• 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 Centre for Green Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia; Future Technology Research Center, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123 University Road, Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan. Electronic address:
  • 3 Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia; Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al Khobar 31952, Saudi Arabia
  • 4 Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
  • 5 Korea Biochar Research Centre, APRU Sustainable Waste Management Program & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea
J Hazard Mater, 2022 Feb 15;424(Pt B):127396.
PMID: 34673394 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127396


The application of waste oils as pyrolysis feedstocks to produce high-grade biofuels is receiving extensive attention, which will diversify energy supplies and address environmental challenges caused by waste oils treatment and fossil fuel combustion. Waste oils are the optimal raw materials to produce biofuels due to their high hydrogen and volatile matter content. However, traditional disposal methods such as gasification, transesterification, hydrotreating, solvent extraction, and membrane technology are difficult to achieve satisfactory effects owing to shortcomings like enormous energy demand, long process time, high operational cost, and hazardous material pollution. The usage of clean and safe pyrolysis technology can break through the current predicament. The bio-oil produced by the conventional pyrolysis of waste oils has a high yield and HHV with great potential to replace fossil fuel, but contains a high acid value of about 120 mg KOH/g. Nevertheless, the application of CaO and NaOH can significantly decrease the acid value of bio-oil to close to zero. Additionally, the addition of coexisting bifunctional catalyst, SBA-15@MgO@Zn in particular, can simultaneously reduce the acid value and positively influence the yield and quality of bio-oil. Moreover, co-pyrolysis with plastic waste can effectively save energy and time, and improve bio-oil yield and quality. Consequently, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review of the production of biofuels using conventional and advanced pyrolysis of waste oils.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.