Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

  1. Huqh MZU, Abdullah JY, Al-Rawas M, Husein A, Ahmad WMAW, Jamayet NB, et al.
    Diagnostics (Basel), 2023 Sep 22;13(19).
    PMID: 37835768 DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics13193025
    INTRODUCTION: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are the most common congenital craniofacial deformities that can cause a variety of dental abnormalities in children. The purpose of this study was to predict the maxillary arch growth and to develop a neural network logistic regression model for both UCLP and non-UCLP individuals.

    METHODS: This study utilizes a novel method incorporating many approaches, such as the bootstrap method, a multi-layer feed-forward neural network, and ordinal logistic regression. A dataset was created based on the following factors: socio-demographic characteristics such as age and gender, as well as cleft type and category of malocclusion associated with the cleft. Training data were used to create a model, whereas testing data were used to validate it. The study is separated into two phases: phase one involves the use of a multilayer neural network and phase two involves the use of an ordinal logistic regression model to analyze the underlying association between cleft and the factors chosen.

    RESULTS: The findings of the hybrid technique using ordinal logistic regression are discussed, where category acts as both a dependent variable and as the study's output. The ordinal logistic regression was used to classify the dependent variables into three categories. The suggested technique performs exceptionally well, as evidenced by a Predicted Mean Square Error (PMSE) of 2.03%.

    CONCLUSION: The outcome of the study suggests that there is a strong association between gender, age, and cleft. The difference in width and length of the maxillary arch in UCLP is mainly related to the severity of the cleft and facial growth pattern.

  2. Mahat NS, Shetty NY, Kohli S, Jamayet NB, Patil P
    Evid Based Dent, 2023 Sep;24(3):142.
    PMID: 37369705 DOI: 10.1038/s41432-023-00904-5
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical outcomes of implant-supported prostheses and tooth-supported fixed prostheses, fabricated from digital and conventional impression.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature search was carried out on two electronic databases (PubMed and Cochrane Library). Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published from January 2011 to September 2022 were included. The bias risk was evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2.0. Further screening was done for meta-analysis according to modified Newcastle-Ottawa scoring criteria. Forest plot was generated using a statistical method of inverse variance of random effect with 95% confidence interval.

    RESULTS: A total of 8 randomized controlled trials were included for systematic review out of which four studies were based on tooth-supported fixed prosthesis and remaining four were based on implant-supported prosthesis. Further screening was conducted and three studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Tooth-supported fixed prosthesis fabricated from digital impression showed no significant difference in the marginal fit in any region measured, except for occlusal region where conventional impression showed more favorable marginal fit. Implant-supported prosthesis fabricated from digital impression showed survival rates ranging from 97.3 to 100% and there was no statistically significant difference in marginal bone loss (p = 0.14).

    CONCLUSION: Implant-supported prostheses fabricated from digital and conventional impressions show no significant differences in their clinical outcomes. Tooth-supported fixed prostheses fabricated from digital impression have shown favorable findings in terms of marginal fit. Despite that, there is still lack of clinical trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up periods. Future studies that fulfill these two criteria are deemed necessary.

  3. Dudley J, Pellew J, Jamayet NB
    Clin Case Rep, 2023 Jun;11(6):e7287.
    PMID: 37273667 DOI: 10.1002/ccr3.7287
    The conservative prosthodontic construction of an ocular prosthesis utilizing our novel threaded iris fabrication technique required high time and prosthodontic resource inputs and produced a lifelike aesthetic result.

    ABSTRACT: Patients with ocular defects frequently present with significant local anatomical deficiencies and complex histories and require extensive time and resource inputs to treat. This case report describes the conservative management of an ocular defect completed in a postgraduate prosthodontics clinical residency program utilizing a novel threaded iris fabrication technique.

  4. Farook TH, Ahmed S, Jamayet NB, Rashid F, Barman A, Sidhu P, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2023 Jan 28;13(1):1561.
    PMID: 36709380 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-28442-1
    The current multiphase, invitro study developed and validated a 3-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) to generate partial dental crowns (PDC) for use in restorative dentistry. The effectiveness of desktop laser and intraoral scanners in generating data for the purpose of 3D-CNN was first evaluated (phase 1). There were no significant differences in surface area [t-stat(df) = - 0.01 (10), mean difference = - 0.058, P > 0.99] and volume [t-stat(df) = 0.357(10)]. However, the intraoral scans were chosen for phase 2 as they produced a greater level of volumetric details (343.83 ± 43.52 mm3) compared to desktop laser scanning (322.70 ± 40.15 mm3). In phase 2, 120 tooth preparations were digitally synthesized from intraoral scans, and two clinicians designed the respective PDCs using computer-aided design (CAD) workflows on a personal computer setup. Statistical comparison by 3-factor ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in surface area (P 
  5. Ahmed N, Halim MS, Ab-Ghani Z, Abbasi MS, Aslam A, Safdar J, et al.
    J Clin Med, 2022 Dec 10;11(24).
    PMID: 36555956 DOI: 10.3390/jcm11247340
    The present study aimed to analyze mid horizontal facial third proportions, those being the interpupillary, inner intercanthal, and bizygomatic distance modified with golden proportion, The Preston proportion, golden percentage and 70% recurring esthetic dental proportion were used for determining maxillary anterior teeth width. A total of 230 participants took part in this study. The front dental and facial photographs along dental stone cast which were converted to three-dimensional (3D) models were used for evaluation. The mid horizontal facial third proportions showed no significant relationship with maxillary anterior teeth width without modification with dental proportions. Whereas, with modification, no statistically significant difference was found between inner-intercanthal distance by golden percentage and width of central incisors. The bizygomatic distance was greater than intercanine distance. While the interpupillary distance by golden proportion was found to be consistent with intercanine distance in female participants. The modified anterior teeth width was significantly different from measured values, when determined by using the three mid facial proportions with Preston and 70% recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion. Furthermore, the measured width of maxillary anterior teeth showed no difference when plaster dental casts widths were compared with 3D models. The interpupillary, inner-intercanthal, and bizygomatic distance should not be directly used to determine maxillary anterior teeth width. While maxillary anterior teeth width can be determined by modifying the inner inter-canthal distance with golden percentage and interpupillary distance with golden proportion. Moreover, the midfacial third proportions modified with Preston and 70% recurrent esthetic dental proportion were found to be unreliable for the determination of maxillary anterior teeth widths.
  6. Farook TH, Rashid F, Jamayet NB, Abdullah JY, Dudley J, Khursheed Alam M
    J Prosthet Dent, 2022 Oct;128(4):830-836.
    PMID: 33642077 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.12.041
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The anatomic complexity of the ear challenges conventional maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation. The introduction of specialized scanning hardware integrated into computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) workflows has mitigated these challenges. Currently, the scanning hardware required for digital data acquisition is expensive and not readily available for prosthodontists in developing regions.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this virtual analysis study was to compare the accuracy and precision of 3-dimensional (3D) ear models generated by scanning gypsum casts with a smartphone camera and a desktop laser scanner.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six ear casts were fabricated from green dental gypsum and scanned with a laser scanner. The resultant 3D models were exported as standard tessellation language (STL) files. A stereophotogrammetry system was fabricated by using a motorized turntable and an automated microcontroller photograph capturing interface. A total of 48 images were captured from 2 angles on the arc (20 degrees and 40 degrees from the base of the turntable) with an image overlap of 15 degrees, controlled by a stepper motor. Ear 1 was placed on the turntable and captured 5 times with smartphone 1 and tested for precision. Then, ears 1 to 6 were scanned once with a laser scanner and with smartphones 1 and 2. The images were converted into 3D casts and compared for accuracy against their laser scanned counterparts for surface area, volume, interpoint mismatches, and spatial overlap. Acceptability thresholds were set at <0.5 mm for interpoint mismatches and >0.70 for spatial overlap.

    RESULTS: The test for smartphone precision in comparison with that of the laser scanner showed a difference in surface area of 774.22 ±295.27 mm2 (6.9% less area) and in volume of 4228.60 ±2276.89 mm3 (13.4% more volume). Both acceptability thresholds were also met. The test for accuracy among smartphones 1, 2, and the laser scanner showed no statistically significant differences (P>.05) in all 4 parameters among the groups while also meeting both acceptability thresholds.

    CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone cameras used to capture 48 overlapping gypsum cast ear images in a controlled environment generated 3D models parametrically similar to those produced by standard laser scanners.

  7. Huqh MZU, Abdullah JY, Wong LS, Jamayet NB, Alam MK, Rashid QF, et al.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Aug 31;19(17).
    PMID: 36078576 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191710860
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was (a) to explore the current clinical applications of AI/ML (Artificial intelligence and Machine learning) techniques in diagnosis and treatment prediction in children with CLP (Cleft lip and palate), (b) to create a qualitative summary of results of the studies retrieved.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was carried out using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and the Web of Science Core Collection. Two reviewers searched the databases separately and concurrently. The initial search was conducted on 6 July 2021. The publishing period was unrestricted; however, the search was limited to articles involving human participants and published in English. Combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) phrases and free text terms were used as search keywords in each database. The following data was taken from the methods and results sections of the selected papers: The amount of AI training datasets utilized to train the intelligent system, as well as their conditional properties; Unilateral CLP, Bilateral CLP, Unilateral Cleft lip and alveolus, Unilateral cleft lip, Hypernasality, Dental characteristics, and sagittal jaw relationship in children with CLP are among the problems studied.

    RESULTS: Based on the predefined search strings with accompanying database keywords, a total of 44 articles were found in Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science search results. After reading the full articles, 12 papers were included for systematic analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Artificial intelligence provides an advanced technology that can be employed in AI-enabled computerized programming software for accurate landmark detection, rapid digital cephalometric analysis, clinical decision-making, and treatment prediction. In children with corrected unilateral cleft lip and palate, ML can help detect cephalometric predictors of future need for orthognathic surgery.

  8. Kohli S, Bhatia S, Al-Haddad A, Pulikkotil SJ, Jamayet NB
    J Prosthodont, 2022 Feb;31(2):102-114.
    PMID: 34516686 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.13433
    PURPOSE: This is a systematic review to identify the incidence of pulp necrosis and/or periapical changes among vital teeth which are used as an abutment for crown and fixed partial dentures (FPDs).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two reviewers independently searched two electronic databases, PubMed and Scopus. The search was complemented from references of included studies and published reviews. Studies published in the English language through January 2021 that had assessed and documented the clinical and radiographic failure of crown or FPD in vital permanent teeth due to pulpal or periapical pathology with a follow-up of at least 12 months were selected. Data screening, data collection and extraction of data was performed. Quality of studies involved was analyzed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. Meta-analysis was done using random effects model. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots.

    RESULTS: Electronic searches provided 10,075 records among which 20 studies were selected for systematic review and 7 studies were selected for meta-analysis. With respect to quality assessment, all the studies involved were considered as high quality as the score in scale ranged between 6 and 9 as per the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. The meta-analyses showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of the loss of pulp vitality or pulp necrosis through clinical and radiographic examination with the follow up period of 5 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.96-1.00, I2 = 77.84%; 10 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.88-0.95, I2 = 93.59%; 15 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.92-0.96, I2 = 94.83%; and 20 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.94-0.96, I2 = 95.01%.

    CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis revealed clinical and radiographic success rate ranging between 92% to 98% at different follow up periods ranging between 5 years and 20 years. Future high-quality randomized clinical controlled trials with a larger population are required to confirm the evidence as only observational studies were considered in this paper.

  9. Alam MK, Ganji KK, Munisekhar MS, Alanazi NS, Alsharif HN, Iqbal A, et al.
    Saudi Dent J, 2021 Nov;33(7):687-692.
    PMID: 34803320 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2020.04.008
    Objective: CBCT (cone beam computed tomography) analysis of condyle morphometry, to investigate the gender differences, symmetry and relationship with mandibular size.

    Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study. 800 CBCT scan obtained for the measurement of condyle in anterior-posterior and medio-lateral aspect using OnDemand 3D software. Participants were Saudi nationals of age above 18 years. 395 Males and 405 Females with the mean age of 38.2 ± 10.5 years. Right and left anterior-posterior width and medio-lateral width of the condyle were measured. Condyles were not isolated on the CBCT for volume measurement.

    Results: Mean right and anterior-posterior condyle width was 9.02 mm and 8.74 mm in males whereas in females it was 9.01 mm 8.69 mm respectively. For males mean medio-lateral width of the condyle in right and left side was 17.40 mm and 16.95 mm. For females, mean medio-lateral width of the condyle in right and left side was 17.14 mm and 16.93 mm. The prediction rate of gender was 57.2% for males and 53.3% for females. Statistically significant differences (p 

  10. Jamayet NB, Farook TH, Al-Oulabi A, Johari Y, Patil PG
    J Prosthet Dent, 2021 Oct 08.
    PMID: 34635339 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2021.08.021
    This clinical report describes how a hollow obturator prosthesis was designed and fabricated for an 82-year-old partially edentulous patient with a large palatal defect. Computer-aided design (CAD) was used to design, articulate, and align the mandibular denture with the obturator prosthesis. The prosthesis was printed, adjusted chairside, rescanned, and made hollow by using a CAD software program. The prosthesis was printed in resin with a dental 3D printer. Quantitative evaluations of clinical (prosthesis dimensions, rest, and occlusal vertical dimensions) and virtual (surface area, volume, weight, interpoint mismatches, spatial overlap) parameters found that the 3D-printed prosthesis required an additional 5% chairside modification. The greatest differences in volume (24.7% less) and weight (22.2% less) were observed when the modified obturator bulb was made hollow via CAD. Hollowing the bulb, therefore, reduced the spatial overlap in volume by 16.8%.
  11. Ahmed N, Halim MS, Khalid S, Ghani ZA, Jamayet NB
    J Prosthet Dent, 2021 Jul 31.
    PMID: 34340826 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2021.06.015
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The color and form of teeth are 2 of the 3 main determinants of success in an esthetic restoration; the third is dental proportion. A recent systematic review of the literature devoted to the evaluation of dental proportion is lacking.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the quality and outcome of studies into maxillary anterior tooth proportion and to determine whether dental proportion ratios based on different geographic regions are appropriate.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases. English-language articles reporting with the specific combination of medical subject heading (MeSH) key words were analyzed by 2 investigators. The titles, full text, and abstracts were scanned by investigators independently to identify articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The general characteristics, outcomes, and quality of each study were reviewed and analyzed systematically.

    RESULTS: The search plan resulted in a total of 73 articles until September 2020; of which, 16 articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. The geographic distribution of the selected article revealed 12 articles from Asia, 2 from Continental Europe, and 2 from the United Kingdom. Golden percentage values of 25%, 15%, and 10% for central, lateral incisor, and canine teeth were not found. The mean predicted dental percentage was either larger or smaller than the successive widths of maxillary natural anterior teeth.

    CONCLUSIONS: The golden percentage could not be used to formulate a smile design. Rather, the dental ratios should be set on a racial and ethnic basis for a population.

  12. Al-Oulabi A, Al Rawas M, Farook TH, Rashid F, Barman A, Jamayet NB, et al.
    Work, 2021 Jun 25.
    PMID: 34180457 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-213519
    BACKGROUND: Two patients received ocular injuries from rusted metallic projectiles at their industrial workplaces. Said injuries resulted in the loss of their eyes by evisceration surgeries to prevent fatal infections.

    CASE DESCRIPTION: The first case, a man in his twenties, received a stock conformer immediately after surgery and started prosthetic therapy within 2 months. The second case, a man in his forties, started prosthetic therapy after 10 years. Definitive custom ocular prostheses were fabricated and relined according to conventional protocol.

    RESULTS: On issue of the prosthesis, there was adequate retention, aesthetics and stability to extra-ocular movements and treatment was considered successful for both cases. However, follow-ups showed noticeable prosthetic eye movements for case 1 which, to some extent mimicked the physiologic movement of its fellow natural eye. Case 1 adjusted to his prosthesis better while case 2 was still adjusting with little to no physiologic movement.

    CONCLUSION: Prosthetic rehabilitation should be started as early as possible to obtain optimum rehabilitative results.

  13. Farook TH, Barman A, Abdullah JY, Jamayet NB
    J Prosthodont, 2021 Jun;30(5):420-429.
    PMID: 33200429 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.13286
    PURPOSE: Mesh optimization reduces the texture quality of 3D models in order to reduce storage file size and computational load on a personal computer. This study aims to explore mesh optimization using open source (free) software in the context of prosthodontic application.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An auricular prosthesis, a complete denture, and anterior and posterior crowns were constructed using conventional methods and laser scanned to create computerized 3D meshes. The meshes were optimized independently by four computer-aided design software (Meshmixer, Meshlab, Blender, and SculptGL) to 100%, 90%, 75%, 50%, and 25% levels of original file size. Upon optimization, the following parameters were virtually evaluated and compared; mesh vertices, file size, mesh surface area (SA), mesh volume (V), interpoint discrepancies (geometric similarity based on virtual point overlapping), and spatial similarity (volumetric similarity based on shape overlapping). The influence of software and optimization on surface area and volume of each prosthesis was evaluated independently using multiple linear regression.

    RESULTS: There were clear observable differences in vertices, file size, surface area, and volume. The choice of software significantly influenced the overall virtual parameters of auricular prosthesis [SA: F(4,15) = 12.93, R2 = 0.67, p < 0.001. V: F(4,15) = 9.33, R2 = 0.64, p < 0.001] and complete denture [SA: F(4,15) = 10.81, R2 = 0.67, p < 0.001. V: F(4,15) = 3.50, R2 = 0.34, p = 0.030] across optimization levels. Interpoint discrepancies were however limited to <0.1mm and volumetric similarity was >97%.

    CONCLUSION: Open-source mesh optimization of smaller dental prostheses in this study produced minimal loss of geometric and volumetric details. SculptGL models were most influenced by the amount of optimization performed.

  14. Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Asif JA, Din AS, Mahyuddin MN, Alam MK
    Sci Rep, 2021 04 19;11(1):8469.
    PMID: 33875672 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-87240-9
    Palatal defects are rehabilitated by fabricating maxillofacial prostheses called obturators. The treatment incorporates taking deviously unpredictable impressions to facsimile the palatal defects into plaster casts for obturator fabrication in the dental laboratory. The casts are then digitally stored using expensive hardware to prevent physical damage or data loss and, when required, future obturators are digitally designed, and 3D printed. Our objective was to construct and validate an economic in-house smartphone-integrated stereophotogrammetry (SPINS) 3D scanner and to evaluate its accuracy in designing prosthetics using open source/free (OS/F) digital pipeline. Palatal defect models were scanned using SPINS and its accuracy was compared against the standard laser scanner for virtual area and volumetric parameters. SPINS derived 3D models were then used to design obturators by using (OS/F) software. The resultant obturators were virtually compared against standard medical software designs. There were no significant differences in any of the virtual parameters when evaluating the accuracy of both SPINS, as well as OS/F derived obturators. However, limitations in the design process resulted in minimal dissimilarities. With further improvements, SPINS based prosthetic rehabilitation could create a viable, low cost method for rural and developing health services to embrace maxillofacial record keeping and digitised prosthetic rehabilitation.
  15. Beh YH, Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Dudley J, Rashid F, Barman A, et al.
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J, 2021 03;58(3):386-390.
    PMID: 32808548 DOI: 10.1177/1055665620950074
    OBJECTIVE: The virtual cone beam computed tomography-derived 3-dimensional model was compared with the scanned conventional model used in the fabrication of a palatal obturator for a patient with a large palatal defect.

    DESIGN: A digitally derived 3-dimensional maxillary model incorporating the palatal defect was generated from the patient's existing cone beam computerized tomography data and compared with the scanned cast from the conventional impression for linear dimensions, area, and volume. The digitally derived cast was 3-dimensionally printed and the obturator fabricated using traditional techniques. Similarly, an obturator was fabricated from the conventional cast and the fit of both final obturator bulbs were compared in vivo.

    RESULTS: The digitally derived model produced more accurate volumes and surface areas within the defect. The defect margins and peripheries were overestimated which was reflected clinically.

    CONCLUSION: The digitally derived model provided advantages in the fabrication of the palatal obturator; however, further clinical research is required to refine consistency.

  16. Farook TH, Abdullah JY, Jamayet NB, Alam MK
    J Prosthet Dent, 2021 Feb 15.
    PMID: 33602541 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.07.039
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Computer-aided design (CAD) of maxillofacial prostheses is a hardware-intensive process. The greater the mesh detail is, the more processing power is required from the computer. A reduction in mesh quality has been shown to reduce workload on computers, yet no reference value of reduction is present for intraoral prostheses that can be applied during the design.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this simulation study was to establish a reference percentage value that can be used to effectively reduce the size and polygons of the 3D mesh without drastically affecting the dimensions of the prosthesis itself.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen different maxillary palatal defects were simulated on a dental cast and scanned to create 3D casts. Digital bulbs were fabricated from the casts. Conventional bulbs for the defects were fabricated, scanned, and compared with the digital bulb to serve as a control. The polygon parameters of digital bulbs were then reduced by different percentages (75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, and 1% of the original mesh) which created a total of 105 meshes across 7 mesh groups. The reduced mesh files were compared individually with the original design in an open-source point cloud comparison software program. The parameters of comparison used in this study were Hausdorff distance (HD), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and volume.

    RESULTS: The reduction in file size was directly proportional to the amount of mesh reduction. There were minute yet insignificant differences in volume (P>.05) across all mesh groups, with significant differences (P

  17. Rahman AM, Jamayet NB, Nizami MMUI, Johari Y, Husein A, Alam MK
    J Prosthet Dent, 2021 Jan 17.
    PMID: 33472753 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.07.026
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The climate of tropical Southeast Asia includes high humidity and ultraviolet radiation that reduce the lifespan of silicone prostheses by inducing changes in their mechanical properties and color stability. Studies on the surface roughness (SR) and mechanical properties of different silicone elastomers (SEs) subjected to the natural tropical weather of Southeast Asia are lacking.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the SR, tensile strength (TS), and percentage elongation (% E) of different SEs subjected to outdoor weathering in the Malaysian climate.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Type-II dumbbell-shaped specimens (N-120) (nonweathered=15, weathered=15) were made from 3 room-temperature vulcanized (A-2000, A-2006, and A-103) and 1 heat-temperature vulcanized (M-511) silicone (Factor II). For 6 months, weathered specimens were subjected to outdoor weathering inside a custom exposure rack. Simultaneously, the nonweathered specimens were kept in a dehumidifier. Subsequently, the SR was measured with a profilometer; TS and % E were measured by using a universal testing machine. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the means of the tested properties of the nonweathered and weathered specimens, and pairwise comparison was carried out between the silicones (α=.05).

    RESULTS: After outdoor weathering, the SR, TS, and % E were adversely affected by weathering in the Malaysian environment. Among the silicone materials, A-2000 showed the least TS changes (2.51 MPa), while A-2006 demonstrated significant changes in percentage elongation after outdoor weathering (266.5%). M-511 exhibited the highest mean value (2.50 μm) for SR changes. In addition, A-103 SE showed statistically significant differences in most pairwise comparisons for all 3 dependent variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evaluation of mechanical properties, A-103 can be suggested as a suitable silicone for maxillofacial prostheses fabricated for tropical climates. However, A-2000 can be a suitable alternative, although significant changes to surface roughness were detected after outdoor weathering.

  18. Ahmed N, Halim MSB, Ghani ZA, Khan ZA, Abbasi MS, Jamayet NB, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:6674400.
    PMID: 33969123 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6674400
    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the existence of golden percentage in natural maxillary anterior teeth with the aid of 3D digital dental models and 2D photographs. And to propose regional values of golden percentage for restoration of maxillary anterior teeth. For this purpose, one hundred and ninety dentate subjects with sound maxillary anterior teeth were selected. Standardized frontal images were captured with DSLR, and the apparent width of maxillary anterior teeth was measured utilizing a software on a personal laptop computer. Once the dimensions were recorded, the calculations were made according to the golden percentage theory (GPT). The data were analyzed by independent and paired T-test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The golden percentage values were not found in this study. The values obtained were 16%, 15%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 16% moving from the right canine to the left canine teeth. There was no significant gender difference in the golden percentage values. Thus, golden percentage should not be used solely for the correction of anterior teeth or for determining dental attractiveness. Emphasis should be given to a range of dental proportion on regional basis.
  19. Alam MK, Alfawzan AA, Haque S, Mok PL, Marya A, Venugopal A, et al.
    Front Pediatr, 2021;9:651951.
    PMID: 34026687 DOI: 10.3389/fped.2021.651951
    To investigate whether the craniofacial sagittal jaw relationship in patients with non-syndromic cleft differed from non-cleft (NC) individuals by artificial intelligence (A.I.)-driven lateral cephalometric (Late. Ceph.) analysis. The study group comprised 123 subjects with different types of clefts including 29 = BCLP (bilateral cleft lip and palate), 41 = UCLP (unilateral cleft lip and palate), 9 = UCLA (unilateral cleft lip and alveolus), 13 = UCL (unilateral cleft lip) and NC = 31. The mean age was 14.77 years. SNA, SNB, ANB angle and Wits appraisal was measured in lateral cephalogram using a new innovative A.I driven Webceph software. Two-way ANOVA and multiple-comparison statistics tests were applied to see the differences between gender and among different types of clefts vs. NC individuals. A significant decrease (p < 0.005) in SNA, ANB, Wits appraisal was observed in different types of clefts vs. NC individuals. SNB (p > 0.005) showed insignificant variables in relation to type of clefts. No significant difference was also found in terms of gender in relation to any type of clefts and NC group. The present study advocates a decrease in sagittal development (SNA, ANB and Wits appraisal) in different types of cleft compared to NC individuals.
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