Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

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  1. Chong JA, Mohamed AMFS, Pau A
    J Oral Biosci, 2020 09;62(3):249-259.
    PMID: 32619633 DOI: 10.1016/j.job.2020.06.003
    BACKGROUND: Palatal rugae are asymmetric ridges of connective tissue located behind the incisive papilla over the anterior hard palate. They serve as stable superimposition landmarks to assess tooth movement in orthodontics and as identification aids in forensic odontology. However, the stability of palatal rugae remains controversial. This review aimed to describe the genetic, growth, and environmental factors that may influence the palatal rugae patterns. A broad search of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was conducted. A total of 193 articles were identified, of which 73 met the selection criteria. Data were extracted into a table that presented the details of the study, sample description, and changes in the palatal rugae patterns.

    HIGHLIGHT: There were conflicting results regarding sexual dimorphism and population characterization of the palatal rugae patterns. All rugae showed positional changes, increased lengths, and lower numbers, but no significant shape changes with growth. The lengths, numbers, and positions of the rugae were affected by orthodontic treatment, especially their lateral points, but their individual characteristics did not change.

    CONCLUSION: The diversity in rugae patterns and their potential for sex discrimination among different populations showed differing results due to individual variations and the complex influence of genetic, growth, and environmental factors on their morphology.

    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  2. Tawfiq Zyoud TY, Abdul Rashid SN, Suppiah S, Abdul Rahim E, Mahmud R
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 07;75(4):411-418.
    PMID: 32724006
    INTRODUCTION: Autopsy is one of the most important approaches to identify clearly the exact cause of death, whether it was due to natural causes, sudden death, or traumatic. Various studies have been done in different countries regarding ways to improve the diagnosis during autopsy. The imaging approach is one of the methods that has been used to complement autopsy findings and to enhance the diagnosis for achieving the most accurate post-mortem diagnosis. The aim of this study is to identify the role of imaging modalities that complement routine autopsy and correlate the findings of diagnostic imaging that can help improve the accuracy of diagnosing the cause of death.

    METHODS: We sourced articles from Scopus, Ovid and PubMed databases for journal publications related to post-mortem diagnostic imaging. We highlight the most relevant full articles in English that explain the type of modality that was utilised and the added value it provided for diagnosing the cause of death.

    RESULTS: Minimally invasive autopsies assisted by imaging modalities added a great benefit to forensic medicine, and supported conventional autopsy. In particular the role of post mortem computed tomography (PMCT), post mortem computed tomography angiography (PMMR) and positron emission tomography computed tomography (PMCTA) that have incremental benefits in diagnosing traumatic death, fractures, tissue injuries, as well as the assessment of body height or weight for corpse identification.

    CONCLUSION: PMCT and PMMR, with particular emphasis on PMCTA, can provide higher accuracy than the other modalities. They can be regarded as indispensable methods that should be applied to the routine autopsy protocol, thus improving the findings and accuracy of diagnosing the cause of death.

    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  3. Jothee S, Shafie MS, Vijayaretnam SV, Nor FM
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 2020 Jun;41(2):110-114.
    PMID: 32205487 DOI: 10.1097/PAF.0000000000000539
    Organ weights are routinely measured during autopsies as a crude screening tool to detect possible organ pathology. In several centers, inclusion of major organ weights indicates whether an autopsy report has achieved its standard of practice, which in turn should be subjected to an audit. Previous studies show statistical variation in organ weights across different populations. Malaysian pathologists have relied on Western data and crude subjective determination in the interpretation of normal organ weights. Hence, the need for a reference range as a guide for pathologists is acute. Organ weights from traumatic deaths between 2004 and 2017 were analyzed in the UKM Medical Centre. Statistical analysis was performed to form reference ranges for normal weights of the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and kidneys. In addition, the data were compared between sexes, races, and body mass index values to determine whether organ weights were affected by these parameters. In this study, reference ranges for organ weights are presented for Malaysian adult men and women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine*
  4. Asif MK, Nambiar P, Ibrahim N, Al-Amery SM, Khan IM
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2019 Jul;39:9-14.
    PMID: 31158731 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2019.05.003
    Three-dimensional imaging has improved the method of analysis in many forensic science investigations. The study aimed to derive regression equation for age estimation by investigating the relationship between chronological age and surface area of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices. Furthermore, other predictor variables: ethnicity (Malay and Chinese), gender and status of the root development completion (open/closed apices) were also investigated in terms of fit to the age estimation model. One hundred and twenty eight training and 55 validation samples of intact mandibular 3rd molars were selected from 183 CBCT scans. The samples comprised of 93 Malays and 90 Chinese, ranging in age from 13 to 24 years. Three-dimensional image modeling and surface area analysis of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices were performed using Mimics and 3-Matics software. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to derive age estimation model using chronological age as a dependent variable and surface area of the apices, ethnicity, gender and status of the root development completion (open/closed apices) as predictor variables. A strong inverse correlation (r = 0.95, SD = 1.144) was observed between chronological age and all the predictor variables. The results showed that 89.6% of the variation in age can be explained by the predictor variables. Mean absolute error (MAE) value of 0.8223 was observed when the derived regression equation was tested on the independent validation sample. In conclusion, three-dimensional surface area analysis of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices can be used as a reliable method for age estimation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  5. Mujtaba G, Shuib L, Raj RG, Rajandram R, Shaikh K, Al-Garadi MA
    J Biomed Inform, 2018 06;82:88-105.
    PMID: 29738820 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2018.04.013
    Text categorization has been used extensively in recent years to classify plain-text clinical reports. This study employs text categorization techniques for the classification of open narrative forensic autopsy reports. One of the key steps in text classification is document representation. In document representation, a clinical report is transformed into a format that is suitable for classification. The traditional document representation technique for text categorization is the bag-of-words (BoW) technique. In this study, the traditional BoW technique is ineffective in classifying forensic autopsy reports because it merely extracts frequent but discriminative features from clinical reports. Moreover, this technique fails to capture word inversion, as well as word-level synonymy and polysemy, when classifying autopsy reports. Hence, the BoW technique suffers from low accuracy and low robustness unless it is improved with contextual and application-specific information. To overcome the aforementioned limitations of the BoW technique, this research aims to develop an effective conceptual graph-based document representation (CGDR) technique to classify 1500 forensic autopsy reports from four (4) manners of death (MoD) and sixteen (16) causes of death (CoD). Term-based and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) based conceptual features were extracted and represented through graphs. These features were then used to train a two-level text classifier. The first level classifier was responsible for predicting MoD. In addition, the second level classifier was responsible for predicting CoD using the proposed conceptual graph-based document representation technique. To demonstrate the significance of the proposed technique, its results were compared with those of six (6) state-of-the-art document representation techniques. Lastly, this study compared the effects of one-level classification and two-level classification on the experimental results. The experimental results indicated that the CGDR technique achieved 12% to 15% improvement in accuracy compared with fully automated document representation baseline techniques. Moreover, two-level classification obtained better results compared with one-level classification. The promising results of the proposed conceptual graph-based document representation technique suggest that pathologists can adopt the proposed system as their basis for second opinion, thereby supporting them in effectively determining CoD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  6. Khoo LS, Lai PS, Saidin MH, Noor Z, Mahmood MS
    Forensic Sci Int, 2018 Apr;285:50-57.
    PMID: 29433011 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.01.018
    Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce. The authors have therefore innovated the cling film plastic wrap as an alternative for the cadaver body bag used at the disaster site. The plastic wrap was tested on six different experimental subjects, i.e. both adult and child mannequins; body parts of the mannequin figure (arm and hand); a human adult subject and an unknown dead body. The strengths of the cling film plastic wrap are discussed in comparison with the cadaver body bag in the aspects of costing, weight, duration of the wrap, water and body fluid resistant properties, visibility and other advantages. An average savings of more than 5000% are noted for both adult body wrap and child body wrap compared to the cadaver body wrap. This simply means that the authors can either wrap 25 adult dead bodies or 80 children dead bodies with the cost of 1 cadaver body bag. The cling film plastic wrap has proven to have significant innovation impact for dead body management particularly by the first responders in large scale disasters. With proper handling of dead bodies, first responders can manage the dead with dignity and respect in an overwhelmed situation to facilitate the humanitarian victim identification process later.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/instrumentation*; Forensic Medicine/methods
  7. Low WZ, Khoo BE, Abdullah AF
    J Forensic Sci, 2016 07;61(4):1093-9.
    PMID: 27364293 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.13063
    Nondestructive techniques for gathering evidence are important in the field of forensics. Due to the geometry of the substrates, nondestructive visualization of fingermarks on curved surfaces remains challenging. A novel contactless technique was developed for visualizing and recording fingermark patterns on nonporous curved surfaces of circular cross section. The technique utilizes a plane mirror to transmit rays from a light source to illuminate the area of interest for fingermark visualization. The fingermark acquisition system consists of a digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, a plane mirror, and a white light source. Mathematical equations are used to calculate the mirror size. Experiments were performed on various curved surfaces to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the technique. Spectral Image Validation and Verification (SIVV) was used to analyze the captured images. The results of this study indicate that the technique described here is able to reveal fingermark patterns on curved surfaces of circular cross section.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  8. Ranson D
    J Law Med, 2015 Jun;22(4):745-50.
    PMID: 26349375
    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine*
  9. Rosilawati R, Baharudin O, Syamsa RA, Lee HL, Nazni WA
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Dec;31(4):785-91.
    PMID: 25776605 MyJurnal
    Preservation of larvae retrieved from cadavers is important in ensuring the quality and integrity of entomological specimens used for the estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI). The process of killing and preserving larvae could distort the larvae leading to inaccurate estimation of PMI. In this study, the effects of killing Chrysomya megacephala larvae with hot water at different temperatures and subsequent maintenance in various preservatives were determined. Larvae not killed by hot water but preserved directly were used as control. The types of preservative used were 10% formalin, 70% ethanol and Kahle's solution. The morphological features examined were length, turgidity, curvature and coloration of larvae. Larvae killed in 80ºC hot water have shorter mean length (12.47 ± 2.86 mm) compared to those in 60ºC hot water (12.95 ± 2.69 mm). Increasing the duration of preservation in all types of preservative caused elongations of larvae treated or untreated with hot water. There were no significant changes in larval turgidity preserved in Kahle's solution compared to other two preservatives and were unaffected by the duration of storage. Larvae preserved in Kahle's solution experienced the least changes in coloration and shape compared to other preserved larvae in 70% ethanol or 10% formalin. Larvae directly immersed alive in 70% ethanol experienced the most changes in curvature, coloration and turgidity. This study suggested that killing larvae with hot water at 80ºC and preservation in Kahle's solution is the optimum method resulting in least changes in morphological features of Ch. megacephala larvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods
  10. Chen CD, Nazni WA, Lee HL, Hashim R, Abdullah NA, Ramli R, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Jun;31(2):381-6.
    PMID: 25134909 MyJurnal
    This study reported the ant species that were recovered from monkey carcasses in three different ecological habitats in Malaysia. The study was conducted from 9 May - 10 October 2007, 6 May - 6 August 2008 and 26 May - 14 July 2009 in forested area (Gombak, Selangor), coastal area (Tanjong Sepat, Selangor) and highland area (Bukit Cincin, Pahang), respectively. Monkey carcass was used as a model for human decomposition in this study. A total of 4 replicates were used in each of the study sites. Ants were observed to prey on eggs, larvae, pupae and newly emerged flies. This study found that ant species could be found at all stages of decomposition, indicating that ants were not a significant indicator for faunal succession. However, different species of ants were obtained from monkey carcasses placed in different ecological habitats. Cardiocondyla sp. was only found on carcasses placed in the coastal area; while Pheidole longipes, Hypoponera sp. and Pachycondyla sp. were solely found on carcasses placed in the highland area. On the other hand, Pheidologeton diversus and Paratrechina longicornis were found in several ecological habitats. These data suggests that specific ant species can act as geographic indicators for different ecological habitats in forensic entomology cases in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods
  11. Al-Qershi OM, Khoo BE
    Forensic Sci Int, 2013 Sep 10;231(1-3):284-95.
    PMID: 23890651 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.05.027
    Currently, digital images and videos have high importance because they have become the main carriers of information. However, the relative ease of tampering with images and videos makes their authenticity untrustful. Digital image forensics addresses the problem of the authentication of images or their origins. One main branch of image forensics is passive image forgery detection. Images could be forged using different techniques, and the most common forgery is the copy-move, in which a region of an image is duplicated and placed elsewhere in the same image. Active techniques, such as watermarking, have been proposed to solve the image authenticity problem, but those techniques have limitations because they require human intervention or specially equipped cameras. To overcome these limitations, several passive authentication methods have been proposed. In contrast to active methods, passive methods do not require any previous information about the image, and they take advantage of specific detectable changes that forgeries can bring into the image. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of passive copy-move forgery detection methods. The key current issues in developing a robust copy-move forgery detector are then identified, and the trends of tackling those issues are addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  12. Azwandi A, Nina Keterina H, Owen LC, Nurizzati MD, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Sep;30(3):481-94.
    PMID: 24189678 MyJurnal
    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are necrophagous, and will also possibly colonize human cadaver, and potentially be useful in assisting in estimates of PMI in future forensic cases in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  13. Kavitha R, Tan TC, Lee HL, Nazni WA, Sofian AM
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):211-9.
    PMID: 23959486 MyJurnal
    DNA identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. One of the potential benefits that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. Conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. This could be overcome by DNA-based identification methods using mitochondrial DNA which does not demand intact or undamaged specimens. Mitochondrial DNA is usually isolated from whole blow fly and legs. Alternate sources for mitochondrial DNA isolation namely, egg, larva, puparium and empty puparium were explored in this study. The sequence of DNA obtained for each sample for every life cycle stage was 100% identical for a particular species, indicating that the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, pupa, empty puparium and adult from the same species and obtained from same generation will exhibit similar DNA sequences. The present study also highlighted the usefulness of collecting all life cycle stages of blow fly during crime scene investigation with proper preservation and subsequent molecular analysis. Molecular identification provides a strong basis for species identification and will prove an invaluable contribution to forensic entomology as an investigative tool in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods
  14. Lee WC, Khoo BE, Bin Abdullah AF, Abdul Aziz ZB
    J Forensic Sci, 2013 May;58(3):658-63.
    PMID: 23488634 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.12103
    Bloodstain photography is important in forensic applications, especially for bloodstain pattern analysis. This study compares the enhancement effect of bloodstain photography using three different types of light source: fluorescent white light, near-ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) light, and 410 nm LED light. Randomized complete block designs were implemented to identify the lighting that would statistically produce the best enhancement results for bloodstains on different types of surfaces. Bloodstain samples were prepared on white cotton, brown carpet, tar road, and wood. These samples were photographed in darkroom conditions using a Canon EOS 50D digital SLR camera, with Canon EFS 60 mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the contrast of the images. The statistical analysis showed that 410 nm light is the best among the tested lights for enhancing bloodstains on the tested surfaces, where the contrast of bloodstain to background was the highest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  15. Bin Abdul Rashid SN, Rahim AS, Thali MJ, Flach PM
    Forensic Sci Med Pathol, 2013 Mar;9(1):82-7.
    PMID: 23404531 DOI: 10.1007/s12024-012-9395-1
    Fatal acute methamphetamine (MA) poisoning in cases of internal drug trafficking is rarely described in the literature. This case study reports an MA 'body packer' who died from fatal methamphetamine intoxication due to leaking drug packages in the alimentary tract. The deceased was examined by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), and the results were correlated to subsequent autopsy and toxicological findings. The deceased was arrested by the police when he was found disoriented in the city of Kuala Lumpur. He was transferred to the emergency department on suspicion of drug abuse. The initial drug screening was reactive for amphetamines. Shortly after admission to the hospital, he died despite rigorous resuscitation attempts. The postmortem plain chest and abdominal radiographs revealed multiple suspicious opacities in the gastrointestinal tract attributable to body packages. An unenhanced whole body PMCT revealed twenty-five drug packages, twenty-four in the stomach and one in the transverse colon. At least two were disintegrating, and therefore leaking. The autopsy findings were consistent with the PMCT results. Toxicology confirmed the diagnosis of fatal methamphetamine intoxication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  16. Kavitha R, Tan TC, Lee HL, Nazni WA, Sofian-Azirun M
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Mar;30(1):119-24.
    PMID: 23665717 MyJurnal
    Estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI) is crucial for time of death determination. The advent of DNA-based identification techniques forensic entomology saw the beginning of a proliferation of molecular studies into forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera). The use of DNA to characterise morphologically indistinguishable immature calliphorids was recognised as a valuable molecular tool with enormous practical utility. The local entomofauna in most cases is important for the examination of entomological evidences. The survey of the local entomofauna has become a fundamental first step in forensic entomological studies, because different geographical distributions, seasonal and environmental factors may influence the decomposition process and the occurrence of different insect species on corpses. In this study, calliphorids were collected from 13 human corpses recovered from indoors, outdoors and aquatic conditions during the post-mortem examination by pathologists from the government hospitals in Malaysia. Only two species, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies were recovered from human corpses. DNA sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial encoded COI gene and to evaluate the suitability of the 1300 base pairs of COI fragments for identification of blow fly species collected from real crime scene. The COI gene from blow fly specimens were sequenced and deposited in GenBank to expand local databases. The sequenced COI gene was useful in identifying calliphorids retrieved from human corpses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  17. Azwandi A, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Dec;29(4):638-41.
    PMID: 23202610
    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods
  18. Rumiza AR, Khairul O, Zuha RM, Heo CC
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):373-83.
    PMID: 21399577
    This study was designed to mimic homicide or suicide cases using gasoline. Six adult long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), weighing between 2.5 to 4.0 kg, were equally divided into control and test groups. The control group was sacrificed by a lethal dose of phenobarbital intracardiac while test group was force fed with two doses of gasoline LD50 (37.7 ml/kg) after sedation with phenobarbital. All carcasses were then placed in a decomposition site to observe the decomposition and invasion process of cadaveric fauna on the carcasses. A total of five decomposition stages were recognized during this study. This study was performed during July 2007. Fresh stage of control and test carcasses occurred between 0 to 15 and 0 to 39 hours of exposure, respectively. The subsequent decomposition stages also exhibited the similar pattern whereby the decomposition process of control carcasses were faster than tested one. The first larvae were found on control carcasses after 9 hours of death while the test group carcasses had only their first blowfly eggs after 15 hours of exposure. Blow flies, Achoetandrus rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala were the most dominant invader of both carcasses throughout the decaying process. Diptera collected from control carcasses comprised of scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris and flesh fly, sarcophagid. We concluded that the presence of gasoline and its odor on the carcass had delayed the arrival of insect to the carcasses, thereby slowing down the decomposition process in the carcass by 6 hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  19. Murty OP
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2009 Jul;16(5):290-6.
    PMID: 19481715 DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2008.12.020
    Domestic maid violence is an assault and coercive behaviour, which mainly includes physical, psychological and at times sexual too, by employer or household members of employer against a person hired as a domestic help. Maid abuse is well known but poorly documented in scientific literature. This is an important global issue. In this article, two illustrated cases of maid abuse are discussed. Their employers allegedly subjected both the victims to physical and psychological trauma. The physical examination of the victims showed poor state of clothing, nutrition, and presence of injuries of different duration. The bruises were irregular to patterned, and were inflicted by beating. Both cases had eczematous contact dermatitis over palms and soles, paronechia, and sub-ungal fungal infection due to unprotected working in wet conditions. In both cases, external ears were deformed like cauliflowers due to repeated trauma. All cases had multiple injuries of varying duration. In this paper, medico-legal and social issues related to maid abuse are also discussed in detail. A possible solution to minimise maid abuse is also suggested. This paper highlights and document maid abuse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
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