A 'Heat treatment aqueous two phase system' was employed for the first time to purify serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper) leaves. In this study, introduction of heat treatment procedure in serine protease purification was investigated. In addition, the effects of different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000, 6000 and 8000) at concentrations of 8, 16 and 21% (w/w) as well as salts (Na-citrate, MgSO₄ and K₂HPO₄) at concentrations of 12, 15, 18% (w/w) on serine protease partition behavior were studied. Optimum conditions for serine protease purification were achieved in the PEG-rich phase with composition of 16% PEG6000-15% MgSO₄. Also, thermal treatment of kesinai leaves at 55 °C for 15 min resulted in higher purity and recovery yield compared to the non-heat treatment sample. Furthermore, this study investigated the effects of various concentrations of NaCl addition (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w) and different pH (4, 7 and 9) on the optimization of the system to obtain high yields of the enzyme. The recovery of serine protease was significantly enhanced in the presence of 4% (w/w) of NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor was increased 14.4 fold and achieved a high yield of 96.7%.
A new neolignan, 3,4-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-2,9-epoxy-6,7-cyclo-1,8-neolign-11-en-5(5H)-one, which has been named (+)-kunstlerone (1), together with six known alkaloids: (+)-norboldine (2), (+)-N-methylisococlaurine (3), (+)-cassythicine (4), (+)-laurotetanine (5), (+)-boldine (6) and (-)-pallidine (7), were isolated from the leaves of Beilschmiedia kunstleri. The structures were established through various spectroscopic methods notably 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR and LCMS-IT-TOF. (+)- Kunstlerone (1) showed a strong antioxidant activity, with an SC(50) of 20.0 µg/mL.
A new dienamide, (2E,4E)-7-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-ethyl-6-(R)-hydroxyhepta- 2,4-dienamide, named (-)-kunstleramide (1), were isolated from the bark of Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble together with one neolignan: (+)-kunstlerone (2) and seven known alkaloids: (+)-nornuciferine (3), (-)-isocaryachine (4), (+)-cassythicine (5), (+)-laurotetanine (6), (+)-boldine (7), noratherosperminine (8), (+)-N-demethylphyllocaryptine (9). Their structures were established from spectroscopic techniques, most notably 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, OR, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and LCMS-IT-TOF. (-)-Kunstleramide (1) exhibited very poor dose-dependent inhibition of DPPH activity, with an IC₅₀ value of 179.5 ± 4.4 μg/mL, but showed a moderate cytotoxic effect on MTT assays of A375, A549, HT-29, PC-3 and WRL-68 with EC₅₀ values of 64.65, 44.74, 55.94, 73.87 and 70.95 µg/mL, respectively.
Breast cancer is becoming more prominent in women today. As of now, there are no effective treatments in treating metastatic breast cancer. We have tested the cytotoxic and anti-migration effects of BHAQ, a synthesized anthraquinone, on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. Anthraquinones are an interesting class of molecules that display a wide spectrum of biological applications, including anticancer properties. Cellular inhibition was tested through a MTT assay, double acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and FACS cell cycle analysis. Inhibition of migration was tested by the wound healing method, and migration through a Boyden chamber. BHAQ was cytotoxic towards both cell lines in a dose dependent and possibly cell-dependent manner. Additionally, BHAQ also inhibited the migration of the highly metastatic MDA-MB231 cell line.
Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.
The antiradical efficiency (AE) and kinetic behavior of a new ferulate-based protic ionic liquids (PILs) were described using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. The reduction of the DPPH free radical (DPPH•) was investigated by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 517 nm. The time to reach steady state for the reaction of parent acid (ferulic acid) and synthesized PILs with DPPH• was continuously recorded for 1 h. Results revealed that the AE of 2-butylaminoethanol ferulate (2BAEF), 3-dimethylaminopropanol ferulate (3DMAPF) and 3-diethylaminopropanol ferulate (3DEAPF) PILs have improved compared to ferulic acid (FA) as the reaction class changes from low to medium. This attributed to the strong hydrogen abstraction occurred in the PILs. Furthermore, these PILs were found to have a good kinetic behavior compared to FA due to the high rate constant (k₂) (164.17, 242.84 and 244.73 M-1 s-1, respectively). The alkyl chain length and more alkyl substituents on the nitrogen atom of cation were believed to reduce the cation-anion interaction and speed up the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and electron transfer (ET) mechanisms; hence, increased rate constant was observed leading to a strong antioxidant activity of the synthesized PILs.
Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.
One of the most widely-used techniques for ligand-based virtual screening is similarity searching. This study adopted the concepts of quantum mechanics to present as state-of-the-art similarity method of molecules inspired from quantum theory. The representation of molecular compounds in mathematical quantum space plays a vital role in the development of quantum-based similarity approach. One of the key concepts of quantum theory is the use of complex numbers. Hence, this study proposed three various techniques to embed and to re-represent the molecular compounds to correspond with complex numbers format. The quantum-based similarity method that developed in this study depending on complex pure Hilbert space of molecules called Standard Quantum-Based (SQB). The recall of retrieved active molecules were at top 1% and top 5%, and significant test is used to evaluate our proposed methods. The MDL drug data report (MDDR), maximum unbiased validation (MUV) and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiment show that the effectiveness of SQB method was significantly increased due to the role of representational power of molecular compounds in complex numbers forms compared to Tanimoto benchmark similarity measure.
Zerumbone (ZER) is a phytochemical isolated from the subtropical Zingiberaceae family and as a natural compound it has different biomedical properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-proliferative activity. ZER also has effects on angiogenesis and acts as an antitumor drug in the treatment of cancer, showing selective toxicity toward various cancer cell lines. Several techniques also have been established for extraction of ZER from the rhizomes of ginger. This review paper is an overview of recent research about different extraction methods and their efficiencies, in vivo and vitro investigations of ZER and also its prominent chemopreventive properties and treatment mechanisms. Most of the studies mentioned in this review paper may be useful use as a knowledge summary to explain ZER extraction and anticancer activities, which will show a way for the development of strategies in the treatment of malignancies using ZER.
In this study a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as a soft template for in situ chemical polymerization of aniline on the surface of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The morphology of the wire-like and porous nanostructure of the resulting composite was highly dependent on the MCC and CTAB concentrations. The effect of the MCC and CTAB concentrations on the electrochemical and morphological properties of the polyaniline (PAni) nanocomposite was studied. Cyclic voltammograms of modified PAni/MCC/CTAB electrode displayed a high current response and the effect of scan rate on the current response confirmed a diffusion controlled process on the surface of the electrode that makes it suitable for sensor applications. The overlapping characteristic peaks of pure PAni and MCC caused peak broadening at 3263 cm-1 in the IR spectra of PAni/MCC/CTAB nanocomposite that revealed the interaction between NH of PAni and OH group of MCC via electrostatic interactions. The addition of MCC to PAni through chemical polymerization decreased the thermal stability of composite compared to pure PAni. Lower crystallinity was observed in the XRD diffractogram, with 2 theta values of 22.8, 16.5, and 34.6 for PAni/MCC, confirming the formation of PAni on the MCC surface.
The microwave-assisted three-component reactions of 3,5-bis(E)-arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones, acenaphthenequinone and cyclic α-amino acids in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, occurred through a domino sequence affording structurally intriguing diazaheptacyclic cage-like compounds in excellent yields.
The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.
Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.
Our preliminary screening had shown that the curcumin derivative [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] or BDMC33 exhibited improved anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophage cells. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 on PGE(2 )synthesis and cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated macrophages. We found that BDMC33 significantly inhibited PGE(2) synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner albeit at a low inhibition level with an IC(50) value of 47.33 ± 1.00 µM. Interestingly, the PGE(2) inhibitory activity of BDMC33 is not attributed to inhibition of the COX enzyme activities, but rather BDMC33 selectively down-regulated the expression of COX-2. In addition, BDMC33 modulates the COX expression by sustaining the constitutively COX-1 expression in IFN-γ/LPS-treated macrophage cells. Collectively, the experimental data suggest an immunodulatory action of BDMC33 on PGE(2) synthesis and COX expression, making it a possible treatment for inflammatory disorders with minimal gastrointestinal-related side effects.
A series of novel dimethoxyindanone embedded spiropyrrolidines were synthesized in ionic liquid, [bmim]Br and were evaluated for their inhibitory activities towards cholinesterases. Among the spiropyrrolidines, compound 4f exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 1.57 µM against acethylcholinesterase (AChE). Molecular docking simulation for the most active compound was employed with the aim of disclosing its binding mechanism to the active site of AChE receptor.
A new 4alpha-methyl sterol, 4alpha-methyl-ergosta-6,8(14),22E-triene-3beta-ol (1), was isolated along with cholesterol from a Nephthea sp. Bornean soft coral The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the data with those of the related compounds.
A new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (5S,6S,7S,9S,10S,11R,13S-abiet-8(14)-enepenta-6,7,9,11,13-ol, 1), was isolated from a rhizome extract of Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. along with the known compounds crotepoxide, boesenboxide, zeylenol, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, (24S)-24-methyl-5α-lanosta-9(11),25-dien-3β-ol, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis of mass spectroscopic and NMR data. Zeylenol (2), the major constituent of the plant, was derivatized into diacetate, triacetate and epoxide derivatives through standard organic reactions. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1, 2 and the zeylenol derivatives was evaluated against the HL-60, MCF-7, HT-29 and HeLa cell lines.
Six populations of Laurencia nangii were found to produce three bromoallenes; dihydroitomanallene B (1), itomanallene B (2) and pannosallene (3). Prior to this report, L. nangii were only known to produce C(15)-acetogenins with acetylene functionality. This could be regarded as a new chemical race of L. nangii. The compound structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with those previously reported in literature. Compound 1, dihydroitomanallene B, was isolated as a new compound representing a minor variation of itomanallene B (2).
A new cembrane diterpene, 6-acetoxy-7,8-epoxynephthenol acetate (1) was isolated along with a known compound, epoxynephthenol acetate (2), from the organic extract of a Bornean soft coral Nephthea sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparison with those previous literature data.
A new germacrane-type norsesquiterpenoid, 1-acetoxy-germacra-5E,10(14)-diene-4-one (1), as well as three known compounds, were isolated from the organic extracts of a Bornean soft coral Nephthea sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis.