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  1. Cheung CL, Ang SB, Chadha M, Chow ES, Chung YS, Hew FL, et al.
    Osteoporos Sarcopenia, 2018 Mar;4(1):16-21.
    PMID: 30775536 DOI: 10.1016/j.afos.2018.03.003
    Objectives: Hip fracture is a major public health problem. Earlier studies projected that the total number of hip fracture will increase dramatically by 2050, and most of the hip fracture will occur in Asia. To date, only a few studies provided the updated projection, and none of them focused on the hip fracture projection in Asia. Thus, it is essential to provide the most up to date prediction of hip fracture in Asia, and to evaluate the total direct medical cost of hip fracture in Asia.
    Methods: We provide the updated projection of hip fracture in 9 Asian Federation of Osteoporosis Societies members using the most updated incidence rate and projected population size.
    Results: We show that the number of hip fracture will increase from 1,124,060 in 2018 to 2,563,488 in 2050, a 2.28-fold increase. This increase is mainly due to the changes on the population demographics, especially in China and India, which have the largest population size. The direct cost of hip fracture will increase from 9.5 billion United State dollar (USD) in 2018 to 15 billion USD in 2050, resulting a 1.59-fold increase. A 2%-3% decrease in incidence rate of hip fracture annually is required to keep the total number of hip fracture constant over time.
    Conclusions: The results show that hip fracture remains a key public health issue in Asia, despite the available of better diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of fracture over the recent years. Healthcare policy in Asia should be aimed to reduce the burden of hip fracture.
  2. Zhou LX, Xiao Y, Xia W, Yang YD
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2015;14(4):16247-54.
    PMID: 26662418 DOI: 10.4238/2015.December.8.15
    Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure of the 94 oil palm lines were investigated using species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We designed primers for 63 SSR loci based on their flanking sequences and conducted amplification in 94 oil palm DNA samples. The amplification result showed that a relatively high level of genetic diversity was observed between oil palm individuals according a set of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.3683 and 0.4035, with an average of 0.3859. The Ho value was a reliable determinant of the discriminatory power of the SSR primer combinations. The principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging cluster analysis showed the 94 oil palm lines were grouped into one cluster. These results demonstrated that the oil palm in Hainan Province of China and the germplasm introduced from Malaysia may be from the same source. The SSR protocol was effective and reliable for assessing the genetic diversity of oil palm. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure will be crucial for establishing appropriate management stocks for this species.
  3. Wu CH, Chang YF, Chen CH, Lewiecki EM, Wüster C, Reid I, et al.
    J Clin Densitom, 2019 Mar 20.
    PMID: 31010789 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocd.2019.03.004
    Osteoporosis is a major health issue. By 2050, a greater than 2-fold increase in patients number with hip fractures will occur in Asia representing 50% of all hip fractures worldwide. For the Asia-Pacific (AP) region, more efforts on controlling osteoporosis and the subsequent fractures are crucial. Bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor osteoporosis treatment. However, the inconvenience, cost, limited availability of DXA and the delay in detection of BMD changes after treatment initiation support an important role for bone turnover markers (BTMs), as short-term tools to monitor therapy. With regards to low adherence rates of medical treatment of osteoporosis, the experts reached consensus on the use of BTMs for both raising awareness and short-term monitoring of osteoporosis treatment in the AP region. The experts endorse the use of BTMs, especially serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) and serum procollagen type 1 N propeptide (P1NP), as short-term monitoring tools to help clinicians assess the responses to osteoporosis therapies and appropriately adjust treatment regimens earlier than BMD. Either the absolute values or the degree of change from baseline in BTMs can be used to monitor the potential efficacy of osteoporosis therapies. The use of BTMs can be incorporated in osteoporosis care programs, such as fracture liaison service (FLS), to improve patient adherence and treatment outcomes. Encouraging sufficient reimbursement from health care systems may facilitate widespread use of BTMs in clinical practice in the AP region.
  4. Chan DD, Chang LY, Akesson KE, Mitchell P, Chen CH, Lewiecki EM, et al.
    Arch Osteoporos, 2018 05 12;13(1):59.
    PMID: 29754189 DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0463-3
    The Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) Consensus Meeting endorsed by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), Asian Federation of Osteoporosis Societies (AFOS), and Asia Pacific Osteoporosis Foundation (APOF) was hosted by the Taiwanese Osteoporosis Association on October 14, 2017. International and domestic experts reviewed the 13 Best Practice Framework (BPF) standards and concluded that all standards were generally applicable in the Asia-Pacific region and needed only minor modifications to fit the healthcare settings in the region.

    PURPOSE: To review and generate consensus on best practices of fracture liaison service (FLS) in the Asia-Pacific (AP) region.

    METHODS: In October 2017, the Taiwanese Osteoporosis Association (TOA) invited experts from the AP region (n = 23), the Capture the Fracture Steering Committee (n = 2), and the USA (n = 1) to join the AP region FLS Consensus Meeting in Taipei. After two rounds of consensus generation, the recommendations on the 13 Best Practice Framework (BPF) standards were reported and reviewed by the attendees. Experts unable to attend the on-site meeting reviewed the draft, made suggestions, and approved the final version.

    RESULTS: Because the number of FLSs in the region is rapidly increasing, experts agreed that it was timely to establish consensus on benchmark quality standards for FLSs in the region. They also agreed that the 13 BPF standards and the 3 levels of standards were generally applicable, but that some clarifications were necessary. They suggested, for example, that patient and family education be incorporated into the current standards and that communication with the public to promote FLSs be increased.

    CONCLUSIONS: The consensus on the 13 BPF standards reviewed in this meeting was that they were generally applicable and required only a few advanced clarifications to increase the quality of FLSs in the region.

  5. Chan DD, Chang LY, Akesson KE, Mitchell P, Chen CH, Lewiecki EM, et al.
    Arch Osteoporos, 2018 07 03;13(1):73.
    PMID: 29971507 DOI: 10.1007/s11657-018-0485-x
    In this article the name of the sixth author, E. Michael Lewiecki was rendered incorrectly. The publisher regrets this error and apologizes for the inconvenience caused.
  6. Xia W, Luo T, Zhang W, Mason AS, Huang D, Huang X, et al.
    Front Plant Sci, 2019;10:130.
    PMID: 30809240 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00130
    High-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used as highly favored makers to analyze genetic diversity and population structure, to construct high-density genetic maps and provide genotypes for genome-wide association analysis. In order to develop genome-wide SNP markers in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), single locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology was performed in a diversity panel of 200 oil palm individuals and 1,261,501 SNPs were identified with minor allele frequency > 0.05 and integrity > 1. Among them, only 17.81% can be mapped within the genic region and the remaining was located into the intergenic region. A positive correlation was detected between the distribution of SNP markers and retrotransposons [transposable elements (TEs)]. Population structure analysis showed that the 200 individuals of oil palm can be divided into five subgroups based on cross-validation errors. However, the subpopulations divided for the 200 oil palm individuals based on the SNP markers were not accurately related to their geographical origins and 80 oil palm individuals from Malaysia showed highest genetic diversity. In addition, the physical distance of linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in the analyzed oil palm population was 14.516 kb when r2 = 0.1. The LD decay distances for different chromosomes varied from 3.324 (chromosome 15) to 19.983 kb (chromosome 7). Our research provides genome-wide SNPs for future targeted breeding in palm oil.
  7. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
  8. Chew BL, Fisk ID, Fray R, Tucker GA, Bodi Z, Ferguson A, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2017 Jan;36(1):81-87.
    PMID: 27662835 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-016-2058-z
    KEY MESSAGE: This study highlights the changes in umami-related nucleotide and glutamate levels when the AMP deaminase gene was elevated in transgenic tomato. Taste is perceived as one of a combination of five sensations, sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. The umami taste is best known as a savoury sensation and plays a central role in food flavour, palatability, and eating satisfaction. Umami flavour can be imparted by the presence of glutamate and is greatly enhanced by the addition of ribonucleotides, such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP). The production of IMP is regulated by the enzyme adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase which functions to convert AMP into IMP. We have generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines over expressing AMP deaminase under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. The transgenic lines showed substantially enhanced levels of AMP deaminase expression in comparison to the wild-type control. Elevated AMP deaminase levels resulted in the reduced accumulation of glutamate and increased levels of the umami nucleotide GMP. AMP concentrations were unchanged. The effects on the levels of glutamate and GMP were unexpected and are discussed in relation to the metabolite flux within this pathway.
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