OBJECTIVES: In our study, we aimed to describe and correlate the level of knowledge and attitude with the level of compliance with personal hygiene and physical distancing practices among Asian countries in the early phase of pandemic.
METHODS: A multinational cross-sectional study was carried out using electronic surveys between May and June 2020 across 14 geographical areas. Subjects aged 21 years and above were invited to participate through social media, word of mouth and electronic mail.
RESULTS: Among the 2574 responses obtained, 762 (29.6%) participants were from East Asia and 1812 (70.4%) were from Southeast Asia (SEA). A greater proportion of participants from SEA will practise physical distancing as long as it takes (72.8% vs 60.6%). Having safe distancing practices such as standing more than 1 or 2 m apart (AdjOR 5.09 95% CI (1.08 to 24.01)) or more than 3 or 4 m apart (AdjOR 7.05 95% CI (1.32 to 37.67)), wearing a mask when they had influenza-like symptoms before the COVID-19 pandemic, preferring online news channels such as online news websites/applications (AdjOR 1.73 95% CI (1.21 to 2.49)) and social media (AdjOR 1.68 95% CI (1.13 to 2.50) as sources of obtaining information about COVID-19 and high psychological well-being (AdjOR 1.39 95% CI (1.04 to 1.87)) were independent factors associated with high compliance.
CONCLUSIONS: We found factors associated with high compliance behaviour against COVID-19 in the early phase of pandemic and it will be useful to consider them in risk assessment, communication and pandemic preparedness.
METHOD: The COVID-19 Vaccination Policy Research and Decision-Support Initiative in Asia (CORESIA) was established to address policy questions related to CVCs. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to October 2021 in nine Asian countries. Multivariable logistical regression analyses were performed to identify potential opposers of CVCs.
RESULTS: Six groups were identified as potential opposers of CVCs: (i) unvaccinated (Odd Ratio (OR): 2.01, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.65-2.46); vaccine hesitant and those without access to COVID-19 vaccines; (ii) those not wanting existing NPIs to continue (OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 2.51-3.53); (iii) those with low level of trust in governments (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-2.52); (iv) those without travel plans (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.31-1.90); (v) those expecting no financial gains from CVCs (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.98-2.78); and (vi) those disagreeing to use CVCs for employment, education, events, hospitality, and domestic travel.
CONCLUSIONS: Addressing recurring public health bottlenecks such as vaccine hesitancy and equitable access, adherence to policies, public trust, and changing the narrative from 'societal-benefit' to 'personal-benefit' may be necessary and may help increase wider adoption of CVCs in Asia.
METHODS: Findings are based on analysis of survey and interview data collected 1.5-2 years after the conclusion of the two 2018 IR MOOC offerings. Of the 3858 MOC participants, 748 responded to the anonymous online survey and seven of these respondents were interviewed. All data are self-reported.
RESULTS: The IR MOOC was successful in enhancing the professional practice of participants and for their organisations. Over 40% reported modifying or implementing changes in their professional work. Respondents reported that participation in the MOOC had improved their ability to conduct IR, enhanced their professional profiles and increased their opportunities for collaboration, research and job promotion. Respondents stated that the MOOC had improved their work quality and productivity, and allowed them to contribute to research, initiate and develop professional collaborations and train others in IR. Respondents reported an increase in applying for grants and scholarships and presenting and publishing work on IR after participating in the MOOC. Barriers applying the knowledge gained from the IR MOOC were experienced, for example, due to a lack of funding and lack of support from colleagues, managers and organisations.
CONCLUSION: Participants perceived that the IR MOOC was successful in its aims of delivering medium-term and long-term results in relation to their own and their organisations' professional outcomes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the TB/Leprosy Unit of the State Health Department of Kelantan (JKNK) using secondary data from January 2014 to December 2018 assessed in the MyTB online system. The data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 and STATA 14. Ethics approvals were obtained from Medical Research Ethics Committee (MREC) and UniSZA Human Research Ethics Committee (UHREC).
RESULTS: Kelantan had 6,313 TB cases from January 2014 to December 2018. There were 703 (11.1%) cases of TB and HIV co-infection. The prevalence of successful treatment among TB and HIV co-infected patients was 57.1%. The duration of treatment and anatomy of TB location was significantly associated with TB treatment success.
CONCLUSION: This study's findings showed that the prevalence of TB treatment success rate was 57.1%, and the unsuccessful rate was 42.9%. The treatment duration and the TB location's anatomy were significantly associated with the treatment success rate. Improving TB treatment outcomes should be started with anti-TB treatment immediately after TB diagnosis. Therefore, the government should strengthen the TB/HIV collaborative efforts to achieve good treatment outcomes among these vulnerable patients.
AIM: To investigate the impact of dysphagia on the QoL in stroke patients.
METHODS: Relevant types of literature were searched from PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases from inception to July 2022. Peerreviewed studies that aimed to determine the impact of dysphagia on the QoL in stroke patients were included regardless of the year of publication. The National Institutes of Health tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. In addition, data analysis was conducted using qualitative methodology with narrative synthesis.
RESULTS: A total of 6 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total number of 381 participants. Only one study has good methodological quality while other studies have fair methodological quality. Dysphagia negatively impacts the QoL in stroke patients, especially those with severe dysphagia. However, after treatment, changes were evident through improved QoL and decreased severity of dysphagia. Moreover, the research found that patients with a higher educational level have a better QoL.
CONCLUSION: Dysphagia has a negative impact on the QoL in stroke patients, so dysphagia in stroke patients should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible to avoid poor QoL.
METHOD: Based on a pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42021256352), we searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge/Science, Ovid Medline, Embase and APA PsycINFO up to 16th November 2021, with no language/type of document restrictions. We included observational studies reporting at least one measure of vision in people of any age meeting DSM/ICD criteria for ADHD and in people without ADHD; or the prevalence of ADHD in people with and without vision disorders. Study quality was assessed with the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS). Random effects meta-analyses were used for data synthesis.
RESULTS: We included 42 studies in the narrative synthesis and 35 studies in the meta-analyses (3,250,905 participants). We found meta-analytic evidence of increased risk of astigmatism (OR = 1.79 [CI: 1.50, 2.14]), hyperopia and hypermetropia (OR = 1.79 [CI: 1.66, 1.94]), strabismus (OR = 1.93 [CI: 1.75, 2.12]), unspecified vision problems (OR = 1.94 [CI: 1.38, 2.73]) and reduced near point of convergence (OR = 5.02 [CI: 1.78, 14.11]); increased lag (Hedge's g = 0.63 [CI: 0.30, 0.96]) and variability (Hedge's g = 0.40 [CI: 0.17, 0.64]) of the accommodative response; and increased self-reported vision problems (Hedge's g = 0.63 [CI: 0.44, 0.82]) in people with ADHD compared to those without ADHD (with no significant heterogeneity). We also found meta-analytic evidence of no differences between people with and without ADHD on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (Hedge's g = -0.19 [CI: -0.41, 0.02]) and refractive error (Hedge's g = 0.08 [CI: -0.26, 0.42]) (with no significant heterogeneity).
DISCUSSION: ADHD is associated with some self-reported and objectively ascertained functional vision problems, but not with structural alterations of the eye. Further studies should clarify the causal relationship, if any, between ADHD and problems of vision.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration: CRD42021256352.
METHODS: The reporting of this systematic review is in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We carried out a literature search through three databases (Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science) and targeted original article published in English between 2012 and 2021. Quality appraisal of the eligible articles was conducted using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Findings were synthesized using content analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 86 studies were included. We found a variety of questionnaires assessing risk perception of NCDs, with many differences in their development, domains, items and validity. We also identified several personal, sociopsychological and structural factors associated with risk perception of NCDs.
LIMITATIONS: Most of the included studies were of cross-sectional design, and therefore the quality of evidence was considered low and exhibit a high risk of bias. The role of publication bias within this systematic review should be acknowledged as we did not include grey literature. Additionally, language bias must be considered as we only included English-language publications.
CONCLUSION: Further development and testing of available questionnaire is warranted to ensure their robustness and validity in measuring risk perception of NCDs. All the identified factors deserve further exploration in longitudinal and experimental studies.
OBJECTIVE: This study undertakes a scoping review of research on the impacts of dietary sugar on cardiometabolic related health outcomes.
METHODS: Ovid Medline, Scopus and Web of Science Core collection databases were used to identify papers published from January 1, 2010 onwards. The included studies had to be cross-sectional or cohort studies, peered review, published in English and in adults, aged 18 years old and above. Articles had to determine the impacts of sugar intake on cardiometabolic related health outcomes. Study quality was measured using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. In addition, a narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted.
RESULTS: Thirty-one articles were included in this review. All studies had a large sample size, and the exposure measure was clearly defined, valid and applied consistently across all study participants. Exposure was measured using validated questionnaires. All data were statistically analysed and adjusted for critical potential confounding variables. Results showed that dietary sugar intake was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipids, and body weight.
CONCLUSION: Dietary sugar intake significantly increased cardiometabolic risks through mechanisms dependent and independent of weight gain. It is essential to create public awareness on the topics of cardiometabolic risk management and dietary sugars intake.