INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is endemic to tropical regions of the world and is re-emerging as a new danger to public health in Malaysia. the purpose of this particular study was to determine the common leptospiral serovars present in human communities living around wildlife reserves/disturbed forest habitats. the objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and finding infecting serovars in villages surrounded habitats where wildlife lives in Sarawak, Malaysia.
METHODS: A cross-sectional serological survey of 198 humans was conducted in four villages around Kuching, Sarawak between January 2011 and March 2012.
RESULTS: A seroprevalence of 35.9% (95%cI 29.2-43.0) to the MAt was detected in the tested humans. Antibodies to serovar Lepto 175 Sarawak were most commonly detected (31.3%; 95%cI 24.9-38.3) and were detected in individuals at all four locations. the presence of skin wounds (Or 3.1), farm animals (Or 2.5) and rats (Or 11.2) were all significantly associated with seropositivity in a multivariable logistic regression model.
CONCLUSIONS: the results of the current study are important as wildlife may act as reservoirs of leptospires for humans. Health authorities should expand disease control measures to minimise the spill-over from wildlife to humans visiting, living or working in the sampled locations. the pathogenic status of serovar Lepto 175 Sarawak also requires further investigation.
INTRODUCTION: Despite the high prevalence rates of depression amongst chronic pain patients reported globally, the condition is often under-recognised and under-treated. Depression frequently complicates the effective management of pain and is associated with poor quality of life. This study aimed to explore the incidence of depression and its' associated factors in a sample of chronic pain patients in Malaysia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst clinically diagnosed chronic pain patients from the pain management clinic of Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah over a period of seven months. Socio-demographics and clinical data were obtained from patients' interview and medical records. The validated Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was used for screening and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to establish the depression diagnoses among the patients. Numeric pain intensity scale was used to assess the severity of pain.
RESULTS: Eighty-three patients with a mean age of 50.4±12.50 years participated in this study. The majority of the patients were females (56.6%), married (85.5%) and being employed (49.4%). The percentage of depression was 37.4%. Depression was significantly associated with severity of pain (p<0.001) and the duration of pain (p <0.05).
CONCLUSION: Almost one third of chronic pain patients in this study have depression. Depression was significantly associated with the severity and duration of pain. Depression should be regularly screened among patient with chronic pain.
INTRODUCTION: This study aims for construct validation using two approaches, i.e., exploratory factor analysis and Rasch Model.
METHODS: A cross sectional of 313 male workers from multiple worksites had completed self-administered Malay translated version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- R21. Data quality was assessed by misfit person criteria, dimensionality, summary statistic, item measure and rating (partial credit) scale followed by exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency reliability assessment.
RESULTS: The dual approaches of construct validation analysis were complement to each other. Rasch analysis supported the theoretical constructs of three eating behaviour dimensions among respondents. In contrary to exploratory factor analysis, it did show presence of a newfound factor (∝=0.04) came up from the separation of the cognitive restrain and uncontrolled eating however, the correlation between the two respective sub-factors were fair (r=0.39) and weak (r= -0.08). Both analyses had detected three problematic items but those items were psychometrically fit for used for current study setting. The data had adequate psychometric properties. Cronbach's alpha for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were 0.66, 0.79 and 0.87 respectively. Rating scale quality was conformed to standard criteria.
CONCLUSION: Malay version TFEQ-R21 with promising psychometric properties and valid measures for eating behaviour dimensions among male workers aged between 20 to 60 years old is now available. Further development should focus on the items in relation to Malaysian cultural adaptation before its use for daily practice in future setting.
OBJECTIVES: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems faced by health care professionals due to their occupational lifestyle. This study aimed to quantify the prevalence of LBP among clinicians, and to identify its associated factors.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) among 460 clinicians from different specialties. A validated questionnaire of 21 items was used to collect data. Chi-square test and odds ratios were used to observe and measure the association between categorical variables. Binary logistic regression by Wald method was used to identify independent factors associated with LBP (yes/no).
RESULTS: The prevalence of LBP was found to be 59.4% (244) with 38% of them reported as severe. The distribution of prevalence among consultants, registrars and residents was 110 (45.1%), 91 (37.3%) and 43 (17.6%) respectively. Out of 114 (46.7%) surgeons who suffer from LBP we found, orthopaedic surgeons had 10.2% prevalence of LBP. Male clinician (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.1- 2.8), consultant (4.1; 95% CI: 2.1-8.3), registrar (2.2; 95% CI: 1.2-4.2), more than 10 hours/week near bedside (1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.0), bending backwards at work (8.3; 95% CI: 5.1-13.4) and pulling objects during work (3.1; 95% CI: 1.7-5.6) were found to be independent statistically significant associated factors of LBP.
CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of LBP among clinicians and its associated factors indicates that clinicians should maintain good posture and avoid sudden movements during working hours in hospital to reduce this occupational health problem.
BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical students have been the most distressed group among the student population. Depression and anxiety have been found to be more prevalent in this group of students compared to others.
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of suicidality among undergraduate medical students in a public university.
METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university in Selangor, Malaysia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires from January to February 2013, and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software (version 21).
RESULTS: Out of 625 undergraduate medical students, 537 (85.9%) participated in the study. The prevalence of the suicidality among undergraduate medical students was 7.0%. The significant predictors of suicidality based on multiple logistic regression were the respondent's lifetime suicide attempts (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR 10.4, 95% CI 2.7 to 40.9); depression (AOR 5.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 23.0); breaking off a steady love relationship (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 22.4); hopelessness (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 21.6); and something valued being lost or stolen (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 15.9).
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that mental health care services should be strengthened at university level. The results show a need for an intervention programme to reduce suicidality among the undergraduate medical students.
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Malaysia. There is evidence of high traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) use among population with cardiovascular risk and there have been anecdotal reports about substitution of conventional medicines with TCM. We investigated the prevalence of TCM use, treatment preference and substitution of conventional medicines in study population with cardiovascular risk factors in Pahang, Malaysia.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire in five districts of Pahang. A total of 1250 households were chosen through proportionate and systematic sampling. Respondents aged 18 years and above were selected.
RESULTS: The study population with cardiovascular risk factors who used TCM was higher than the general population (31.7% versus 25.9%). There were no clear preferences in using TCM by gender, age groups, educational level and income even though other bumiputeras showed a slight inclination towards TCM use. Among the study population with cardiovascular risk factors who consumed TCM, 20-30% of them were using TCM as a substitute for their conventional medications. Respondents from the younger age group (18-40 years) (57.1%), highest educational level (43.2%), other bumiputeras (38.4%) and highest income group (31.4%) preferred the combination of both conventional and traditional medicine.
CONCLUSION: TCM use among population with cardiovascular risk factors is high. The high preference for combination therapy of TCM and conventional medications among young adults and the use of TCM to substitute conventional medications show that much research is needed to provide proven TCM therapies to avoid self-mismanagement of cardiovascular risk in Malaysia.
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) are common. There are only few studies on the incidence of cADRs in Malaysia.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, clinical features and risk factors of cADRs among hospitalized patients.
METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among medical inpatients from July to December 2014.
RESULTS: A total of 43 cADRs were seen among 11 017 inpatients, yielding an incidence rate of 0.4%. cADR accounted for hospitalization in 26 patients. Previous history of cADR was present in 14 patients, with 50% exposed to the same drug taken previously. Potentially lifethreatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR), namely drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS: 14 cases) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN: 6 cases) comprise almost 50% of cADRs. The commonest culprit drug group was antibiotics (37.2%), followed by anticonvulsants (18.6%). Cotrimoxazole, phenytoin and rifampicin were the main causative drugs for DRESS. Anticonvulsants were most frequently implicated in SJS/TEN (66.7%). Most cases had "probable" causality relationship with suspected drug (69.8%). The majority of cases were of moderate severity (65.1%), while 18.6% had severe reaction with 1 death recorded. Most cases were not preventable (76.7%). Older age (> 60 years) and mucosal involvement were significantly associated with a more severe reaction.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of cADRs was 0.4%, with most cases classified as moderate severity and not preventable. The commonest reaction pattern was DRESS, while the main culprit drug group was antibiotics. Older age and mucosal membrane involvement predicts a severe drug reaction.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of cases and episodes of needlestick injury among three groups of health care workers in the past one-year, the level of knowledge on blood-borne diseases and universal precautions and the practice of universal precautions. Other factors associated with the occurrence of needlestick injuries and the reporting of needlestick injuries were also analysed.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2003 to study the needlestick injuries among 285 health care workers (doctors, nurses, medical students) in a public teaching hospital in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
RESULTS: The prevalence of needlestick injuries among the respondents was 24.6% involving 71 cases i.e. 48.0% among doctors, 22.4% among medical students, and 18.7% among nurses and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). There were a total of 174 episodes of needlestick injury. Prevalence of episode of needlestick injuries was highest among doctors (146%), followed by nurses (50.7%) and medical students (29.4%). Cases of needlestick injuries attained lower scores on practice of universal precautions compared to non-cases (p<0.001). About 59% of cases of needlestick injury did not report their injuries.
CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that needlestick injuries pose a high risk to health care workers and it is underreported most of the time. Many needlestick injuries can be prevented by strictly following the practice of universal precautions.
Nurses’ job performance is defined as the effectiveness of a person in carrying out his or her duties related to patient care. Aim of this study is to measure job performance among nurses in a tertiary hospital and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among nurses selected from four departments, which were Obstetrics & Gynecology (O&G), medical, surgical and Cardiac Care Unit (CCU)/High Dependency Unit (HDU). A Malay validated Six-Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance (6-DSNP) questionnaire was used to measure job performance. Nurses who have one child more compared to other nurses had significantly lower total mean score of job performance by -0.06 (95% CI 0.11, 0.01). Nurses working in medical department [adj.β=0.16 (95% CI 0.01, 0.30)] and CCU/HDU [adj.β= 0.33(95% CI: 0.17, 0.50)] had significantly higher total mean scores of jobs performance compared to O&G department. Effective strategies and re-examining work conditions are imperative for better job performance.
Study site: Department of
Medical, Department of Surgical, Department of
Obstetrics & Gynecology (O&G) and Cardiac Care
Unit/ High Dependency Unit (CCU/HDU) of Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after cardiac surgery and has been associated with poor outcome and increased resource utilization. The main objective of this study is to determine the incidence of POAF in Malaysia and identify the predictors of developing POAF. The secondary outcome of this study would be to investigate the difference in mortality and morbidity rates and the duration of intensive care unit (ICU), high dependency unit (HDU) and hospital stay between the two. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center, cross sectional study conducted at the National Heart Institute, Malaysia. Medical records of 637 who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in 2015 were accrued. Pre-operative, operative and post-operative information were subsequently collected on a pre-formulated data collection sheet. Data were then analyzed using IBM SPSS v23. Results: The incidence of POAF in our study stands at 28.7% with a mean onset of 45±33 hours post operatively. Variables with independent association with POAF include advancing age, Indian population, history of chronic kidney disease, left ventricular ejection fraction and beta-blocker treatment. The mortality rate is significantly higher statistically ( p < 0.05), and similarly the incidence of stroke. The incidence of other post-operative complications was also significantly higher statistically. The duration of ICU, HDU and hospital stays were statistically longer ( p < 0.001) with higher rates of ICU readmissions and reintubations seen. Conclusion: We conclude that the incidence of POAF in Malaysia is comparable to the figures in Western countries, making POAF one of the most commonly encountered condition after CABG with similar higher rates of mortality, poor outcomes and longer duration of stay, and therefore increased cost of care. Strategies to reduce the incidence of AF after cardiac surgery should favorably affect surgical outcomes and reduce utilization of resources and thus lower cost of care.
Global views emphasize the need for early; effective intervention against the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to reduce the risk of premature cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to determine the clinical practices and compliance among dyslipidemia with type II diabetes and hypertension in multiracial society.
INTRODUCTION: Awareness for paediatric palliative care has resulted in the impetus for paediatrician-led palliative care services across Malaysia. However, there is paucity of local data on patients receiving hospital-based paediatric palliative care. We aim to review the clinical spectrum of patients referred to these services.
METHODS: An observational study of children aged between 0-18 years receiving palliative care at 13 hospitals between 1st January and 31st December 2014 was carried out.
RESULTS: There were 315 patients analysed, 90 (28.6%) and 46 (14.6%) were neonates and adolescents respectively. The main ICD-10 diagnostic categories for all patients were identified to be 'Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities' 117 (37.1%), 'Diseases of nervous system' 76 (24.1%) and 'Neoplasms' 60 (19.0%). At referral 156 (50%) patients had holistic needs assessments. Patients with 'Diseases of nervous system' were assessed to have significantly more physical needs than the other two diagnostic categories. Majority of patients who knew of their diagnosis and prognosis were those with malignancy. Over a fifth of referrals were at their terminal admission. Of 144 who died, 111 (77.1%) had advanced care plans. There was bereavement follow-up in 98 (68.1%) patients.
CONCLUSION: Patients referred for palliative care have varied diagnoses and needs. To ensure all paediatricians are competent to deliver quality care to all children, further education and training initiatives is imperative.
Background: Nurses are the highest numbered
healthcare professionals who work in a knowledgedriven
environment, where accurate and updated
information is needed when delivering care to clients.
Information literacy has therefore become one of the
criteria in determining nurses’ readiness for evidencebased
practice in recent years. In the actual day-to-day
care practice, are nurses ready for this?
Objective: To determine the information literacy
competency in readiness for evidence-based practice
among clinical practicing registered nurses in a private
hospital in Penang, Malaysia.
Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was
conducted in the selected private hospital. Universal
sampling method was used. At the time of study, there
were 443 registered nurses who met the eligibility
criteria of this study. The registered nurses were asked
to complete a self-reporting questionnaire about
information literacy for evidence-based practice.
Results: The response rate was 86.2%, with a total of
382 returned questionnaires. Less than half of the
participants (47%) stated that they frequently sourced
information to support nursing practice. Poor research
experiences among these participants were identified
where 56% of the registered nurses never identified
researchable problems, 59% have not evaluated a
research report and 54% have never utilised research
into practice. Registered nurses frequently sought
information sources from colleagues or peers (65%)
rather than from printed resources, where only 43% and
33% respectively make use of CINAHL and MEDLINE
bibliography databases as the electronic resources for
Conclusions: Results demonstrated that information
literacy among registered nurses from this hospital
was lacking. Organisation efforts are needed to create
awareness of information for evidence-based practice
as well as to encourage more research activities and the
search of bibliography database among its registered
Study site: Private hospital, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
We explored factors associated with alcohol use before or during sex among a sample of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia who were recruited online for the study. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that having sex under the influence of alcohol was associated with having multiple male partners, seeking partners primarily through gay bar/gym/dance party/friends, selling sex and using multiple drugs during the past 6 months, and unprotected anal sex. More efforts are needed to better assess alcohol use and misuse among MSM in Asia and understand contextual influences on alcohol use and HIV-related behaviors in order to implement culturally-specific interventions.
Adolescent smoking is an emerging health concern in the developing countries. A cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence and smoking behaviour of adolescents in Sarawak. The prevalence of smoking is 32.8% with mean age of initiation at 12.8±1.9 years. Most (67.2%) adolescents are experimental smokers and the majority (67.9%) did not smoke on a daily basis. Branded cigarettes are preferred (83.1%) and the cigarettes are obtained either from friends (49.1%) or self purchased (43.6%). Students prefer to smoke at their friend's house (31.0%) or at school (25.3%). Smoking prevalence among adolescents in Sarawak is high and begins early. Early intervention on smoking prevention and risk awareness is perhaps more effective if initiated before the age of 12 years.
A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among Big Sib students to explore their perceptions of the educational environment at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) and its weak areas using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory. The DREEM inventory is a validated global instrument for measuring educational environments in undergraduate medical and health professional education.
Primary dysmenorrhea is a womanhood problem around the world and negatively affects quality of life. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea and to determine the factors associated with its intensity. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 311 undergraduate female students aged 18 to 27 years in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Socio-demographic characteristics and menstrual factors were obtained through interviews with the help of a pretested questionnaire. The prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was 89.1%. Residing at home, younger age, lower number of years of formal education for the mother, positive family history of dysmenorrhea, higher severity of bleeding, and shorter menstrual period intervals were significantly associated with the higher intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a common health concern among young women. Being aware of the factors that are associated with its intensity makes it possible for health professionals to organize better focused programs to reduce the adverse effects of dysmenorrhea.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare empathy levels between first year and second year medical students at a Malaysian University.
SETTING: A Malaysian University offering undergraduate medicine.
PARTICIPANTS: 204 undergraduate medical students were included in the data analysis (122 first years, and 102 second years).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported empathy scores using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (Student Version) JSPE-S.
RESULTS: The mean empathy score for first year students was 112.1(SD=10.7). This was significantly higher (p<0.038; d=0.31) than second year students (mean=108.8, SD=10.4). No significant difference relating to gender was identified.
CONCLUSION: Cross-sectional results from this study found that that there were differences in self-reported empathy scores between year one and year two students. Further research is required to ascertain if these differences are maintained as students' progress thought their medical degree, and whether other factors such as internships, medical rotations or clinical supervision have any impact of medical students' empathy levels.
A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate the extent of occupational health problems focusing on some aspects of musculoskeletal symptoms among batik workers in Kelantan, Malaysia. The workers selected must have been in that industry for at least one year. Using cluster sampling, 202 workers were selected from 21 factories. More than half (60.2%) of the workers had been troubled with musculoskeletal symptoms at work. The most common symptoms were pain over the shoulders (41.0%), lower back (34.4%) and ankle (34.4%). Duration of employment, younger age group, prolonged standing and awkward working task were among contributing factors. It is therefore necessary to improve on both ergonomic and psychosocial environments of batik workers in order to prevent these musculoskeletal symptoms.
The aim of this study was to identify the problems of stress and health effect among the office computer users. A total of 41 office workers whose job required the use of computers. A set of constructed questionnaire were use to measure the work stress and health problems among workers. The data was analyzed by using of descriptive and inference statistic. The result showed that subjects who use computer for more than 2 hours would experienced work stress such as fatigue 29(70.7%), eye and visual symptoms such as blurring of vision 27(65.9%) and musculoskeletal pain at neck 32( 78.6%). However most of symptoms were moderate. There were a significant relationship between the time spent of using computer with problem of stress (r= 0.440, p<0.05) and eyes and visual problem (r=0.319, p<0.05). However there was no significant relationship between the work station design with stress, musculoskeletal, eye and visual problems. Therefore the longer time spent using computer will lead to health problems. Using the safety operating procedure will reduce the work stress problems.
Keys word: Work stress, health problems, computer users