Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Nusrat Aman AM, Selvarajoo A, Lau TL, Chen WH
    Chemosphere, 2023 Feb;313:137477.
    PMID: 36509190 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.137477
    The use of sustainable materials in the construction industry has been on the rise recently. Studies have proven that the use of conventional concrete and its raw materials has a negative impact on the environment. Research on incorporating biochar as a supplementary cementitious material has been recently evolving and has shown that the attributes of biochar are highly affected by the pyrolysis parameters. These attributes have enhanced the properties of biochar concrete and mortar composite. This paper identifies the different physiochemical properties exhibited by palm kernel shell biochar through optimization by response surface methodology. Focusing on some of the properties of biochar that have proven beneficial when used as a cement replacement. Very limited research has used optimization tools for the production of biochar with the intention of using it as a cement substitute. Pyrolysis was conducted by a tubular furnace at different temperature ranges from 200 °C to 800 °C. The biomass and biochar have been analyzed with TGA and FESEM-EDX. The targeted biochar properties and selected responses are the yield, carbon, oxygen, silica, and potassium content. The optimized parameters obtained are 409 °C, 15 °C/min, 120 min with responses of 38.2% yield, 73.37% carbon, 25.48% oxygen, 0.39% potassium and 0.44% silica. Thermal properties of the palm kernel shell biochar affected by the pyrolysis factors such as temperature, heating rate and residence time have also been discussed. In conclusion, this study supports and encourages the use of palm waste, which is abundant in Malaysia, as a supplementary cementitious material to promote sustainable growth in construction.
  2. Zhang C, Chen WH, Ho SH, Zhang Y, Lim S
    Bioresour Technol, 2023 Oct;386:129531.
    PMID: 37473787 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2023.129531
    This study performs the comparative advantage analysis of oxidative torrefaction of corn stalks to investigate the advantages of oxidative torrefaction for biochar fuel property upgrading. The obtained results indicate that oxidative torrefaction is more efficient in realizing mass loss and energy density improvement, as well as elemental carbon accumulation and surface functional groups removal, and thus leads to a better fuel property. The maximum values of relative mass loss, higher heating value, enhancement factor, and energy yield are 3.00, 1.10, 1.03, and 0.87, respectively. The relative elemental carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content ranges are 1.30-3.10, 1.50-3.30, and 2.00-6.80, respectively. In addition, an excellent linear distribution is obtained between the comprehensive pyrolysis index and torrefaction severity index, with elemental carbon and oxygen component variation stemming from pyrolysis performance correlating to the elemental component and valance.
  3. Mak CY, Lin JG, Chen WH, Ng CA, Bashir MJK
    Water Sci Technol, 2019 May;79(10):1860-1867.
    PMID: 31294702 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2019.188
    The application of the anammox process has great potential in treating nitrogen-rich wastewater. The presence of Fe (II) is expected to affect the growth and activity of anammox bacteria. Short-term (acute) and long-term effects (chronic) of Fe (II) on anammox activity were investigated. In the short-term study, results demonstrated that the optimum concentration of Fe (II) that could be added to anammox is 0.08 mM, at which specific anammox activity (SAA) improved by 60% compared to the control assay, 0.00 mM. The inhibition concentration, IC50, of Fe (II) was found to be 0.192 mM. Kinetics of anammox specific growth rate were estimated based on results of the batch test and evaluated with Han-Levenspiel's substrate inhibition kinetics model. The optimum concentration and IC50 of Fe (II) predicted by the Han-Levenspiel model was similar to the batch test, with values of 0.07 mM and 0.20 mM, respectively. The long-term effect of Fe (II) on the performance of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was evaluated. Results showed that an appropriate Fe (II) addition enhanced anammox activity, achieving 85% NH4+-N and 96% NO2--N removal efficiency when 0.08 mM of Fe (II) was added. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was adopted to detect and identify the anammox bacteria.
  4. Tan CH, Show PL, Ling TC, Nagarajan D, Lee DJ, Chen WH, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Aug;285:121331.
    PMID: 30999192 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121331
    Third generation biofuels, also known as microalgal biofuels, are promising alternatives to fossil fuels. One attractive option is microalgal biodiesel as a replacement for diesel fuel. Chlamydomonas sp. Tai-03 was previously optimized for maximal lipid production for biodiesel generation, achieving biomass growth and productivity of 3.48 ± 0.04 g/L and 0.43 ± 0.01 g/L/d, with lipid content and productivity of 28.6 ± 1.41% and 124.1 ± 7.57 mg/L/d. In this study, further optimization using 5% CO2 concentration and semi-batch operation with 25% medium replacement ratio, enhanced the biomass growth and productivity to 4.15 ± 0.12 g/L and 1.23 ± 0.02 g/L/d, with lipid content and productivity of 19.4 ± 2.0% and 239.6 ± 24.8 mg/L/d. The major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1), and linoleic acid (C18:2). These short-chain FAMEs combined with high growth make Chlamydomonas sp. Tai-03 a suitable candidate for biodiesel synthesis.
  5. Ang TN, Young BR, Taylor M, Burrell R, Aroua MK, Chen WH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2020 Dec;260:127496.
    PMID: 32659541 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127496
    Activated carbons have been reported to be useful for adsorptive removal of the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane from a vapour stream. The surface functionalities on activated carbons could be modified through aqueous oxidation using oxidising solutions to enhance the sevoflurane adsorption. In this study, an attempt to oxidise the surface of a commercial activated carbon to improve its adsorption capacity for sevoflurane was conducted using 6 mol/L nitric acid, 2 mol/L ammonium persulfate, and 30 wt per cent (wt%) of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The adsorption tests at fixed conditions (bed depth: 10 cm, inlet concentration: 528 mg/L, and flow rate: 3 L/min) revealed that H2O2 oxidation gave desirable sevoflurane adsorption (0.510 ± 0.005 mg/m2). A parametric study was conducted with H2O2 to investigate the effect of oxidation conditions to the changes in surface oxygen functionalities by varying the concentration, oxidation duration, and temperature, and the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was applied to predict the interactions between oxygen functionalities and sevoflurane. The H2O2 oxidation incorporated varying degrees of both surface oxygen functionalities with hydrogen bond (HB) acceptor and HB donor characters under the studied conditions. Oxidised samples with enriched oxygen functionalities with HB acceptor character and fewer HB donor character exhibited better adsorption capacity for sevoflurane. The presence of a high amount of oxygen functional groups with HB donor character adversely affected the sevoflurane adsorption despite the enrichment of oxygen functional groups with HB acceptor character that have a higher tendency to adsorb sevoflurane.
  6. Chen WH, Lo HJ, Yu KL, Ong HC, Sheen HK
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Sep 15;285:117196.
    PMID: 33962308 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117196
    This research aims to study the wet torrefaction (WT) and saccharification of sorghum distillery residue (SDR) towards hydrochar and bioethanol production. The experiments are designed by Box-Behnken design from response surface methodology where the operating conditions include sulfuric acid concentration (0, 0.01, and 0.02 M), amyloglucosidase concentration (36, 51, and 66 IU), and saccharification time (120, 180, and 240 min). Compared to conventional dry torrefaction, the hydrochar yield is between 13.24 and 14.73%, which is much lower than dry torrefaction biochar (yield >50%). The calorific value of the raw SDR is 17.15 MJ/kg, which is significantly enhanced to 22.36-23.37 MJ/kg after WT. When the sulfuric acid concentration increases from 0 to 0.02 M, the glucose concentration in the product increases from 5.59 g/L to 13.05 g/L. The prediction of analysis of variance suggests that the best combination to maximum glucose production is 0.02 M H2SO4, 66 IU enzyme concentration, and 120 min saccharification time, and the glucose concentration is 30.85 g/L. The maximum bioethanol concentration of 19.21 g/L is obtained, which is higher than those from wheat straw (18.1 g/L) and sweet sorghum residue (16.2 g/L). A large amount of SDR is generated in the kaoliang liquor production process, which may cause environmental problems if it is not appropriately treated. This study fulfills SDR valorization for hydrochar and bioenergy to lower environmental pollution and even achieve a circular economy.
  7. Lee KT, Du JT, Chen WH, Ubando AT, Lee KT
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Sep 15;285:117244.
    PMID: 33965857 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117244
    A green approach using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to intensify the fuel properties of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) through torrefaction is developed in this study to minimize environmental pollution. Meanwhile, a neural network (NN) is used to minimize bulk density at different combinations of operating conditions to show the accurate and reliable model of NN (R2 = 0.9994). The biochar produced from SCGs torrefied at temperatures of 200-300 °C, duration of 30-60 min, and H2O2 concentrations of 0-100 wt% is examined. The results reveal that the higher heating value (HHV) of biochar increases with rising temperature, duration, or H2O2 concentration, whereas the bulk density has an opposite trend. The HHV, ignition temperature, and bulk density of biochar from torrefaction at 230 °C for 30 min with a 100 wt% H2O2 solution (230-100%-TSCG) are 27.00 MJ∙kg-1, 292 °C, and 120 kg∙m-3, respectively. This HHV accounts for a 29% improvement compared to that of untorrefied SCG. The contact angle (126°), water activity (0.51 aw), and moisture content (7.69%) of the optimized biochar indicate that it has higher resistance against biodegradation, and thereby can be stored longer. Overall, H2O2 is a green treatment additive for SCGs solid fuel. This study has successfully produced biochar with greater HHV and low bulk density at low temperatures. The green additive development can effectively reduce environmental pollutants and upgrade wastes into resources, and achieve "3E", namely, environmental (non-polluting green additives), energy (biofuel), and circular economy (waste upgrade). In addition, the produced biochar has great potential in the fields of bioadsorbents and soil amendments.
  8. Chen WH, Chang CM, Mutuku JK, Lam SS, Lee WJ
    Environ Res, 2021 06;197:110975.
    PMID: 33689824 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.110975
    The deposition phenomenon of microparticle and SAR-CoV-2 laced bioaerosol in human airways is studied by Taguchi methods and response surface methodology (RSM). The data used herein is obtained from simulations of airflow dynamics and deposition fractions of drug particle aerosols in the downstream airways of asthma patients using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete particle motion (DPM). Three main parameters, including airflow rate, drug dose, and particle size, affecting aerosol deposition in the lungs of asthma patients are examined. The highest deposition fraction (DF) is obtained at the flow rate of 45 L min-1, the drug dose of 200 μg·puff-1, and the particle diameter of 5 μm. The optimized combination of levels for the three parameters for maximum drug deposition is performed via the Taguchi method. The importance of the influencing factors rank as particle size > drug dose > flow rate. RSM reveals that the combination of 30 L min-1, 5 μm, 200 μg·puff- has the highest deposition fraction. In part, this research also studied the deposition of bioaerosols contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus, and their lowest DF is 1.15%. The low DF of bioaerosols reduces the probability of the SAR-CoV-2 virus transmission.
  9. Leong YK, Chew KW, Chen WH, Chang JS, Show PL
    Trends Plant Sci, 2021 07;26(7):729-740.
    PMID: 33461869 DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2020.12.010
    Given their advantages of high photosynthetic efficiency and non-competition with land-based crops, algae, that are carbon-hungry and sunlight-driven microbial factories, are a promising solution to resolve energy crisis, food security, and pollution problems. The ability to recycle nutrient and CO2 fixation from waste sources makes algae a valuable feedstock for biofuels, food and feeds, biochemicals, and biomaterials. Innovative technologies such as the bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system (BICCAPS), integrated algal bioenergy carbon capture and storage (BECCS), as well as ocean macroalgal afforestation (OMA), can be used to realize a low-carbon algal bioeconomy. We review how algae can be applied in the framework of integrated low-carbon circular bioeconomy models, focusing on sustainable biofuels, low-carbon feedstocks, carbon capture, and advances in algal biotechnology.
  10. Chen WH, Chang CM, Mutuku JK, Lam SS, Lee WJ
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 08 15;416:125856.
    PMID: 34492805 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125856
    Inhalation of aerosols such as pharmaceutical aerosols or virus aerosol uptake is of great concern to the human population. To elucidate the underlying aerosol dynamics, the deposition fractions (DFs) of aerosols in healthy and asthmatic human airways of generations 13-15 are predicted. The Navier-stokes equations governing the gaseous phase and the discrete phase model for particles' motion are solved using numerical methods. The main forces responsible for deposition are inertial impaction forces and complex secondary flow velocities. The curvatures and sinusoidal folds in the asthmatic geometry lead to the formation of complex secondary flows and hence higher DFs. The intensities of complex secondary flows are strongest at the generations affected by asthma. The DF in the healthy airways is 0%, and it ranges from 1.69% to 52.93% in the asthmatic ones. From this study, the effects of the pharmaceutical aerosol particle diameters in the treatment of asthma patients can be established, which is conducive to inhibiting the inflammation of asthma airways. Furthermore, with the recent development of COVID-19 which causes pneumonia, the predicted physics and effective simulation methods of bioaerosols delivery to asthma patients are vital to prevent the exacerbation of the chronic ailment and the epidemic.
  11. Zhang C, Ho SH, Chen WH, Wang R, Show PL, Ong HC
    J Biotechnol, 2021 Sep 10;338:81-90.
    PMID: 34298023 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2021.07.009
    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for carbon-neutral biofuel production due to their superior cellular composition. Alternatively, oxidative torrefaction has been recognized as a potential thermochemical technique for microalgal solid biofuel upgrading. Herein, by using microalga N. oceanica as a feedstock, several characterizations are adopted for evaluating the potential of oxidative torrefaction towards microalgal solid biofuel production. The oxidatively torrefied microalgae can be upgraded as lignite. After in-depth analysis, significant change in the surface microstructure of oxidatively torrefied microalgae is largely changed (via wrinkle and fragmentation) The hydrophobicity, thermal decomposition, thermal stability, and aromatization of oxidatively torrefied microalgae can be largely enhanced as the oxidative torrefaction severity increase. With the increasing torrefaction temperature, the hydrophobicity of oxidative torrefied microalgae gradually improved. The decomposition of C-2/3/5, and -OCH3, the CO bonds of CH3CO-, and the aromatization occurs via oxidative torrefaction according to the NMR analysis. For XPS analysis, torrefaction operation significantly decreases the carbide carbon and enhances the graphitization. As a result, the thermal stability of oxidatively torrefied microalgae is improved. Conclusively, the information obtained in this study can provide insights into the evaluation of oxidative torrefaction performance and fuel properties of microalgal solid biofuel, which may help accelerate the advancement of oxidative torrefaction industrialization.
  12. Lee XJ, Show PL, Katsuda T, Chen WH, Chang JS
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Dec;269:489-502.
    PMID: 30172460 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.08.090
    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is regarded as the state-of-the-art technology in separation processes. Surface modification techniques play a critical role in improving the conventional membrane system which is mostly hydrophobic in nature. The hydrophobic nature of membranes is known to cause fouling, resulting in high maintenance costs and shorter lifespan of MBR. Thus, surface grafting aims to improve the hydrophilicity of bio-based membrane systems. This review describes the major surface grafting techniques currently used in membranes, including photo induced grafting, plasma treatment and plasma induced grafting, radiation induced grafting, thermal induced grafting and ozone induced grafting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method is discussed along with their parametric studies. The potential applications of MBR are very promising, but some integral membrane properties could be a major challenge that hinders its wider reach. The fouling issue could be resolved with the surface grafting techniques to achieve better performance of MBRs.
  13. Sankaran R, Parra Cruz RA, Pakalapati H, Show PL, Ling TC, Chen WH, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Feb;298:122476.
    PMID: 31810736 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122476
    Microalgal and lignocellulosic biomass is the most sumptuous renewable bioresource raw material existing on earth. Recently, the bioconversion of biomass into biofuels have received significant attention replacing fossil fuels. Pretreatment of biomass is a critical process in the conversion due to the nature and structure of the biomass cell wall that is complex. Although green technologies for biofuel production are advancing, the productivity and yield from these techniques are low. Over the past years, various pretreatment techniques have been developed and successfully employed to improve the technology. This paper presents an in-depth review of the recent advancement of pretreatment methods focusing on microalgal and lignocellulosic biomass. The technological approaches involving physical, chemical, biological and other latest pretreatment methods are reviewed.
  14. Yew GY, Chew KW, Malek MA, Ho YC, Chen WH, Ling TC, et al.
    Biotechnol Biofuels, 2019;12:252.
    PMID: 31666807 DOI: 10.1186/s13068-019-1591-8
    Background: The extraction of lipids from microalgae requires a pretreatment process to break the cell wall and subsequent extraction processes to obtain the lipids for biofuels production. The multistep operation tends to incur high costs and are energy intensive due to longer process operations. This research work applies the combination of radicals from hydrogen peroxide with an organic solvent as a chemical pretreatment method for disrupting the cell wall of microalgae and simultaneously extracting lipids from the biomass in a one-step biphasic solution.

    Result: Several parameters which can affect the biphasic system were analyzed: contact time, volume of solvent, volume ratio, type of organic solvent, biomass amount and concentration of solvents, to extract the highest amount of lipids from microalgae. The results were optimized and up to 83.5% of lipid recovery yield and 94.6% of enhancement was successfully achieved. The results obtain from GC-FID were similar to the analysis of triglyceride lipid standard.

    Conclusion: The profound hybrid biphasic system shows great potential to radically disrupt the cell wall of microalgae and instantaneously extract lipids in a single-step approach. The lipids extracted were tested to for its comparability to biodiesel performance.

  15. Khoo KS, Chew KW, Yew GY, Leong WH, Chai YH, Show PL, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 May;304:122996.
    PMID: 32115347 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122996
    The world energy system faces two major challenges: the requirement for more energy and less carbon. It is important to address biofuels production as an alternative to the usage of fossil fuel by utilizing microalgae as the potential feedstock. Yet, the commercialization of microalgae remains contentious caused by factors relating to the life cycle assessment and feasibility of microalgae-based biofuels. This present review starts with an introduction to the benefits of microalgae, followed by intensive elaboration on microalgae cultivation parameters. Subsequently, the fundamental principle along with the advantages and disadvantages of various pretreatment techniques of microalgae were reviewed. In addition, the conventional and recent advances in lipid extraction techniques from microalgae were comprehensively evaluated. Comparative analysis regard to the gaps from previous studies was discussed point-by-point in each section. The effort presented in this review will provide an insight for future researches dealing with microalgae-biofuel production on downstream processing.
  16. Wong WY, Lim S, Pang YL, Shuit SH, Chen WH, Lee KT
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Jul 20;727:138534.
    PMID: 32334218 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138534
    Interest in biodiesel research has escalated over the years due to dwindling fossil fuel reserves. The implementation of a carbon-based solid acid catalyst in biodiesel production eradicates the separation problems associated with homogeneous catalysis. However, its application in the glycerol-free interesterification process for biodiesel production is still rarely being studied in the literature. In this study, novel environmentally benign catalysts were prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) derived activated carbon (AC) which is sustainable and low cost via direct sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The effects of synthesizing variables such as carbonization and sulfonation temperatures with different holding times towards the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield in interesterification reaction with oleic acid and methyl acetate were investigated in detail. It was found that the optimum carbonization temperature and duration together with sulfonation temperature and duration were 600 °C, 3 h, 100 °C and 6 h, respectively. The catalyst possessed an amorphous structure with a high total acid density of 9.0 mmol NaOH g-1 due to the well-developed porous framework structure of the carbon support. Under these optimum conditions, the OPEFB derived solid acid catalyst recorded an excellent catalytic activity of 50.5% methyl oleate yield at 100 °C after 8 h with 50:1 methyl acetate to oleic acid molar ratio and 10 wt% catalyst dosage. The heterogeneous acid catalyst derived from OPEFB had shown promising properties that made them highly suitable for cost-effective and environmental-friendly glycerol-free biodiesel production.
  17. Lee XJ, Ong HC, Ooi J, Yu KL, Tham TC, Chen WH, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2022 Feb 05;423(Pt A):126921.
    PMID: 34523506 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126921
    Colourants, micropollutants and heavy metals are regarded as the most notorious hazardous contaminants found in rivers, oceans and sewage treatment plants, with detrimental impacts on human health and environment. In recent development, algal biomass showed great potential for the synthesis of engineered algal adsorbents suitable for the adsorptive management of various pollutants. This review presents comprehensive investigations on the engineered synthesis routes focusing mainly on mechanical, thermochemical and activation processes to produce algal adsorbents. The adsorptive performances of engineered algal adsorbents are assessed in accordance with different categories of hazardous pollutants as well as in terms of their experimental and modelled adsorption capacities. Due to the unique physicochemical properties of macroalgae and microalgae in their adsorbent forms, the adsorption of hazardous pollutants was found to be highly effective, which involved different mechanisms such as physisorption, chemisorption, ion-exchange, complexation and others depending on the types of pollutants. Overall, both macroalgae and microalgae not only can be tailored into different forms of adsorbents based on the applications, their adsorption capacities are also far more superior compared to the conventional adsorbents.
  18. Selvarajoo A, Wong YL, Khoo KS, Chen WH, Show PL
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan 26;294:133671.
    PMID: 35092753 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133671
    Renewable energy sources such as biomass have been proven to be one of the promising sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. However, using biomass directly as a fuel is less attractive due to its high moisture content, poor grindability, low bulk density, and low energy density nature. Hence biomass can be converted into biochar to overcome these challenges. In this study, biochar was derived from citrus peels biomass by slow pyrolysis over the temperature range of 300-700 °C. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the quality of citrus peels-derived biochar was examined based on the physical and chemical properties obtained from various analyses. The citrus peels biomass and biochar were characterized by means of higher heating value (HHV) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX), Fourier transform infrared ray (FTIR) analysis, proximate and thermogravimetric analysis. Based on the characterization results, the potential usage of the derived biochar as a solid fuel was discussed. Results obtained from the pyrolysis experiments indicated that a lower pyrolysis temperature produced a higher char yield. The carbon content and energy content of biochar were found to be increasing with pyrolysis temperature. Biochar produced at 500 °C presented the best fuel properties by having the highest value of HHV and carbon content. The results from this study provided great insights into biomass waste reutilisation to generate value-added biochar for renewable energy production in Malaysia.
  19. Moogi S, Lam SS, Chen WH, Ko CH, Jung SC, Park YK
    Bioresour Technol, 2022 Oct 30;366:128209.
    PMID: 36323373 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2022.128209
    Household food waste (FW) was converted into biohydrogen-rich gas via steam gasification over Ni and bimetallic Ni (Cu-Ni and Co-Ni) catalysts supported on mesoporous SBA-15. The effect of catalyst method on steam gasification efficiency of each catalyst was investigated using incipient wetness impregnation, deposition precipitation, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid metal complex impregnation methods. H2-TPR confirmed the synergistic interaction of the dopants (Co and Cu) and Ni. Furthermore, XRD and HR-TEM revealed that the size of the Ni particle varied depending on the method of catalyst synthesis, confirming the formation of solid solutions in Co- or Cu-doped Ni/SBA-15 catalysts due to dopant insertion into the Ni. Notably, the exceptional activity of the Cu-Ni/SBA-15-EMC catalyst in FW steam gasification was attributed to the fine distribution of the concise Ni nanoparticles (9 nm), which resulted in the highest hydrogen selectivity (62 vol%), gas yield (73.6 wt%). Likewise, Cu-Ni solid solution decreased coke to 0.08 wt%.
  20. Su G, Ong HC, Gan YY, Chen WH, Chong CT, Ok YS
    Bioresour Technol, 2022 Jan;344(Pt B):126096.
    PMID: 34626763 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126096
    Microalgae are the most prospective raw materials for the production of biofuels, pyrolysis is an effective method to convert biomass into bioenergy. However, biofuels derived from the pyrolysis of microalgae exhibit poor fuel properties due to high content of moisture and protein. Co-pyrolysis is a simple and efficient method to produce high-quality bio-oil from two or more materials. Tires, plastics, and bamboo waste are the optimal co-feedstocks based on the improvement of yield and quality of bio-oil. Moreover, adding catalysts, especially CaO and Cu/HZSM-5, can enhance the quality of bio-oil by increasing aromatics content and decreasing oxygenated and nitrogenous compounds. Consequently, this paper provides a critical review of the production of bio-oil from co-pyrolysis of microalgae with other biomass wastes. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of synergistic effects and the catalytic effect on co-pyrolysis are discussed. Finally, the economic viability and prospects of microalgae co-pyrolysis are summarized.
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