Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 712 in total

  1. Chee CS, Chang KM, Loke MF, Angela Loo VP, Subrayan V
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2022.
    PMID: 27280065 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2022
    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of our study was to characterize the human salivary proteome and determine the changes in protein expression in two different stages of diabetic retinopathy with type-2 diabetes mellitus: (1) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and (2) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Type-2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy (XDR) was designated as control.
    METHOD: In this study, 45 saliva samples were collected (15 samples from XDR control group, 15 samples from NPDR disease group and 15 samples from PDR disease group). Salivary proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, trypsin digested and labeled with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) before being analyzed by an Orbitrap fusion tribrid mass spectrometer. Protein annotation, fold change calculation and statistical analysis were interrogated by Proteome Discoverer. Biological pathway analysis was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD003723-PX003725.
    RESULTS: A total of 315 proteins were identified from the salivary proteome and 119 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. The differentially expressed proteins from the NPDR disease group and the PDR disease group were assigned to respective canonical pathways indicating increased Liver X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, Farnesoid X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation, acute phase response signaling, sucrose degradation V and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho in the PDR disease group compared to the NPDR disease group.
    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Progression from non-proliferative to proliferative retinopathy in type-2 diabetic patients is a complex multi-mechanism and systemic process. Furthermore, saliva was shown to be a feasible alternative sample source for diabetic retinopathy biomarkers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  2. Abdulameer SA, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA, Subramaniam K, Sahib MN
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2012;6:435-48.
    PMID: 22791981 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S32745
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic and chronic metabolic disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. In addition, osteoporosis (OP) is a silent disease with a harmful impact on morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the relationship between OP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Systematic reviews of full-length articles published in English from January 1950 to October 2010 were identified in PubMed and other available electronic databases on the Universiti Sains Malaysia Library Database. The following keywords were used for the search: T2DM, OP, bone mass, skeletal. Studies of more than 50 patients with T2DM were included. Forty-seven studies were identified. The majority of articles (26) showed increased bone mineral density (BMD), while 13 articles revealed decreased BMD; moreover, eight articles revealed normal or no difference in bone mass. There were conflicting results concerning the influence of T2DM on BMD in association with gender, glycemic control, and body mass index. However, patients with T2DM display an increased fracture risk despite a higher BMD, which is mainly attributable to the increased risk of falling. As a conclusion, screening, identification, and prevention of potential risk factors for OP in T2DM patients are crucial and important in terms of preserving a good quality of life in diabetic patients and decreasing the risk of fracture. Patients with T2DM may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls. Patient education about an adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and regular exercise is important for improving muscle strength and balance. Furthermore, adequate glycemic control and the prevention of diabetic complications are the starting point of therapy in diabetic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  3. Al-Shookri A, Khor GL, Chan YM, Loke SC, Al-Maskari M
    Malays J Nutr, 2011 Apr;17(1):129-41.
    PMID: 22135872 MyJurnal
    During the past four decades, Oman has undergone a rapid socioe-conomic and epidemiological transition leading to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of various communicable diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases. Health care planning together with the commitment of policy makers has been a critical factor in this reduction. However, with rapid social and economic growth, lifestyle-related non communicable diseases have emerged as new health challenges to the country. Diabetes and obesity are leading risks posed by the chronic diseases. The burden of diabetes has increased sharply in Oman over the last decade, rising from 8.3% in 1991 to 11.6% in 2000 among adults aged 20 years and older. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicted an increase of 190% in the number of subjects living with diabetes in Oman over the next 20 years, rising from 75,000 in 2000 to 217,000 in 2025. There is a lack of awareness of the major risk factors for diabetes mellitus in the Omani population generally. As education is often the most significant predictor of knowledge regarding risk factors, complications and the prevention of diabetes, health promotion in Oman is deemed critical, along with other prevention and control measures. Suitable prevention strategies for reducing the prevalence of diabetes in Oman are discussed. Recommendations are made for reforms in the current health care system; otherwise, diabetes will constitute a major drain on Oman's human and financial resources, threatening the advances in health and longevity achieved over the past decades.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/economics; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control*
  4. Alam F, Islam MA, Gan SH, Mohamed M, Sasongko TH
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2016;22(28):4398-419.
    PMID: 27229720
    DNA methylation, a major regulator of epigenetic modifications has been shown to alter the expression of genes that are involved in aspects of glucose metabolism such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and other conditions, and it ultimately leads to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Current evidences indicate an association of DNA methylation with T2DM. This review provides an overview of how various factors play crucial roles in T2DM pathogenesis and how DNA methylation interacts with these factors. Additionally, an update on current techniques of DNA methylation analysis with their pros and cons is provided as a basis for the adoption of suitable techniques in future DNA methylation research towards better management of T2DM. To elucidate the mechanistic relationship between vital environmental factors and the development of T2DM, a better understanding of the changes in gene expression associated with DNA methylation at the molecular level is still needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology
  5. Alam F, Islam MA, Sasongko TH, Gan SH
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2016;22(28):4430-42.
    PMID: 27229721
    Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two independent diseases, evidences from epidemiological, pathophysiological and animal studies have indicated a close pathophysiological relationship between these diseases. Due to the pathophysiological similarity of T2DM and AD, which includes insulin resistance and deficiency, protein aggregation, oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagocytosis and advanced glycation end products; AD is often referred to as "type 3 diabetes". In addition to the targeted regimens usually used for treating T2DM and AD individually, currently, anti-diabetic drugs are successfully used to reduce the cognitive decline in AD patients. Therefore, if a common pathophysiology of T2DM and AD could be clearly determined, both diseases could be managed more efficiently, possibly by shared pharmacotherapy in addition to understanding the broader spectrum of preventive strategies. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological bridge between T2DM and AD to lay the foundation for the future treatment strategies in the management of both diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy
  6. Thent ZC, Das S, Henry LJ
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(11):e80436.
    PMID: 24236181 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080436
    Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy*
  7. Feisul IM, Azmi S, Mohd Rizal AM, Zanariah H, Nik Mahir NJ, Fatanah I, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):271-277.
    PMID: 29197881 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: An economic analysis was performed to estimate the annual cost of diabetes mellitus to Malaysia.

    METHODS: We combined published data and clinical pathways to estimate cost of follow-up and complications, then calculated the overall national cost. Costs consisted of diabetes follow-up and complications costs.

    RESULTS: Patient follow-up was estimated at RM459 per year. Complications cost were RM42,362 per patient per year for nephropathy, RM4,817 for myocardial infarction, RM5,345 for stroke, RM3,880 for heart failure, RM5,519 for foot amputation, RM479 for retinopathy and RM4,812 for cataract extraction.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, we estimated the total cost of diabetes as RM2.04 billion per year for year 2011 (both public and private sector). Of this, RM1.40 billion per year was incurred by the government. Despite some limitations, we believe our study provides insight to the actual cost of diabetes to the country. The high cost to the nation highlights the importance of primary and secondary prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/economics*
  8. Lim PC, Lim K, Embee ZC, Hassali MA, Thiagarajan A, Khan TM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Mar;29(2):595-601.
    PMID: 27087103
    Involvement of pharmacists in improving medication adherence among diabetic patients is recognized globally. In Malaysian healthcare system, pharmacists are also operating health services i.e. Diabetes Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC). This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients managed by pharmacists (DMTAC), in a Malaysian hospital setting. This was an open labelled randomised study. Type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c ≥8% were recruited and arbitrarily divided into the intervention group (usual care plus DMTAC) and the non-intervention group (usual care only). Those enrolled in the intervention group were scheduled for follow-up for eight consecutive visits. Improvements in lab results were compared longitudinally (pre and post analysis) between the groups. Data analysis was done using PASW 18® version. A total of 76 patients were enrolled, with 39 patients in the intervention group and 37 patients in the non-intervention group. Mean HbA1c (-0.90% vs. -0.08%, p=0.011) and fasting blood glucose levels (-3.45 mmol.l vs. +0.79 mmol/l, p=0.002) reduced significantly between the intervention group vs. non-intervention group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also significantly reduced in the intervention group (TC -0.34 mmol/l, p=0.018) (LDL -0.45 mmol/l, p=0.001). In conclusion, pharmacists managed DMTAC significantly improved glycaemic control and lipid profile of diabetic patients.
    Study site: Outpatient Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  9. Wong FN, Tan JA, Keng TC, Ng KP, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2016 Jan 30;453:56-61.
    PMID: 26657980 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2015.12.002
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between soluble RAGE and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) after controlling for the potential confounding factors such as medication usage and enzymatic antioxidants.
    METHODS: A total of 222 CKD patients whose eGFR is less than 60ml/min/1.73m(2) and 111 non-CKD individuals were recruited. The study subjects were classified based on their diabetes status. The plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as plasma soluble RAGE level were measured.
    RESULTS: The plasma GPx and SOD activities were significantly lower and the plasma soluble RAGE level was significantly higher in the CKD patients than in the non-CKD individuals, regardless of the diabetes status. Soluble RAGE was significantly correlated with eGFR in both diabetic CKD (D-CKD) and non-diabetic CKD (ND-CKD) patients. The association between soluble RAGE and eGFR remained largely unaffected by the confounding factors in D-CKD patients. However, the confounding effect of enzymatic antioxidants in the relationship between eGFR and soluble RAGE was observed in ND-CKD patients.
    CONCLUSION: The increased plasma level of soluble RAGE is a better indicator of renal function decline in diabetic CKD patients instead of non-diabetic CKD patients.
    KEYWORDS: Chronic kidney disease; Diabetes; Enzymatic antioxidants; Glomerular filtration rate; Medications; Soluble RAGE
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  10. Sazlina SG, Browning C, Yasin S
    PMID: 24392445 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00071
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  11. Chew BH, Mastura I, Bujang MA
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(3):11-8.
    PMID: 25893052 MyJurnal
    AIM: We examined disease profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) at four different public health facilities in Malaysia to determine which site would be the most suitable for early and intensive diabetes care against diabetes-related complications.
    METHODS: This study analysed 57,780 T2D patients in the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry database in the year 2009. The four public health facilities were hospital with specialists (HS), hospital without specialists (HNS), health clinics with family medicine specialists (CS) and health clinic without doctors (CND). Descriptive analyses were used to examine age, duration of diseases, intervals from the onset of diabetes to co-morbidities (hypertension and dyslipidaemia) and complication of T2D patients at the four public health facilities.
    RESULTS: Patients were significantly older in HS. Patients with T2D at HS had significantly longer duration of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Health clinics, both the CS and the CND, were seeing T2D patients with shorter duration of macrovascular and microvascular complications.
    CONCLUSION: Public health clinics in this country managed T2D patients who were younger and at the early stage of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and complications. Thus, primary care physicians are best positioned to provide early and intensive diabetes care for this group of T2D patients to prevent the development of diabetes-related complications.
    diabetes complications; disease management; health facilities; primary health care; type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Study name: Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) 2009
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  12. Rajan R, Sam-Aan M, Kosai NR, Shuhaili MA, Chee TS, Venkateswaran A, et al.
    J Minim Access Surg, 2019 Jan 04.
    PMID: 30618425 DOI: 10.4103/jmas.JMAS_219_18
    Introduction: Despite many challenges, the benefit of bariatric surgery in super-obese population remains irrefutable with significant improvement in metabolic syndrome and quality of life. There are currently no published data from Malaysia on this topic.

    Objective and Methodology: A single-centre retrospective study aimed at analysing the outcome of laparoscopic bariatric surgery on super-obese Malaysians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at 12 months following surgery. Demographic details, glycaemic control and weight-loss parameters were analysed. P < 0.01 was considered statistically significant.

    Results: Of the 33 patients, 55% were women and 45% were men with a mean age of 40 ± 11 years and body mass index (BMI) of 59.3 ± 9.0 kg/m2. Majority of patients were of Malay ethnicity (82%). Malaysian-Indians and Malaysian-Chinese each accounted for 9% of total case volume. The three types of laparoscopic bariatric surgery recorded in this study were sleeve gastrectomy (82%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (9%) and mini-gastric bypass (9%) with operative time of 103.5 ± 31.1, 135.8 ± 32.6 and 116.2 ± 32.3 min, respectively. Percentage total body weight loss was 33.11% ± 9.44% at 12 months following surgery (P < 0.01). BMI change and percentage excess BMI loss showed similar improvement. Glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting blood sugar decreased from pre-operative values of 7.0% ± 1.0% and 7.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L to 5.6% ± 0.4% and 5.0 ± 0.6 mmol/L at 12 months (P < 0.01). Remission of T2DM was noted in 93% of patients. There was no correlation between weight loss and improvement in glycaemic status.

    Conclusion: There are significant weight loss and improvement of glycaemic control at 12 months post-laparoscopic bariatric surgery among super-obese Malaysians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  13. Ismail M, Haniff J, Wan Bebakar WM
    Ismail M, Haniff J, Wan Bebakar WM. Diabetes Registry Malaysia: report of an audit of diabetes control and management (January-December 2009). Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre, 2010
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  14. Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T
    Australas Med J, 2015;8(6):179-88.
    PMID: 26213581 DOI: 10.4066/AMJ.2015.2330
    Once a disease of developed countries, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become widespread worldwide. For people with T2DM, achievement of therapeutic outcomes demands the rational and quality use of medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  15. Ang SH, Thevarajah M, Alias Y, Khor SM
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2015 Jan 15;439:202-11.
    PMID: 25451954 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2014.10.019
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pressing health issue that threatens global health and the productivity of populations worldwide. Despite its long-recognized role in diabetes management, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) only received WHO endorsement as a T2DM diagnostic tool in 2011. Although conventional plasma-specific tests have long been utilized to diagnose T2DM, the public should be informed that plasma-specific tests are not markedly better than HbA1c tests, particularly in terms of variability and convenience for diagnosing diabetes. In the midst of the debates associated with establishing HbA1c as the preeminent diabetes diagnostic tool, unceasing efforts to standardize HbA1c tests have played an integral part in achieving more efficient communication from laboratory to clinical practice and thus better diabetes care. This review discusses the current status of HbA1c tests in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and management of T2DM across the globe, focusing on increasing the recognition of glycated hemoglobin variants with effective utilization of different HbA1c methods, updating the current status of HbA1c standardization programs, tapping into the potential of POC analyzers to establish a cost-effective HbA1c test for diabetes care, and inspiring the advancement of HbA1c biosensors for future clinical usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
  16. Dhippayom T, Chaiyakunapruk N, Krass I
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2014 Jun;104(3):329-42.
    PMID: 24485859 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.01.008
    This review aimed to explore the extent of the use of diabetes risk assessment tools and to determine influential variables associated with the implementation of these tools. CINAHL, Google Scholar, ISI Citation Indexes, PubMed, and Scopus were searched from inception to January 2013. Studies that reported the use of diabetes risk assessment tools to identify individuals at risk of diabetes were included. Of the 1719 articles identified, 24 were included. Follow-up of high risk individuals for diagnosis of diabetes was conducted in 5 studies. Barriers to the uptake of diabetes risk assessment tools by healthcare practitioners included (1) attitudes toward the tools; (2) impracticality of using the tools and (3) lack of reimbursement and regulatory support. Individuals were reluctant to undertake self-assessment of diabetes risk due to (1) lack of perceived severity of type 2 diabetes; (2) impracticality of the tools; and (3) concerns related to finding out the results. The current use of non-invasive diabetes risk assessment scores as screening tools appears to be limited. Practical follow up systems as well as strategies to address other barriers to the implementation of diabetes risk assessment tools are essential and need to be developed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control*
  17. Rahman S, Rahman T, Ismail AA, Rashid AR
    Diabetes Obes Metab, 2007 Nov;9(6):767-80.
    PMID: 17924861 DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2006.00655.x
    The complications associated with diabetic vasculopathy are commonly grouped into two categories: microvascular and macrovascular complications. In diabetes, macrovascular disease is the commonest cause of mortality and morbidity and is responsible for high incidence of vascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular diseases. Macrovascular diseases are traditionally thought of as due to underlying obstructive atherosclerotic diseases affecting major arteries. Pathological changes of major blood vessels leading to functional and structural abnormalities in diabetic vessels include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular compliance and atherosclerosis. Besides, advanced glycation end product formation interacts with specific receptors that lead to overexpression of a range of cytokines. Haemodynamic pathways are activated in diabetes and are possibly amplified by concomitant systemic hypertension. Apart from these, hyperglycaemia, non-enzymatic glycosylation, lipid modulation, alteration of vasculature and growth factors activation contribute to development of diabetic vasculopathy. This review focuses on pathophysiology and pathogenesis of diabetes-associated macrovasculopathy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy
  18. Goh, Y.C., Lau, S.L., Ramanathan, A., Swaminathan, D.
    Ann Dent, 2013;20(2):24-28.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the tissue
    response of Type 2 diabetic subjects towards non surgical
    periodontal therapy as compared with matched, nondiabetic
    subjects. This was a retrospective, comparative
    study using periodontal case notes of 40 subjects attending
    undergraduates’ periodontal clinics (20 diabetics, 20 nondiabetics),
    who were selected based on the inclusion
    and exclusion criteria. Response towards non surgical
    periodontal therapy was assessed through three clinical
    periodontal parameters, namely plaque score, gingivitis
    score and number of periodontal pocket ≥5mm at the
    baseline and after initial non surgical periodontal therapy.
    Data obtained was then analyzed by SPSS Version 12.
    Both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects showed significant
    improvements (p-value = 0.021; 0.000; 0.001 and 0.010;
    0.014; 0.001) in all three parameters after the therapy.
    However, when comparison was made between the two
    groups, there was no significant difference (p-value = 0.913;
    0.892 and 0.903) in any of the parameters. Periodontal
    conditions improved clinically in both diabetic and nondiabetic
    subjects after non-surgical periodontal therapy.
    Therefore, both groups responded similarly towards the
    therapy and thus it can be postulated that well-controlled
    diabetic status does not have a significant effect on the
    outcome of periodontal therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  19. Samah S, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Neoh CF
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2016 Jun 18;118:172-182.
    PMID: 27388674 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2016.06.014
    To systematically review evidence of probiotic interventions against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and analyse the effects of probiotics on glycaemic control among T2DM patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  20. Gillani SW
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2016;22(42):6469-6476.
    PMID: 27526787 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160813235704
    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of chronic diseases are on the rise with majority occurring in developing countries where the projected death caused by chronic diseases will reach 50 million by the year 2020.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the outcomes of wireless mobile device (Telemonitoring) with Pharmacist intervention and usual care on glycemic control and clinical outcomes.
    METHOD: This study is a six-month parallel groups interventional longitudinal multi-center study with a control arm. The study participants consist of patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and attending the outpatient department (OPD) for diabetic treatment. The study protocol is approved from ministry of health Malaysia and clinical research committee (CRC). Data analysis was made using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 22 (Armok, NY).
    RESULTS: A total of 150 participants were selected to enroll in this study. Initial baseline comparison showed 'No significant difference' between the two intervention arms and control group. Findings showed that baseline dataset have no significant change among all three-arms. However last week of study showed significant (p<0.001) improvement among pharmacist intervention arm as compared to telemonitoring and control arm. Glycemic control seems well tolerated and managed among pharmacist intervention arm as compared to telemonitoring and control arm (p<0.001). The study findings also showed reduction of mean 2.72 % (HbA1c) as compare to baseline in six months. The proportion of participants experiencing hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic events was significantly lower in the pharmacist intervention group compared to telemonitoring and control arm (odds ratio: 2.1381; 95% CI: 3.0267-1.6059, p<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: The Pharmacist educational focus-home care program improves the patient knowledge, self-care practices and also significantly reduce the adverse events over study duration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology
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