmental strains were propagated for trophozoite or cyst-containing culture and adjusted in final concentration of 1 × 105 cells/ml. Amoebicidal and cysticidal assays were conducted by incubating trophozoites and cysts with OPTI-FREE® Express®, ReNu® Fresh™, Complete® Multi-Purpose Solution and AVIZOR Unica® Sensitive according to the manufacturer's minimum recommended disinfectant time (MMRDT) for up to 12 h at 30 ⁰C. Trypan blue hemocytometer-based microscopic counts determined amoebicidal and cysticidal effects. The viability of Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts was confirmed by re-inoculated them in the 1.5% non-nutrient agar plates. It was found that none of the MPDS showed amoebicidal and cysticidal effects during the MMRDT. However, OPTI-FREE® Express® demonstrated a significant differences in average cell reduction for both stages within MMRDT. When subjected to 12 h exposure, both OPTI-FREE® Express® and ReNu® Fresh™ led to significant reduction in the number of trophozoite and cyst cells. Notably, Complete® Multi-Purpose Solution and AVIZOR Unica® Sensitive did appreciably improve the solution effectiveness towards trophozoite cells when incubated for 12 h. All MPDS were largely ineffective, with 100% survival of all isolates at MMRDT, while OPTI-FREE® Express® showed limited amoebicidal activity against the contact lens paraphernalia isolate, however, it was more against the environmental strains after 12 h incubation time. The commercially available MPDS employed in this research offered minimal effectiveness against the protozoa despite the contact time. Improvement or development of new solution should consider the adjustment of the appropriate disinfectant concentration, adequate exposure time or the incorporation of novel chemical elements, which are effective against Acanthamoeba for accelerated disinfecting and more reduction of potential exposure of contact lens users to Acanthamoeba keratitis.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.