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  1. Sharma AK, Sharaf I, Ajay S
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Jun;56 Suppl C:70-2.
    PMID: 11814254
    We report a case of a 12-year-old boy with acute compartment syndrome of the foot following a road-traffic accident. Due to the rarity of the injury, there was a delay in diagnosing the injury. An emergency fasciotomy was performed 19 hours after the injury. The foot healed with a mild extension contracture of the second toe.
  2. Sharma AK, Thanikachalam PV, Rajput SK
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2016 Feb;77:120-8.
    PMID: 26796275 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.12.015
    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the chronic metabolic disorder which provokes several pitfall signalling. Though, a series of anti-diabetic drugs are available in the market but T2DM is still a huge burden on the developed and developing countries. Numerous studies and survey predict the associated baleful circumstances in near future due to incessant increase in this insidious disorder. The novelty of recent explored anti-diabetic drugs including glitazone, glitazaar and gliflozines seems to be vanished due to their associated toxic side effects. Brown and Dryburgh (1970) isolated an intestinal amino acid known as gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) which had insulinotropic activity. Subsequently in 1985, another incretin glucagon likes peptide 1 (GLP-1) having potent insulinotropic properties was discovered by Schmidt and his co-workers. On the basis of results' obtained by Phase III Harmony program FDA approved (14 April, 2014) new GLP-1 agonist 'Albiglutide (ALB)', in addition to exiting components Exenatide (Eli Lilly, 2005) and Liraglutide (Novo Nordisk, 2010). ALB stimulates the release of protein kinase A (PKA) via different mechanisms which ultimately leads to increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This increased intracellular Ca(2+) releases insulin vesicle from β-cells. In-addition, ALB being resistant to degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and has longer half life. DPP-4 can significantly degrade the level of GLP-1 agonist by hydrolysis. In spite of potent anti-hypergycemic activity, ALB has pleiotropic action of improving cardiovascular physiology. In light of these viewpoints we reveal the individual pharmacological profile of ALB and the critical analyse about its future perspective in present review.
  3. Sharma AK, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Alsaab H, Iyer AK, Gupta U
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 02;22(2):314-326.
    PMID: 27671487 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2016.09.013
    Dendrimers are novel nanoarchitectures with unique properties including a globular 3D shape, a monodispersed unimicellar nature and a nanometric size range. The availability of multiple peripheral functional groups and tunable surface engineering enable the facile modification of the dendrimer surface with different therapeutic drugs, diagnostic agents and targeting ligands. Drug encapsulation, and solubilizing and passive targeting also equally contribute to the therapeutic use of dendrimers. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the delivery of anticancer drugs using dendrimers, as well as other biomedical and diagnostic applications. Taken together, the immense potential and utility of dendrimers are envisaged to have a significant positive impact on the growing arena of drug delivery and targeting.
  4. Kumar H, Mishra G, Sharma AK, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Pharm Nanotechnol, 2017;5(3):203-214.
    PMID: 28521670 DOI: 10.2174/2211738505666170515113936
    BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo; to overcome this barrier, intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain.

    METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.

    RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.

    CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.

  5. Chen WH, Cheng CL, Lee KT, Lam SS, Ong HC, Ok YS, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 May;271:129510.
    PMID: 33434827 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129510
    Zeolite socony mobil-5 (ZSM-5) is a common catalyst used for biomass pyrolysis. Nevertheless, the quantitative information on the catalytic behavior of ZSM-5 on biomass pyrolysis is absent so far. This study focuses on the catalytic pyrolysis phenomena and mechanisms of biomass wastes using ZSM-5 via thermogravimetric analyzer and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with particular emphasis on catalytic level identification and aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) formation. Two biomass wastes of sawdust and sorghum distillery residue (SDR) are investigated, while four biomass-to-catalyst ratios are considered. The analysis suggests that biomass waste pyrolysis processes can be divided into three zones, proceeding from a heat-transfer dominant zone (zone 1) to catalysis dominant zones (zones 2 and 3). The indicators of the intensity of difference (IOD), catalytic effective area, catalytic index (CI), and aromatic enhancement index are conducted to measure the catalytic effect of ZSM-5 on biomass waste pyrolysis and AHs formation. The maximum IOD occurs in zone 2, showing the highest intensity of the catalytic effect. The CI values of the two biomass wastes increase with increasing the biomass-to-catalyst ratio. However, there exists a threshold for sawdust pyrolysis, indicating a limit for the catalytic effect on sawdust. The higher the catalyst addition, the higher the AHs proportion in the vapor stream. When the biomass-to-catalyst ratio is 1/10, AHs formation is intensified significantly, especially for sawdust. Overall, the indexes conducted in the present study can provide useful measures to identify the catalytic pyrolysis dynamics and levels.
  6. Chigurupati S, Abdul Rahman Alharbi N, Sharma AK, Alhowail A, Vardharajula VR, Vijayabalan S, et al.
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2021 Oct;28(10):5579-5584.
    PMID: 34588868 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.05.072
    The current study primarily focused on the pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening of Canna indica and further analyzing the leaves extract for toxicological profile and neuroprotective potential. The microscopic, dry powder properties of the leaf material and phytochemical, physicochemical analysis was evaluated for pharmacognostical assessment. Dry leaves of C. indica were extracted using methanol and then further studied for both in vitro and in vivo toxicological study. The acute toxicity was measured by estimating the antioxidant defense system and anatomical impairment in the rat's organs. Also, the neuroprotective activity of the plant extract was assessed using anticholinesterase enzymatic inhibitory assay. The extract was found to be hemocompatible and showed absences of induction of behavioural changes. Likewise, no changes were seen on the anatomical structure of the rat's organs. The methanolic extract portrayed a significant upsurge in the reduced glutathione level and showed a comparable acetylcholinesterase inhibition in a dosedependent manner with an IC50 value of 14.53 μg/mL compared to the standard Donepezil with an IC50 value of 13.31 μg/mL. C. indica has compelling pharmacognostical characteristics, good safety reports, and significant antioxidant as well as the neuroprotective potential that shows great potential for its further in-depth research for pharmacological use.
  7. Sharma AK, Prasher P, Aljabali AA, Mishra V, Gandhi H, Kumar S, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2020 10;10(5):1171-1190.
    PMID: 32504410 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-020-00789-2
    Over the past two decades, polymersomes have been widely investigated for the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer therapy. Polymersomes are stable polymeric vesicles, which are prepared using amphiphilic block polymers of different molecular weights. The use of high molecular weight amphiphilic copolymers allows for possible manipulation of membrane characteristics, which in turn enhances the efficiency of drug delivery. Polymersomes are more stable in comparison with liposomes and show less toxicity in vivo. Furthermore, their ability to encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, significant biocompatibility, robustness, high colloidal stability, and simple methods for ligands conjugation make polymersomes a promising candidate for therapeutic drug delivery in cancer therapy. This review is focused on current development in the application of polymersomes for cancer therapy and diagnosis. Graphical abstract.
  8. Kanneganti A, Tan BY, Nik Ab Rahman NH, Leow AS, Denning M, Goh ET, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2022 Feb 10.
    PMID: 35139631 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2022014
    INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact in Asia and has placed significant burden on already stretched healthcare systems. We examined the impact of COVID-19 on safety attitudes among healthcare workers (HCWs) as well as their associated demographic and occupational factors, and measures of burnout, depression and anxiety.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study utilising snowball sampling was performed involving doctors, nurses and allied health professions from 23 hospitals in Singapore, Malaysia, India and Indonesia between 29 May 2020 and 13 July 2020. This survey collated demographic data and workplace conditions and included three validated questionnaires: Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ); Oldenburg Burnout Inventory; and Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale. We performed multivariate mixed model regression to assess for independent associations with the SAQ Total Percentage Agree Rates (PAR).

    RESULTS: We obtained 3,163 responses. A SAQ Total PAR of 35.7%, 15.0%, 51.0% and 3.3% was calculated among respondents from Singapore, Malaysia, India and Indonesia, respectively. Burnout scores were highest among respondents from Indonesia and lowest in respondents from India at 70.9%-85.4% versus 56.3%-63.6%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that meeting burnout and depression thresholds, and shifts lasting ≥ 12 hours were significantly associated with lower SAQ Total PAR.

    CONCLUSION: Addressing factors contributing to high burnout and depression, and placing strict limits on work hours per shift may contribute significantly towards improving safety culture among HCWs and should remain priorities as this pandemic continues.

  9. Chew NWS, Ngiam JN, Tan BY, Tham SM, Tan CY, Jing M, et al.
    BJPsych Open, 2020 Oct 08;6(6):e116.
    PMID: 33028449 DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2020.98
    BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.

    AIMS: In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.

    METHOD: From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.

    RESULTS: A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.

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