• 1 Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan, ROC; Research Center for Smart Sustainable Circular Economy, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan; Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung, 411, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:
  • 2 Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan, ROC
  • 3 Pyrolysis Technology Research Group, Institute of Tropical Aquaculture and Fisheries Research (Akuatrop) & Institute of Tropical Biodiversity and Sustainable Development (Bio-D Tropika), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia; Henan Province Engineering Research Center for Biomass Value-added Products, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China
  • 4 School of Information, Systems and Modelling, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007, Australia
  • 5 Korea Biochar Research Center, APRU Sustainable Waste Management & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea
  • 6 Institute of Energy and Process Systems Engineering, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Franz-Liszt-Str. 35, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
  • 7 Department of Chemistry and Centre for Alternate and Renewable Energy Research, R&D, University of Petroleum & Energy Studies (UPES), School of Engineering, Energy Acres, Building, Bidholi, Dehradun, 248007, Uttarakhand, India
  • 8 Green Technology Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Kaohsiung, 811, Taiwan, ROC
Chemosphere, 2021 May;271:129510.
PMID: 33434827 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129510


Zeolite socony mobil-5 (ZSM-5) is a common catalyst used for biomass pyrolysis. Nevertheless, the quantitative information on the catalytic behavior of ZSM-5 on biomass pyrolysis is absent so far. This study focuses on the catalytic pyrolysis phenomena and mechanisms of biomass wastes using ZSM-5 via thermogravimetric analyzer and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with particular emphasis on catalytic level identification and aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) formation. Two biomass wastes of sawdust and sorghum distillery residue (SDR) are investigated, while four biomass-to-catalyst ratios are considered. The analysis suggests that biomass waste pyrolysis processes can be divided into three zones, proceeding from a heat-transfer dominant zone (zone 1) to catalysis dominant zones (zones 2 and 3). The indicators of the intensity of difference (IOD), catalytic effective area, catalytic index (CI), and aromatic enhancement index are conducted to measure the catalytic effect of ZSM-5 on biomass waste pyrolysis and AHs formation. The maximum IOD occurs in zone 2, showing the highest intensity of the catalytic effect. The CI values of the two biomass wastes increase with increasing the biomass-to-catalyst ratio. However, there exists a threshold for sawdust pyrolysis, indicating a limit for the catalytic effect on sawdust. The higher the catalyst addition, the higher the AHs proportion in the vapor stream. When the biomass-to-catalyst ratio is 1/10, AHs formation is intensified significantly, especially for sawdust. Overall, the indexes conducted in the present study can provide useful measures to identify the catalytic pyrolysis dynamics and levels.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.