Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 708 in total

  1. Abdulameer SA, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA, Subramaniam K, Sahib MN
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2012;6:435-48.
    PMID: 22791981 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S32745
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic and chronic metabolic disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. In addition, osteoporosis (OP) is a silent disease with a harmful impact on morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the relationship between OP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Systematic reviews of full-length articles published in English from January 1950 to October 2010 were identified in PubMed and other available electronic databases on the Universiti Sains Malaysia Library Database. The following keywords were used for the search: T2DM, OP, bone mass, skeletal. Studies of more than 50 patients with T2DM were included. Forty-seven studies were identified. The majority of articles (26) showed increased bone mineral density (BMD), while 13 articles revealed decreased BMD; moreover, eight articles revealed normal or no difference in bone mass. There were conflicting results concerning the influence of T2DM on BMD in association with gender, glycemic control, and body mass index. However, patients with T2DM display an increased fracture risk despite a higher BMD, which is mainly attributable to the increased risk of falling. As a conclusion, screening, identification, and prevention of potential risk factors for OP in T2DM patients are crucial and important in terms of preserving a good quality of life in diabetic patients and decreasing the risk of fracture. Patients with T2DM may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls. Patient education about an adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and regular exercise is important for improving muscle strength and balance. Furthermore, adequate glycemic control and the prevention of diabetic complications are the starting point of therapy in diabetic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  2. Chee CS, Chang KM, Loke MF, Angela Loo VP, Subrayan V
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2022.
    PMID: 27280065 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2022
    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of our study was to characterize the human salivary proteome and determine the changes in protein expression in two different stages of diabetic retinopathy with type-2 diabetes mellitus: (1) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and (2) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Type-2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy (XDR) was designated as control.
    METHOD: In this study, 45 saliva samples were collected (15 samples from XDR control group, 15 samples from NPDR disease group and 15 samples from PDR disease group). Salivary proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, trypsin digested and labeled with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) before being analyzed by an Orbitrap fusion tribrid mass spectrometer. Protein annotation, fold change calculation and statistical analysis were interrogated by Proteome Discoverer. Biological pathway analysis was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD003723-PX003725.
    RESULTS: A total of 315 proteins were identified from the salivary proteome and 119 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. The differentially expressed proteins from the NPDR disease group and the PDR disease group were assigned to respective canonical pathways indicating increased Liver X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, Farnesoid X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation, acute phase response signaling, sucrose degradation V and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho in the PDR disease group compared to the NPDR disease group.
    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Progression from non-proliferative to proliferative retinopathy in type-2 diabetic patients is a complex multi-mechanism and systemic process. Furthermore, saliva was shown to be a feasible alternative sample source for diabetic retinopathy biomarkers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  3. Bukhsh A, Khan TM, Lee SWH, Lee LH, Chan KG, Goh BH
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:339.
    PMID: 29692730 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00339
    Background: Comparative efficacy of different pharmacist based interventions on glycemic control of type 2 diabetes patients is unclear. This review aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different pharmacist based interventions on clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: A systematic search was conducted across five databases from date of database inception to September 2017. All randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of pharmacist based interventions on type 2 diabetes patients were included for network meta-analysis (NMA). The protocol is available with PROSPERO (CRD42017078854). Results: A total of 43 studies, involving 6259 type 2 diabetes patients, were included. NMA demonstrated that all interventions significantly lowered glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels compared to usual care, but there was no statistical evidence from this study that one intervention was significantly better than the other for reducing HbA1c levels. Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care showed maximum efficacy for reducing HbA1c levels [-0.86, 95% CI -0.983, -0.727; p < 0.001]. Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care was observed to be statistically significant in lowering levels of systolic blood pressure [-4.94; 95%CI -8.65, -1.23] and triglycerides levels [-0.26, 95%CI -0.51, -0.01], as compared to the interventions which involved diabetes education by pharmacist, and for body mass index (BMI) [-0.57; 95%CI -1.25, -0.12] in comparison to diabetes education by health care team involving pharmacist as member. Conclusion: The findings of this review demonstrate that all interventions had a significantly positive effect on HbA1c, but there was no statistical evidence from this study that one intervention was significantly better than the other for achieving glycemic control.Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care showed maximum efficacy on HbA1c and rest of the clinical outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  4. Kadirvelu A, Sadasivan S, Ng SH
    PMID: 23226028 DOI: 10.2147/DMSO.S37183
    Coping with type II diabetic patients is increasingly posing large financial burdens, sorely felt especially by growing economies. Self-management has been found to be an effective approach towards maintaining good control in diabetics. However, although efforts at implementing self-management have had initial success, there has been a lack of sustainability. This review examines the different components impinging on self-care among type II diabetic patients. These include the critical role of social support, the need for support from health care providers, the value of support from family and friends, the influence of sex and cultural factors in self-care behavior, the benefits of peer support, and the role of literacy in diabetes self-care. Despite the mounting evidence for the effectiveness of social support in diabetes care, and the various stakeholders including this in their clinical guidelines, there has only been a lukewarm response from policy-makers towards ensuring its implementation. Hence, more effort is required from health care providers in moving away from just understanding the effects of new drugs and subsequently putting their patients on these drugs, and going back to the basics of communicating with the patients, understanding their woes, and helping to motivate/empower their patients. This paper analyzes the various components of social support, their influence on diabetes self-care, and how health care providers can help in this process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  5. Bukhsh A, Khan TM, Nawaz MS, Ahmed HS, Chan KG, Lee LH, et al.
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2018;12:2377-2385.
    PMID: 30519003 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S177314
    Objective: Association of various self-care activities on glycemic control of people with diabetes (PWD) in Pakistan is yet to be explored. The current study aimed to evaluate the association of various diabetes-related self-care activities with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and to examine the predictive relationship of patients' demographic variables with their self-care activities.

    Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult PWD (N=218) who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus of at least 1 year duration. Self-care activities were examined by using the Urdu version of Diabetes Self-management Questionnaire. Linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the significant predictors for diabetes-related self-care activities and glycemic control.

    Results: Mean age of the patients was 50.77±13.3 years. Poor glycemic control (HbA1c $7%) was observed in majority of the patients (83%). Linear regression analysis revealed that glucose management (β=-0.44; 95% CI -0.438, -0.209; P<0.001) was the strongest predictor for low levels of patients' HbA1c, followed by dietary control (β=-0.19; 95% CI -0.248, -0.018; P=0.024) and physical activity (β=-0.17; 95% CI -0.165, -0.023; P=0.010), respectively. Linear regression analysis showed that use of oral hypoglycemic agents only (β=-0.218; 95% CI -0.956, -0.200; P=0.003) and higher education level (β=0.204; 95% CI 0.138, 0.777; P=0.005) were significant predictors for higher scores of patients' self-care activities.

    Conclusion: The findings support that PWD having better self-reported self-care activities achieve better glycemic control. Patients' self-care activities should be monitored on a regular basis, especially for those who are at risk of poor glycemic control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  6. Al-Shookri A, Khor GL, Chan YM, Loke SC, Al-Maskari M
    Malays J Nutr, 2011 Apr;17(1):129-41.
    PMID: 22135872 MyJurnal
    During the past four decades, Oman has undergone a rapid socioe-conomic and epidemiological transition leading to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of various communicable diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases. Health care planning together with the commitment of policy makers has been a critical factor in this reduction. However, with rapid social and economic growth, lifestyle-related non communicable diseases have emerged as new health challenges to the country. Diabetes and obesity are leading risks posed by the chronic diseases. The burden of diabetes has increased sharply in Oman over the last decade, rising from 8.3% in 1991 to 11.6% in 2000 among adults aged 20 years and older. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicted an increase of 190% in the number of subjects living with diabetes in Oman over the next 20 years, rising from 75,000 in 2000 to 217,000 in 2025. There is a lack of awareness of the major risk factors for diabetes mellitus in the Omani population generally. As education is often the most significant predictor of knowledge regarding risk factors, complications and the prevention of diabetes, health promotion in Oman is deemed critical, along with other prevention and control measures. Suitable prevention strategies for reducing the prevalence of diabetes in Oman are discussed. Recommendations are made for reforms in the current health care system; otherwise, diabetes will constitute a major drain on Oman's human and financial resources, threatening the advances in health and longevity achieved over the past decades.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/economics; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control*
  7. Thent ZC, Das S, Henry LJ
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(11):e80436.
    PMID: 24236181 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080436
    Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy*
  8. Alam F, Islam MA, Sasongko TH, Gan SH
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2016;22(28):4430-42.
    PMID: 27229721
    Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two independent diseases, evidences from epidemiological, pathophysiological and animal studies have indicated a close pathophysiological relationship between these diseases. Due to the pathophysiological similarity of T2DM and AD, which includes insulin resistance and deficiency, protein aggregation, oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagocytosis and advanced glycation end products; AD is often referred to as "type 3 diabetes". In addition to the targeted regimens usually used for treating T2DM and AD individually, currently, anti-diabetic drugs are successfully used to reduce the cognitive decline in AD patients. Therefore, if a common pathophysiology of T2DM and AD could be clearly determined, both diseases could be managed more efficiently, possibly by shared pharmacotherapy in addition to understanding the broader spectrum of preventive strategies. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological bridge between T2DM and AD to lay the foundation for the future treatment strategies in the management of both diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy
  9. Alam F, Islam MA, Gan SH, Mohamed M, Sasongko TH
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2016;22(28):4398-419.
    PMID: 27229720
    DNA methylation, a major regulator of epigenetic modifications has been shown to alter the expression of genes that are involved in aspects of glucose metabolism such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and other conditions, and it ultimately leads to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Current evidences indicate an association of DNA methylation with T2DM. This review provides an overview of how various factors play crucial roles in T2DM pathogenesis and how DNA methylation interacts with these factors. Additionally, an update on current techniques of DNA methylation analysis with their pros and cons is provided as a basis for the adoption of suitable techniques in future DNA methylation research towards better management of T2DM. To elucidate the mechanistic relationship between vital environmental factors and the development of T2DM, a better understanding of the changes in gene expression associated with DNA methylation at the molecular level is still needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology
  10. Feisul IM, Azmi S, Mohd Rizal AM, Zanariah H, Nik Mahir NJ, Fatanah I, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):271-277.
    PMID: 29197881 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: An economic analysis was performed to estimate the annual cost of diabetes mellitus to Malaysia.

    METHODS: We combined published data and clinical pathways to estimate cost of follow-up and complications, then calculated the overall national cost. Costs consisted of diabetes follow-up and complications costs.

    RESULTS: Patient follow-up was estimated at RM459 per year. Complications cost were RM42,362 per patient per year for nephropathy, RM4,817 for myocardial infarction, RM5,345 for stroke, RM3,880 for heart failure, RM5,519 for foot amputation, RM479 for retinopathy and RM4,812 for cataract extraction.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, we estimated the total cost of diabetes as RM2.04 billion per year for year 2011 (both public and private sector). Of this, RM1.40 billion per year was incurred by the government. Despite some limitations, we believe our study provides insight to the actual cost of diabetes to the country. The high cost to the nation highlights the importance of primary and secondary prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/economics*
  11. Chew BH, Mastura I, Bujang MA
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(3):11-8.
    PMID: 25893052 MyJurnal
    AIM: We examined disease profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) at four different public health facilities in Malaysia to determine which site would be the most suitable for early and intensive diabetes care against diabetes-related complications.
    METHODS: This study analysed 57,780 T2D patients in the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry database in the year 2009. The four public health facilities were hospital with specialists (HS), hospital without specialists (HNS), health clinics with family medicine specialists (CS) and health clinic without doctors (CND). Descriptive analyses were used to examine age, duration of diseases, intervals from the onset of diabetes to co-morbidities (hypertension and dyslipidaemia) and complication of T2D patients at the four public health facilities.
    RESULTS: Patients were significantly older in HS. Patients with T2D at HS had significantly longer duration of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Health clinics, both the CS and the CND, were seeing T2D patients with shorter duration of macrovascular and microvascular complications.
    CONCLUSION: Public health clinics in this country managed T2D patients who were younger and at the early stage of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and complications. Thus, primary care physicians are best positioned to provide early and intensive diabetes care for this group of T2D patients to prevent the development of diabetes-related complications.
    diabetes complications; disease management; health facilities; primary health care; type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Study name: Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) 2009
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  12. Lim PC, Lim K, Embee ZC, Hassali MA, Thiagarajan A, Khan TM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Mar;29(2):595-601.
    PMID: 27087103
    Involvement of pharmacists in improving medication adherence among diabetic patients is recognized globally. In Malaysian healthcare system, pharmacists are also operating health services i.e. Diabetes Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC). This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients managed by pharmacists (DMTAC), in a Malaysian hospital setting. This was an open labelled randomised study. Type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c ≥8% were recruited and arbitrarily divided into the intervention group (usual care plus DMTAC) and the non-intervention group (usual care only). Those enrolled in the intervention group were scheduled for follow-up for eight consecutive visits. Improvements in lab results were compared longitudinally (pre and post analysis) between the groups. Data analysis was done using PASW 18® version. A total of 76 patients were enrolled, with 39 patients in the intervention group and 37 patients in the non-intervention group. Mean HbA1c (-0.90% vs. -0.08%, p=0.011) and fasting blood glucose levels (-3.45 mmol.l vs. +0.79 mmol/l, p=0.002) reduced significantly between the intervention group vs. non-intervention group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also significantly reduced in the intervention group (TC -0.34 mmol/l, p=0.018) (LDL -0.45 mmol/l, p=0.001). In conclusion, pharmacists managed DMTAC significantly improved glycaemic control and lipid profile of diabetic patients.
    Study site: Outpatient Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  13. Chow EP, Hassali A
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A746.
    PMID: 27202698 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.171
    To evaluate the impact of home medication review programme (HMR) towards Type 2 Diabetes patients from public primary centre in Penang, Malaysia.

    A prospective randomised control study was conducted at Primary Clinic in Bukit Minyak, Penang. Eligible Type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c > 6.5% and taking ≥ 3 medications who stayed at their own house were recruited and randomly allocated into control and intervention group by coin tossing. Control group patients received usual care from the clinic whereas intervention group patients received additional 2 visits at their home by pharmacist. During both visits, education on quality use of medications and life-style modifications were performed.Blood pressure monitoring, point of care for sugar and total cholesterol levels were conducted in each visit. Patients adherence and knowledge were assessed using validated questionnaire. Pill count was conducted and excessive medications were collected to calculate the costing component. Primary outcomes were medication adherence and level of knowledge. Secondary outcomes included HbA1c, FBS and total cholesterol changes as well as patients’ satisfactions towards HMR and direct cost saving from the programme.

    A total of 150 patients were recruited and randomly assigned in two groups (n=75 each group). Fifty patients in the intervention group completed the study. After 2 home visits there were significant improvements in the adherence score for the intervention group (mean score=6.90,SD=0.94) compared to the control group (mean score=4.05, SD=1.51). There was a significant improvement in knowledge score after HMR programme, intervention group (mean score=10.04, SD=1.75) and the control group (mean score=5.45, SD=1.89). A direct cost analysis of the medication wasted reveals that HMR can help to save RM 2805.50 (USD 855.34) throughout the eight months period.

    Pharmacist-led HMR have improved patients’ adherence and knowledge as well as helping the policy makers to save money on excessive medication wastage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  14. Wong FN, Tan JA, Keng TC, Ng KP, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2016 Jan 30;453:56-61.
    PMID: 26657980 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2015.12.002
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between soluble RAGE and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) after controlling for the potential confounding factors such as medication usage and enzymatic antioxidants.
    METHODS: A total of 222 CKD patients whose eGFR is less than 60ml/min/1.73m(2) and 111 non-CKD individuals were recruited. The study subjects were classified based on their diabetes status. The plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as plasma soluble RAGE level were measured.
    RESULTS: The plasma GPx and SOD activities were significantly lower and the plasma soluble RAGE level was significantly higher in the CKD patients than in the non-CKD individuals, regardless of the diabetes status. Soluble RAGE was significantly correlated with eGFR in both diabetic CKD (D-CKD) and non-diabetic CKD (ND-CKD) patients. The association between soluble RAGE and eGFR remained largely unaffected by the confounding factors in D-CKD patients. However, the confounding effect of enzymatic antioxidants in the relationship between eGFR and soluble RAGE was observed in ND-CKD patients.
    CONCLUSION: The increased plasma level of soluble RAGE is a better indicator of renal function decline in diabetic CKD patients instead of non-diabetic CKD patients.
    KEYWORDS: Chronic kidney disease; Diabetes; Enzymatic antioxidants; Glomerular filtration rate; Medications; Soluble RAGE
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  15. Sazlina SG, Browning C, Yasin S
    PMID: 24392445 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00071
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  16. Abdullah A, Liew SM, Salim H, Ng CJ, Chinna K
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(5):e0216402.
    PMID: 31063470 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216402
    BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) skills are essential to enable self-management and shared decision-making in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Limited HL in these patients is associated with poorer outcomes. It is not clear what the burden of limited HL in patients with T2DM across countries and what factors influence it.

    METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017056150). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ERIC for articles published up to January 2017. Articles that measured HL levels in adult patients with T2DM; that used validated HL tools; and that were reported in English were included. Two reviewers assessed studies for eligibility and quality, and extracted the data. Prevalence of limited HL is calculated from the number of patients with less than adequate HL over the total number of patients with T2DM in the study. Meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis were conducted using the Open Meta-analyst software.

    RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies involving 13,457 patients with T2DM from seven countries were included. In total, seven different HL measurement tools were used. The prevalence of limited HL ranged from 7.3% to 82%, lowest in Switzerland and the highest in Taiwan. Meta-regression analysis of all included studies showed the country of study (p<0.001), HL tool used (p = 0.002), and the country's region (p<0.001) contributed to the variation findings. Thirteen studies in the USA measured functional HL. The pooled prevalence of inadequate functional HL among patients with T2DM in the USA was 28.9% (95% CI: 20.4-37.3), with high heterogeneity (I2 = 97.9%, p <0.001). Studies were done in the community as opposed to a hospital or primary care (p = 0.005) and populations with education level lower than high school education (p = 0.009) reported a higher prevalence of limited HL.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of limited HL in patients with T2DM varied widely between countries, HL tools used and the country's region. Pooled prevalence showed nearly one in three patients with T2DM in the USA had limited functional HL. Interactions with healthcare providers and educational attainment were associated with reported of prevalence in the USA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology*
  17. Brož J, Salih FMA
    Dig Dis, 2020;38(1):31.
    PMID: 31336373 DOI: 10.1159/000501550
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  18. Lim LL, Chan JCN
    Hong Kong Med J, 2019 08;25(4):268-270.
    PMID: 31416989 DOI: 10.12809/hkmj195089
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  19. Ismail M, Haniff J, Wan Bebakar WM
    Ismail M, Haniff J, Wan Bebakar WM. Diabetes Registry Malaysia: report of an audit of diabetes control and management (January-December 2009). Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre, 2010
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  20. Ang SH, Thevarajah M, Alias Y, Khor SM
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2015 Jan 15;439:202-11.
    PMID: 25451954 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2014.10.019
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pressing health issue that threatens global health and the productivity of populations worldwide. Despite its long-recognized role in diabetes management, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) only received WHO endorsement as a T2DM diagnostic tool in 2011. Although conventional plasma-specific tests have long been utilized to diagnose T2DM, the public should be informed that plasma-specific tests are not markedly better than HbA1c tests, particularly in terms of variability and convenience for diagnosing diabetes. In the midst of the debates associated with establishing HbA1c as the preeminent diabetes diagnostic tool, unceasing efforts to standardize HbA1c tests have played an integral part in achieving more efficient communication from laboratory to clinical practice and thus better diabetes care. This review discusses the current status of HbA1c tests in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and management of T2DM across the globe, focusing on increasing the recognition of glycated hemoglobin variants with effective utilization of different HbA1c methods, updating the current status of HbA1c standardization programs, tapping into the potential of POC analyzers to establish a cost-effective HbA1c test for diabetes care, and inspiring the advancement of HbA1c biosensors for future clinical usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis*; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
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