• 1 Paediatric Endocrine Unit, Putrajaya Hospital, 62250, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
  • 2 Paediatric Endocrine Unit, Putrajaya Hospital, 62250, Putrajaya, Malaysia
Endocrine, 2021 09;73(3):499-506.
PMID: 34244903 DOI: 10.1007/s12020-021-02810-1


AIMS: Malaysia implemented nationwide lockdown from 18th March till 3rd May 2020 to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine the impact of the lockdown on glycaemic control and lifestyle changes in children and adolescents with type 1 (T1DM) and 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aged less than 18 years old.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, interviews and a standardised questionnaire comparing lifestyle changes before and during the lockdown were performed in follow-up clinic visits after the lockdown. Anthropometry measurements and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values were compared 3 months prior and after the lockdown.

RESULTS: Participants were 93 patients with T1DM (11.08 ± 3.47 years) and 30 patients with T2DM (13.81 ± 2.03 years). Male gender, T2DM and pubertal adolescents were found to have a significant deterioration in glycaemic control. A significant increment of HbA1c was observed in patients with T2DM (8.5 ± 0.40 vs 9.9 ± 0.46%), but not in patients with T1DM (8.6 ± 0.28 vs 8.7 ± 0.33%). Contrarily, there was an improved glycaemic control in pre-pubertal T1DM children likely due to parental supervision during home confinement. Weight and BMI SDS increased in T1DM patients but surprisingly reduced in T2DM patients possibly due to worsening diabetes control. Reduced meal frequency mainly due to skipping breakfast, reduced physical activity level scores, increased screen time and sleep duration were observed in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Adverse impact on glycaemic control and lifestyle were seen mostly in patients with T2DM and pubertal adolescent boys.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.